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slightly, and you have starch ; again, and you sumption of vitality for mechanical and other CONTENTS.

have sugar; again, and you have alcohol ;| purposes.

Page again, and you have vinegar. Or the atmo-1 It is the business of human physiology to Evening Meeting at the College of Preceptors:-Mr. sphere, which, as we shall see, is so essential explain what are the requisites necessary for Dyer's Paper on “Physiology with reference to

to life ; you have only to alter the proportion carrying on the functions of life, and for its application to the preservation of health”......

of its elements, oxygen and nitrogen, and five keeping the body in a normal condition; and Cambridge Local Examinations ......... Teachers' Examination Papers for Christmas, 1862 ...

s other compounds result, all of which would also how and by what means the food eaten University Intelligence

10 prove detrimental to life if received into the becomes incorporated with and a part of the Classical Notes and Queries ...............

u system. We but imitate, in some humble{ human fabric. Endowed Education and Competitive Examinations... 12 measure, the endless changes ever occurring The requisites of organic life are threeCorrespondence :-R. Potts;--R, Mosley ...................

13 among the elements of nature, when we take solids, fluids, and air; and as before intimated, Reviews, Notices, &c. ................

14 the twenty-six letters of our alphabet, and form the solids to support animal existence must Educational and Literary Summary of the Month ...... 17) the thousands of words to be found in our lan-be of a complex and organized nature, except Monthly Record of Science and Art ..........

17 guage, by putting them together in different salt, which is a binary compound and of Mathematical Questions and Solutions ....... proportions and in different ways.

mineral origin. List of College and School Books

In the same manner, the three, or as some The amount of waste matter which daily Answers to Correspondents ........................

say seven, colours which constitute white passes out of the body of an ordinarily sized light, are blended together in different pro-Iman, in one form or another, is said to be nearly

portions, so as to constitute the many beautiful six pounds; of course more or less according The Educational Times.

hues with which the face of nature is painted. to the amount of exertion put forth, and the | The changes that occur in all living forms temperature of the climate. To keep the

are, doubtless, the same as those which take machine in good working order, therefore, the COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS. place in unorganized matter ; save and except same quantity of material must be daily re

that in the former they are modified by the prin- ceived by the system as it consumes by labour. EVENING MEETING,

ciple of life, which, as we shall find, is the agent Wonderful as are all the workings of nature, MARCI 18TH, 1863.

whereby inanimate matter is made to take cer- there is, probably, no other instance to be found

tain forms, and to produce certain compounds where so many forces harmoniously combine Dr. W. B. HODGSON having taken the which cannot be imitated by the skill of the as are concerned in the maintenance of the Chair, Mr. DYER proceeded to read a Paper chemist.

existence of the grand and God-like beingon :

| Life, in the vegetable form, is capable of man: a being before whom the student has PHYSIOLOGY,

subsisting upon and of appropriating to itself often stood in wonder and amazement, when WITH REFERENCE TO ITS APPLICATION | matter of an inorganic nature, and out of bi- contemplating, in imagination, the complicated TO THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. Tarya

“ nary compounds to form those of a more com- processes whereby homely fare, it may be,

Tplex character, such as the animal must have, is made to become a sentient, thinking, reasonIn addition to training the mind and storingland without which animal life cannot be sus-ling, and moral agent. it with useful knowledge, education is now tained ; for, with but one or two exceptions, [The lecturer then proceeded to give an supposed to include the development and its food is highly organized.

explanation of the processes concerned in nuAnd as the powers of But however lise may be able to modify the trition, including the conversion of food into the mind are dependent to a great extent upon affinities of matter, it is not, in either vegetable

finities of matter, it is not, in either vegetable blood in the circulation and in respiration, the strength and vigour of the constitution, it or animal capable of changing one

!!, or animal, capable of changing one element. These statements were illustrated by the admi. mus

strange 11, in the curricu- l into another, or of forming one where it does/rable diagrams of Mr. Marshall, published by lum of a liberal education, Physiology should find a place.

not already exist. Wonderful as are its work, the Science Department, and by those proIt is acknowledged by most, lincs, its office is only formative, not creative. s, its office is only formative, not creative duced by Messrs. Johnston of Edinburgh. Our

ducea that of all earthly blessings health is the

ne And like the other forces of nature. life space precludes us from giving this por tion of greatest. But to possess and enjoy this boon, lis unable to destrovo

this boon, is unable to destroy, or what may be termed the Lecture certain conditions must be complied with. The annihila healthy functions of man's physical constitution compound. For the chances coina on arou

annihilate, any particle of matter, simple or undoubtedly was. We print in extenso, how(as well as those of all other animated exist-l us, wonderful as they are, are but the mani- tilatı

"compound. For the changes going on around ever, the following practical remarks on venences) occur according to fixed principles, I festations of those finities and polarong The amount of carbon, in the form of arestablished by the Author of our being; which with which matter is impressed and not

when with which matter is impressed, and not, as bonic acid, exhaled from the lungs in a year, is principles, or laws, must be obeyed; for whensome may suppose, destructions.

about 200 pounds; and that of water (and vith ever these laws are interfered with, disease

The burning of a candle of course de

it certain animal matters) about 400 pa ands sooner or later, in some form or other, is the

nestroys, for the time being, its form, but it result. The human fabric is dependent upon

Il in the same period. the external world for every element entering" on does not destroy its elements.

It is estimated that the total number of cells These, byl:

by in both lungs is 600 millions; that these cells into its constitution; and it, like everything hins means of the oxygen of the air, take other

in one year receive and % formscarbonic acid and water.

expel a hundred with which we are surrounded, is continually

thousand cubic feet of air ; and that during changing : mutation is as evident and active;

I. So, the combustion of common gas, which
is composed of carbon and hydrogen, merely

the same time more than thirty-five hundred there as in any other part of the kingdom of nature, animal, vegetable, or mineral. Not

tons of blood arepurified by passing through changes the form ; for it is nothing more than

their walls. withstanding the varied and multiplied objects,

the combination of oxygen with these elements Sto form the compounds just named.

That carbonic acid gas is thus thrown off with which the world abounds, the number of elements of which they are composed is. 1

by the lungs in vast quantities, can be rendered But the aspects of life in the two kingdoms

S are different. very small. Hitherto Chemistry has made

In the vegetable it is construc

evident by breathing through a tube into limemane tive-in the animal, destructive ; in the former

water that has stood a few hours. After a us acquainted with only 62 elements; of

short time, the clear lime-water is made turwhich 31 are metals; but out of these, the

it stores up force--in the latter it is a destroyer

er bid, and looks like London milk. This is Author of Nature has constructed all the

lor consumer, or rather a changer of force; for,
as with matter, there is no reason to believe in

caused by the carbon from the lungs combeautiful variety found in the material world.

that force is ever annihilated. This He has effected by endowing them

bining with the lime, forming carbonate of lime.

It ought never to be forgotten that, as with certain mysterious properties, termed

The reason of this great difference in the we musť breathe, be where we may, the air affinities. whereñy they are made to com.two forms of life is, that the vegetable is sta- there must be received by the lungs, whether bine in different proportions and in different tionary and inactive, whereas the animal is that air be good or bad, fresh from the verdant forms. Take any two or three of these ele

locomotive and working; and as all labour, field, carrying with it the perfumes of flowers, ments, for instance-unite them in one propor- whether of mind or o

whether of mind or of body, consumes force or or the snioky atmosphere of the city, loaded tion, we have one thing ; in another, another strength, it is necessa

ther strength, it is necessary that this force should with the exhalations of churchyards, and of a thing : or the same elements in the same re-l be constantly renewed, so that strength may thouse

at strength may thousand other impure places. With respect lative proportion-unite them in one form, we be available for the daily occupations of life. I to the food we eat, considerable choice can be have one thing ; in another form, another. As The source of this force is the food eaten. I and often is exercised; but with respect to for example, the tallow of this candle, which Hence the necessity for a daily supply of ma- what we breathe (a matter of greater importis composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon ;}terial such as the body can appropriate to ance), all choice is out of the question, while alter the proportion of these elements but itself, and from which it can replace the con- I the same situation is kept.

Knowing this to be the case, and that their rooms, than all the medicines and cor- the time) to an impure atmosphere; for before streams of this poisonous gas are continually I dials in the world.

the room is left for the open air, none of the passing from our lungs, whether we will or And though for the purposes of heat a fire unpleasant sensations are felt; but after the not, and other matter in a state of combustion ; is not required in summer, I would always breathing organs have been relieved of the air and further, that the purification of the blood have a sinall one burning, where it is found they carry from the school, and have but a few (one may almost say life itself) depends upon necessary to have the door, or window, or both times respired a purer atmosphere, the differthe inhalation of a pure and uncontaminated closed.

ence is perceptible directly. Drafts, of course, atmosphere; it becomes a question of vital im- I know quite well that this idea is not a new must be avoided during the hours of study; portance, how and in what way we can best one; but though not new, efficacious as it is but if by any possibility pure air can be adand most safely surround our bodies with this for the purpose under consideration, it is very mitted without that evil, it is very desirable gaseous matter that shall impart life and fresh- far from being generally adopted; and having to do so; and this is very often practicable by ness to the system, and escape those vile com- put it in practice, long before Arnott's ap- having one or more of the top panes of the pounds so often found in the air, which, when paratus for the purpose was patented, I may windows of perforated glass, by means of taken into the lungs, produce disease, misery, be excused for mentioning it.

which the current is broken, and more equally and death, and give to the countenances of But carbonic acid gas from the lungs, and diffused over the room. those breathing it that pale and sickly aspect exhalations from the skin, are not the only But perhaps of all places requiring the for which so many in our towns and cities are enemies the breathing organs have to contend consideration and anxious care of the edu. remarkable.

with. Dust, which is always floating about in cator, the bedroom is the most important, The study of respiration is one of immense

| all buildings where there are many persons (as It is here that the pupils of our Boarding importance; and perhaps it is not possible to

every sunbeam will make manifest), is another Establishments pass so much of their time promote the health of our pupils and our source of annoyance to the lungs, which it is (about one-third upon an average): and unless own comfort, or to accelerate their progress

desirable to prevent as much as possible. For constant attention be devoted to the subject of in learning, more effectually than by attend

this purpose, I would recommend great clean- ventilation, they will, during the unconscious ing to all and every means calculated to sur-ness in the school-room; Washing as often as hours of sleep, be receiving round them. especially during the hours of possible ; and after every sweeping, the dust deadly element which proves so destructive to study and of repose, with a pure and exhila

should be carefully removed from every life in our coal mines, and other emanations of rating atmosphere : the breathing of which I thing therein. And twice or thrice every an animal character; which should be shunned thoroughly purifies the blood,—and what does

day I would have the room sprinkled with as much alınost as the viper. The bed and bedess of thought and quick water ; and if chloride of lime be first put in room should be, and is-where ventilation is ness of perception,-prevents headache (of too

onto ococho from the water, all the better ; as that will assist in attended to the place where, during the hours frequent occurrence in badly ventilated school

hadly ventilated school removing the carbonic acid gas. For the re- of sleep, “Nature's kind restorer," the body rooms) and languor, and in many other re

moval of this gaseous compound, it is a good has its waste mainly restored, and its vitality

I plan to have some slacked lime kept in the augmented for the labours of the coming day. spects greatly augments the comfort of both

school-room ; which lime should be changed Yes, it is when all the animal organs and funcmaster and pupil. at least once a week.

tions (those under the controul of the mind, The speaker is not unmindful of the diffi

:1 But dust is not injurious in the school-room and which by labour become exhausted and culty of thoroughly ventilating even the best

only. In our houses it is often very prejudicial require repose for renewed exertion) are dead to constructed room, where numbers are confined

to health, now that it is thought so necessary all around, that the organic portions of the sysfor hours together, much more some of the ill.

to cover the floors with thick carpeting (which tem) those not subject to the will, such as the shaped and badly-contrived buildings for edu

is such a good thing to hold these tiny particles, | heart, lungs, arteries, &c. &c., and which, cational purposes. But whatever difficulty

so that every step you take throws up a cloud o strange to say, never become fatigued, and there may be, it must be met in some way

them to clog your bronchial tubes) even in the therefore never require or take rest while life or other, and ample means provided for a good

2000 J living room, which of all others ought to be lasts), are busily engaged at their work of repair supply of fresh air for the respiration of our

| kept free from this troubler of the lungs.. and renovation. For though these are in conpupils. Nature's laws must be complied with

What I am about to propose will doubtless stant operation, yet it is only when the animal in this as well as in every other respect, other.

spect, other. be objected to by many of both sexes; but parts are still as death that the most important wise their infraction will be followed, sooner or

I would strongly urge, that if carpets must labours of the organic are performed; which later, by consequences of a painful and dis

be put on the floors of what are termed our being completed, man wakes up with new life tressing kind.

living-rooms, they be such as will allow o, and energy, prepared to encounter the labours Much may be done by a little thought and being taken up at least once a week, and of the day. attention on the part of the Schoolmaster in this well shaken out of doors; and that before But instead of this being the case, how often matter. Fire or heat may (and often is) ren. I putting them down again, the floor should is the bed a place of restlessness, and the beddered one of the best means of ventilation at be washed well all over. This is the practice room more that of death than of life and inman's disposal during the winter months, in my own house, and I assure you the vigoration; and simply because the breathing when it is found necessary to close direct com-advantages are great, when compared with organs have been made to respire for hours munications with the external air, but which, the usual custom of nailing carpets down in together, the air previously expelled from the during mild weather and the heat of summer, such rooms, and allowing them to remain there lungs, in place of receiving at each inspiration may be kept open.

for three, and in some cases six months to- fresh supplies from without. Fire having the power of rarifying the air, I gether without having them well beaten or Most of the remarks made respecting the and thereby of increasing its lightness, there shaken. But our business now is more schoolroom will apply with greater force to will always be found a strong current of colder especially the schoolroom, where the young, the sleeping-room, because the time of repose air towards any fire or heated part, to supply and therefore susceptible, are congregated to- j is longer than that of study, and the body is the place of that carried off by the ascending gether for hours at a time. Many Masters in an unconscious instead of a conscious state. column. Taking advantage of this circum- and Mistresses are in the habit of sending If at all possible, in every bed-room there stance, if a communication be made into a their pupils into the play-ground, when the should be a fire-placewhich ought not, as is chimney, near the ceiling of a room where a weather will permit, for ten or fifteen minutes, too frequent!y the case, to be closed up; for fire is burning, there will always be found a at intervals during the hours of study, to run this renders it useless as far as ventilation is strong current into such aperture, which cur- and holloa. This is a good plan, and one concerned. But where there is no fire-place, rent will carry with it the carbonic acid gas which I have long practised, with evident the door should not under any circumstances (for though tbatcompound is much heavier than good both to myself and to my scholars ; be kepi ehut. common air when cold, yet as it comes from the but the advantage will be greatly increased Here as in the school-room, it would be body it is considerably lighter, and therefore if during such time the windows and door very desirable to have one or two of the top ascends), expelled from the lungs, and other are thrown open for the admission of pure paues of the windows perforated ; aud when animal exhalations; and of course, the larger and the expulsion of impure air into and from the floors are washed, which should be once a the fire, the stronger will be such current. These the room. When this is not done, you per-weekit would be a good thing to put solle openings may be made in all living rooms of a ceive, on re-entering your schoolroom, that chloride of lime in the water. And the walls, house, where so large a portion of our time has the atmosphere is felid and unpleasant ; but instead of being papered, as most are, oup to be passed ; and in the sick chamber, such where it is, nothing of the sort is experi. I to be white-rashed, and that twice a year, means of ventilation should never be neglected.enced. This shows how easily and quickly | which case a large portion of the carbonic.. It would, simplo as it is, often prove of far the lungs become accustomed (but not without would be nentralized by the carbon uniting greater advantage to persons thus confined to injury, though that may not be noticed at with the line.

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Not only for the purposes of respiration, but gained, more health and greater strength would|tory organs) are similar to those of man, their for others which we cannot stay to mention, follow; and then that health and strength would examination ought not to be neglected by the it is desirable that each pupil have a separate enable them to resist any injurious atmospheric teacher. bed. Where is the Master who, on looking over influences with almost perfect impunity; and To many of the medical profession the public his sleeping pupils before retiring to rest him. in place of blaming the winds and weather of is greatly indebted for what they have done, self, has not occasionally found the faces of Old England, the remark would be, What by the publication of popular works on the those sleeping in the same bed almost touching bracing airs come from our hills !-what lovely subject of Physiology, and on the best means of each other, so that each inhaled the other's frosty mornings for sport and healthful recrea- warding off disease, and of prolonging life; and breath?

tion we have in this wave-washed island !" it is with great pleasure that I quote the opiBut carbon, which in the gaseous state If time allowed, much more might be said nion of sixty-five of the first Physicians and is so dangerous to life, is, in one of its solid on this subject; but perhaps sufficient has Professors of Medicine, Anatomy, and Physiforms--for it has several--one of the best, if been advanced to induce my hearers to devote ology, as to the safety and desirableness of not the best, disinfecting agents it is possible attention to that all-important question, giving elementary instruction to our pupils on to employ. I refer to dry charcoal or burnt School and Bedroom Ventilation. Of course the laws of health. wood, a substance which will prevent any un- a little pains must be taken; but then, as “Our opinion having been requested as to the pleasant smell from organized substances for Franklin would say, gains will follow, not advantage of making the elements of Hunian any length of time, and purify the air, as well | only in the increased prosperity of our schools ; Physiology, or a general knowledge of the as water (in the form of the filter), from any but what is far better, and would, by the laws of health, a part of the education of animal matters floating therein. This, then, right-minded Preceptor, be more valued, in the youth, we, the undersigned, have no hesitation is another substance, cheap and of easy attain-increased health and strength of his pupils. in giving it strong's in the affirmative. We ment, which may, with great good to all, be I trust that enough has now been said to are satisfied that much of the sickness from placed both in the school and in the bedroom. convince my hearers of the importance of the which the working classes at present suffer All that is required is to keep it dry, and free general diffusion among the masses of our might be avoided; and we know that the bestfrom dust. This substance is largely em rising population, of those unbending laws of directed efforts to benefit them by medical ployed in purifying the air of our sewers, and our physical constitution which are made treatment are often greatly impeded, and someby means of it, places can be entered with known to us by the science of Physiology. times entirely frustrated, by their ignorance safety, which otherwise could not be ap- For this purpose I can conceive of no one and their neglect of the conditions upon which proached without great danger.

more suitable, supposing he possesses the re- health necessarily depends. The health of the lungs may be greatly pro- quisite knowledge, than the Preceptor; and on “We are therefore of opinion, that it moted by keeping the mouth closed as much this account it is that I observe with pleasure would greatly tend to prevent sickness, and to as possible and breathing through the nostrils, that Examination Papers on this most im- promote soundness of body and mind, were the organs more especially provided for the portant subject have been issued by this Col- the elements of Physiology, in its application purpose. The habit of breathing in this way lege; and also that the Department of Science to the preservation of health, made a part of will not only raise the temperature of the air and Art has done, and is doing, so much for general education ; and we are couvinced that before it enters the delicate cells of the lungs- diffusing among the people information on the such instruction may be rendered most intea matter of considerable importance—but, by undeviating laws of health. It is, as you may resting to the young, and may be communimeans of the mucus on the membrane lining the perceive, to this most valuable Department cated to them with the utmost facility and prowinding passages of the nose, many particles that we are indebted for the life-size drawings priety in the ordinary schools, by properly of dust, &c., which would find their way into of the human frame now hanging round the instructed schoolmasters.” the lungs if received through the open mouth, walls of this room, and which in the pre-! It should be distinctly understood that our will be stopped in their course, and eventually sent Lecture the speaker has found so valu- object in imparting a knowledge of the laws expelled. Doubtless all teachers will be of able. Great praise is due to Dr. Marshall, the of health and longevity, is the prevention, not opinion, that if a method can be devised Head of this Department, for the pains he has the cure of disease: to promote by every possiwhereby at certain times the mouths of our taken in providing such splendid represen- ble means the health of those placed under our pupils can be kept closed, it will possess many tations of the human fabric.

care, by surrounding them with all the beneadvantages besides that which has just been for class purposes, however, those drawings ficial influences known to be auxiliary thereto; mentioned.

of W. and A. K. Johnson, of Edinburgh, are and in times of disease and sickness to coA very large portion of the diseases pre- very convenient and every way suitable. Their operate with the restorative powers of the sysvalent in this country is of a pulmonary cha-execution is very good; and the two Hand- tem, and with the endeavours of the physician l'acter; and more deaths among both old and books which accompany them, prepared by in re-establishing that health and strength young result from affections of the lungs than Mr. W. Turner, Demonstrator of Anatomy in which, too frequently, is valued only when lost. from any other single cause besides. Not a the University of Edinburgh, will be found. In the present artificial state of society, few of these cases are said to arise from the very valuable. I shall, perhaps, be excused diseases are so multiplied and varied in form, changeable nature of our climate : the very try- for saying, that to me who have for the last and the same disease assumes so many phases ing character of its atmospheric influences twenty-five years been in the habit of giving in different individuals, and in the same indithe dark and dull November and December familiar lectures on this subject to my pupils, vidual at different times, that successfully to days—the damp evenings and foggy mornings so that I may claim to be among the first, if combat them, requires a knowledge not only --the north-east winds and rainy days, do not the first, to introduce Physiology into of anatomy, physiology, and chemistry, but the mischief; they take away the young and schools, these efforts to spread the laws of long experience and sound judgment. The blooming, and also before their time the ma- health arong the young and rising generation scholastic and the medical professions may tron or the sire. of our country are most gratifying.

co-operate, but cannot well be exercised by Doubtless these changes and influences are, But if, in addition to these and other valu- the same individual. to a certain extent, trying, and may be the able helps, the instructor of youth could have cause of some of the havock which death access to some well-stored Museum, such as The CHAIRMAN said, that he was sorry to makes amony us; but the blame, if blame that belonging to the Royal College of Sur-find, from the comparatively small attendance there be, should be properly apportioned; and geons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, his facilities of Members, that the extreme importance of I am of opinion, on duly considering the sub- for acquiring a knowledge of the structure of the subject of the Lecture was not sufficiently ject, that a large part thereof must be laid to the human frame would be greatly augmented; appreciated. The Meeting would be glad to man's account. I feel no hesitation in saying and if, in accordance with the suggestion which listen to any remarks that might be made on that were the laws of health better understood I made to the Council of this College, the Col- the excellent Paper read by Mr. Dyer. and practised, but especially those relating to lege of Surgeons be requested to give the mem- Dr. BREWER observed that, in the account the respiratory and perspiratory organs, parts bers of this College access to their Museum which had been given of food, and especially most intimately connected functionally as well without an order, as is now requisite, from some of bread, the Lecturer, probably from want anatomically (for the mucous membrane living member of that Corporation, it will be a boon of time, had dwelt exclusively on its nutritivo the delicate air-tubes and cells of the lungs is highly valued by every one belonging to this properties; and the speaker was desirous, a continuation of that covering the surface of body desirous (and I feel assured all are so as, therefore, of calling attention to the fact, that the body, modified to suit altered circum- far as time and means will allow) of imparting nutrition was not the sole purpose of food, stances), much disease and many deaths would to their pupils a knowledge of the laws govern- which might be too nutritious for the healthy be prevented. Were people to study more the ing the healthy action of the human system. action of the digestive organs ; for since these mechanism and functions of their bodies, and As many parts of the bodies of the lower required to be exercised in their several functo act in accordance with the knowledge thus animals (especially the digestive and respirations, concentrated nutriment was objection


Honours and

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age to number examined.

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able, as depriving the organs of their appro- Cambridge Local Examinations, which were Another difference between the schemes of Ox. priate stimuli to action.

held at fourteen different centres throughout ford and Cambridge is that, besides passing in A GENTLEMAN having asked whether the England in December last.

the Preliminaries, Oxford requires seniors to Lecturer could point out the connexion be- The Local Examinations connected with the pass in two subjects and juniors in one at tween the subject of his Paper and the im- University of Cambridge have not hitherto at least; whilst Cambridge requires seniors to provement of the mental faculties,

tracted the same attention as those of Oxford, I pass in three subjects and juniors in two, but Mr. Dyer replied that there was an insepa- although they have been carried on by both counts religious knowledge as a subject, which rable connexion between bodily health and men- Universities with the same zeal, and by scho- Oxford does not. Cambridge also introduces tal vigour and activity, so that whatever promo- lars of equal eminence. Several circumstances a distinct English section for juniors,* whilst ted the former necessarily conduced to the late have favoured the Oxford scheme. It was the Oxford is content with the amount of knowter. Much of the dulness and stupidity observed first in the field, and obtained the most conve ledge on this subject which the preliminary among children at school was attributable, he nient time of the year, the month of June; papers require. believed, to the neglect of the physical laws of while Cambridge had to put up with December. With these few introductory remarks we health. Thus, the breathing of an impure air The Oxford Lists appear, too, in August, at a give the following tables, which will be easily acted directly on the brain, in the same way as time of the year when there is a general understood by all interested in the subject. a sedative poison; and hence could not fail to vacation, not only of schools, but of Par

TABLE I. weaken the perceptive and other intellectual liament and the Courts of Law, and when faculties. Numerous other illustrations of the the newspapers have therefore comparatively

Number in same kind might be given; all of which would little to fill their columns. The Cambridge

SENIORS, tend to prove that, as a general rule, it is vain Lists appear in February, just as Parliament

examined. to expect success in education while the con- opens, and when all the business of the counditions necessary for the maintenance of the try is at its height. To London schools eshealth and vigour of the body are neglected. (pecially, the time of Christmas is additionally

Brighton ......

In reference to Dr. Brewer's observations, unsuitable for an examination, from the cir Cambridge...
Mr. DYER said he fully concurred in them; cumstance that many of them have at that

Exeter ......... and the omission on which Dr. Brewer had period public displays of their own, in the


Liverpool .... remarked was owing simply, as he had sug- shape of recitations, witli more or less of the London gested, to the want of time.

Lutterworth ...... festive accompaniments appropriate to the

Northampton... Dr. BUCHHEIM expressed the gratification season. Oxford also grants to its senior suc Norwich ....... with which he had listened to the Lecture ; Icessful candidates the title of A.A. (Associate Plymouth ...... and loped that the subject would be continued in Arts); while the University of Cambridge


W. Buckland..... at some subsequent Evening Meeting. has steadfastly refused to sanction any title, Wolverhampton ......

3 1, 33 On the motion of Dr. BREWER, seconded byl although the Syndicate, who carry out the Dr. BUCHHEIM, a vote of thanks to Mr. DYER examinations, recommended to the University

England ................ 103 45 , 14

| 77, 75 was carried nem, con.

that some title should be given. NotwithThe CHAIRMAN, in conveying the thanks of standing these disadvantages, the number of the Meeting to Mr. Dyer, said that the Lec- candidates who were examined in December

TABLE II. ture abounded in proofs that Mr. DYER pos. last is considerably more than in any previous sessed an exact knowledge of the subject, as year; the chief increase, in Cambridge, as at represented by the most recent investigations. Oxford, being, in the junior candidates, those Accordingly, he had in his exposition avoided under sixteen years of age. This is as it should several prevalent errors, on points which, untill be ; for although it is very desirable to hold out recently, were undecided. Dr. HODGSON was inducements for boys to continue their educa- Brighton.. glaid also to observe that Mr. Dyer kept his tion as long as the circumstances of their Pristol attention fixed on the practical applications of parents will permit, still in our middle-class

Cambridge ....

Exeter physiolo ry, without which, however interesting schools, for whose benefit these examinations Leeds the subjict might be, it was deprived of nearly were chiefly intended, it is clear that the ma Liverpool .... all its usefulness. This, in fact, was one of jority of pupils leave between fifteen and six


Lutterworth the defects of most of the popular manuals on teen, and it is most desirable to have for them | Northampton...

Norwich ...... physiology, which would be of comparatively such a test of their proficiency as these exa

1 11 2 0 0 Plymouth ......

2 6 1 4 little use to Teachers, unless they were supple-minations afford.

1 Sheffield ...

10 lilo mented by practical knowledge. On the ques. In most respects the schemes at both W. Buckland... ? tion that haa been raised respecting the con- Universities are the same, especially in re

Wolverhampt'n 3 nexion betwe in mental inprovement and quiring a solid foundation of preliminary England ......... 90

8 50 15 health, the CHAIRMAN observed, that al- study, without which no excellence in higher though it was indisputable that good health is subjects will be allowed to gain credit. In the foundation and necessary condition of other respects, there is a strong family likel Eight also passed in Natural History, three mental vigour, yet it was equally certain that nes5--similarity, with a difference,

in Music, and six in Chemistry, of whom five the brain-the organ of the mind-required


were from Liverpool. The excellence in this special training just as much as any other Nec diversa tamen; qualem decet esse sororum.

last and other subjects of the students at this part of the body, in order that it might dis.

Oxford allows more display of general

centre would lead us to suppose that they were charge its peculiar functions in the most effi

various schools sent in cient manner. Assuming, then, that the seve-scholarship; Cambridge gives more credit I picked pupils from

to compete for the valuable Albert Memorial ral health is duly preserved, there remains the to accurate book-work. This is just what

Scholarship, to which we have before alluded. special exercise of the inind by means of study, we might expect. The Oxford examination

A comparison of the numbers in Tables lo reading, thinking, and so on-or in one word, is adopted chiefly by schools whose pupils

the ratio of those pic by education.

finish their education at school · while at the and 11. will show Mr. Dyer having acknowledged the compli- Cambridge examination it is probable that ling in each subject at the different centres ; ment, and thanks having been voted to the ed to the large numbers of the senior candidates are

| but the number of Seniors entered is too few CHAIRMAN, the Meeting broke up. intended for the Universities, and come from

to afford any safe estimate of the educational the chief grammar schools of the country, in

status of the various districts in England. The next evening Meeting will be held on which Cambridge men are generally the head-1

A more correct opinion on the subject, ale Wednesday, April 15th, when Dr. W. B. , masters. This remark will be illustrated by though still imperfect, may be fornita Hodgson, F.C.P., will read a Paper on “Thelthe inspection of the 1st Class Honour List of the more numerous Junior Candidates, ** Necessity for Instruction in Economics ; with seniors, three-fifths of whom are from the given in Tables Illand IV. Illustrations from the Pupils' answers to the Liverpool centre, where a valuable scholarship Examination Papers of 1862.” of £10 for three years is given from the Albert,

1 * At Cambridge. a Junior Student can pas | Memorial Fund to the student who passed the

by taking op Religious Knowledge and Eaglio | best examination, and purposes to prosecute Examiners in more than two subjects,

only. Of 59 Students who failed to satisty be CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS. his studies at the University. This valuable passed in English and Scripture, but of these

In our March Number we inserted the prize has been gained by A, M. Watson, pupil v Class Lists of successful candidates at the 'of Rev. R. Wall, of Brewood Grammar School. Jalone.

con: Pupil were only five who brought up these sujet


Passed in






o oooons Mathematics.

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of the day, have conferred on Education, than mas ; still the scheme of Oxford, at the more TABLE III,

the credit given in them to a knowledge of the favourable season of Midsummer, will be sure Number in

Grammar and Literature of our own language. to attract numerous candidates. In the end, Total passed

This is a new study in many of our Grammar however, neither teacher, parent, nor pupil JUNIORS.

age to number Schools, but it cannot now-a-days be safely will be willing to incur the expense, &c. of an

examination twice a year.

The number passing in Latin is pretty uniBrighton ....

TABLE V. form in most of the centres that send in a fair Bristo)..........

proportion of Candidates, and seventy-five in all Names of Schools, &c., from which Three or more Candidates Cambridge

have passed, showing the nuncher in Horwi i 8. and Total Exeter ....... Leeds ........

of scholarship is maintained in the class of Liverpool .. London

schools generally which avail themselves of
these Examinations. French seems to be a


favourite study in London, Brighton, &c.; Plymouth

while in the West of England, at Bristol, Sheffield

Exeter, and Plymouth, the subject most geneW. Buckland.

Mansion House, Exeter, J. Templeton, M.A... Wolverhampton rally taken is Mathematics.

Liverpool Institute, Rev.J. Jones, M.A.......... In most of the centres where the examinations

Brewood Grammar School, Rev. R. Wall, M.A.

Montvidere House, Torquay, H. Menheer ...... England ... 448 147 , 33

have been held from the commencement, the 349 ,, 78

Abington House, Mes3rs. Kingston & Phillips number of successful candidates is satisfactory. Devon County S., W. Buckland, J.H. Thompson

Sandicroft Col. Inst., Northwich, Rev. H. P.
Iu the localities, which have been centres for

Stedman, M.A.....

the first time this year, as might be expected, Col. Sch., Sheffield, Rey. G. R. Atkinson, MA.
the failures are more numerous ; as at Lutter-

St. Peter's Col. Se., Eaton Sq., Rev. Dr. Wilson

Montpellier House, Brighton, Dr. S. Turrell ... worth and W. Buckland. But this should have

Cotham School, J. Exley, M.A. ... JUNIORS.

Dane Hill House, Margate, J. Boulden...... no discouraging effect, as very probably at

C'nion Terrace S., Barnstaple, S. Featherstone these places the candidates entered were all

Scholastic Inst., Plymouth, Rev. J. Barter .. from one school; for the University of Cam The Hermitage, Bath, W. Ilorner ........ bridge is ready to send an examiner to any

Llandaff llouse, Cambridge, W. II. T. JohnBrighton........

son, M.A........ Bristol .........

locality, even to a single school, which is will. Ullesthorpe Ho., Lutterworth, Rev. W. Berry.. Cambridge .....

ing to pay fees for twenty-five candidates, Stockport Gram. S., Rev. C. G. flamilton, MA. 1 Exeter ........ 50 : 42

Col. Institution, Liverpool, Rev. Dr. Howson... Leeds though the number of pupils actually sent in

Wesleyan Academy, Leeds, J. M. Raby ........ Liverpool ....

may not amount to this number. In such cases Broombank House, Sheffield. Rev. T. HowLondon the failures will naturally be more numerous,

arth, M.A. ......... Lutterworth ...

Grantham Grammar Sch., R. D. Beasley, M.A. Northampton..

but the school will have reaped the advantage Roval Gram, S., Lancaster, Rev. T.F. Lee, B.D. Norwich which will result from the fact that it has

Shaw House, Melksham, W. L. G. Badham ... Plymouth .....

Milk Street School, Shetfield, R. Bowling ...... Sheffield .. fearlessly sent in whole classes, and not picked

St. Michael's Col. Sch., Aylsham, Dr. Ager...... W. Bucklaud.

candidates—an example, we trust, to be fol Nelson llouse, Devonport, P. and Rev. E. Wolverhampton 27 30 lowed by other schools; for these local exa

Roberts, M.A. ..

Mission School, Blackheath, W. G. Lemon..... England ...... 338 358 266 213 75 227 261 minations will never produce the benefit which Hoddesdon Gram. Sch., Messrs. llaslewood & they are calculated to do, until all schools Lupton .............................................

Upper Sch., Dulwich College, Rev. Dr. Carver which adopt them make them the means of

Malvern House, Brighton, J. Peto, F.R.A.S.... Seven also passed in Music, twelve in Na- testing the acquirements of all the pupils in Clewer House, Windsor, W.R Ilarris & Son .. tural History, seventcen in Chemistry, twenty- their upper classes,

Palace School, Enfield, W. N. Barker .........

Hertford Gram. Sch., Rev. E, Bartrum, MA.... eight in German, and thirty-six in Drawing. The Mansion House School, Exeter, and the Trowbridge Gra. Sc., Rev. C, B, Wardale, M.A. The number of successful students in the Liverpool Institute, have passed the highest

Copeland House, Brighton, T. Larton ......

Ledrah Ilouse, St. Austell, H, II. Drake, M.A. Preliminary Examination and in Religious number of candidates at the recent examina Park llouse, Milton, J. Johnson, M.R.C.S...... Knowledge is most satisfactory. Unlike tion, and they held positions almost equally

Brunswick House, Barnet, J. D. Bell............. Oxford, Cambridge has from the commence- high at the Oxford Examination at Midsuni

Molinenx House Academy, J. Tyrer, M.C.P

Royal Institution School, Rev. Dr. Turner ... ment ranked Religious Knowledge as a pass mer. There are also many other schools which Stamford Hill School, G. Todd, B.A...... subject, on a par with Latin or French. Each appear in both lists. Large schools, such as

Maunamead School, Plymouth, Rev. Dr. Holmes

Arundeli llouse, Brighton, S. Evershed ......... candidate is examined in the Scriptures ; those at Liverpool, can easily furnish pupils on New Gra. S.. Plymouth, Rev. W. Bennett, MA and if he declines the examination in the doc both occasions; but since the Universities have

University School, Nottinum, G. llerbert

Clapham Common, J. Ward........... trines of the Church of England, he is allowed not entered into the scheme of " joint action," i O

Dudley House, Brighton, P. S. Rickards....... to answer questions on another book-if a as many wished, it is likely that but few Sydenham College, Rev. W. F. Jones, M... ... Senior, on Paley's “ Toræ Pauline;” if a schools will in future send in candidates to:

Grammar School, Cannock, G. Sydenham .....

Lancing Grammar School, W. W. Pyne ... Junior, on“ Whately's Easy Lessons in both examinations. The head-masters of the

Plumpton Ter., Liverpool, Knecht & Dandliker Christian Evidences.grammar-schools, who are for the most part Colston's Hospital, Stapleton, R. T. C. Rowlatt

Stafford Grammar S., Rev. F. K. Clarke, MA, We know of no greater benefit that these, Cambridge men, will naturally prefer the exa

Walton College, Rev. G. Bartle, M.A. ........ and indeed all the Competitive Examinations'mination of their own University at Christ


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We are indebted to Mr. R. V. Taylor, of Leeds, for the following more detailed Table, including all the Schools which have passed two Candidates and upwards :List of Masters, with Degrees and Residences, in order,

according to the number of their successful Pupils.

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11. Mr. S. Featherstone, Barnstaple .....
12. Rev. G. B. Atkinson, M.A., Sheffield ..
13. Mr. J. Boulden, A.C.P., Margate ......
11. Rev. J. Barter, Plymouth .....
15. Mr. W. Horner, Bath ....................
16. Mr. W. H. F. Johnson, M.A., Cambridge ....
17. Rev. W. Berry, B.A., M.C.P., Lutterworth ....
18. Rev. C. G. Hamilton, I.A., Stock; ort ........

Rev. J.S. Howson, D.D., M.C.P., Liverpool ..
20. Mr. W. G. Lemon, B.A., M.C.P., Blackheath ..
21. Mr. R. D. Beasley, M.A., Grantham ..........
22. Rev. T. F. Lee, D.D., M.C.P., Lancaster ......
23. Mr. P. Roberts, and Rev. E. Roberts, M.A.,

Devonport ..............................
24. Mr. J. M. Raby. B.A., Leeds .........
25. Rev. T. Howarth, M.A., Sheffield ....
26. Mr. R. Bowling, Sheffield. ...
27. Mr. W. L. G. Badham, Melksham ..
28. Dr. G. Ager, Aylsham .......

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1. Mr. J. Templeton, M.A., M.C.P., Exeter ......
2. Rev. Joshna Jones, M.A., Liverpool
3. Rev, R. Wall, M.A., M.C.P., Brewood ........
4. Mr. N. Menheer, Torquay ......
5. Mr. J. K. Thompson, West Buckland........
6. Mr. W. Kingston, and Rev. J. Phillips, B.A.,

Northampton ......
7. Rev. H, P. Stedman, M.A., Sandicroft ........
8. Rev. J. Wilson, D.D., Pimlico ....
9. Mr. J. Exley, M.A., Bristol ..................
10. Dr. H. S. Turrell, F.C.P., Brighton .......

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