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the signature of its secretary, and I exercised Professor Long, after attempting in his from Hesiod, as far as it proves anything,
no special influence whatever over them. Jedition an emendation which appears to me supports, instead of invalidating, my state.

It is implied, rather than distinctly stated, to make the matter worse, fairly gives the ments. For I have noticed that cornix was a
in your article, that I availed myself of the passage up as “hopelessly corrupt." I must bird of evil omen, and kopávn, which he ad-
accident of my position as Juror, to obtain in- confess that in its present form it presents great mits to be the same as cornix, is here spoken
directly honourable mention of myself, or of difficulties. Anthon makes 'quod' a relative of as an evil-omnened bird.
the institutions and persons with which I have to agree with frumentum-by removing the Mr. Federer, however, without any grounds.
been professionally associated. I do not think semicolon after 'conferant,' and putting a whatever, assumes that “ Zeta will allow that
it necessary to reply to this charge, or even full point after 'debeat,' which he changes rook’ is the English for kopám." I beg to
worth while to complain of it. One might into debeant. The next sentence then begins assure him that Zeta will allow no such thing.
have supposed that the names of the noblemen with 'Si,' and to make it intelligible, he Mr. Federer has himself given some evidence
and gentlemen who composed the Jury would alters it as follows:-"Si jam principatum which tends to show that kopávn is a raven ;
alone suffice to reïute it. But I am very sure, Galliæ obtinere non possint, Gallorum, quam but if he will prove by plain and unmistake-
that if the writer of the article had known any- Romanorum imperia perferre satius esse, neque able passages from good Greek authors, that
thing of me, or of the facts of the case, he dubitare debere quin.,..." The interpola- kopárn means a “rook," Zeta will then admit
would now regret, that he had unintentionally tion 'satius esse,' is unauthorized by any good his assumption. In the meantime I am at
contrived to misrepresent both.-I am, Sir, MSS.; and all the modern editions, since the present concerned only with the Latin words
your faithful Seryant,

time of Oudendorp, by whom I believe it was cornix and corvus.
J. G. FITCH. first proposed, accordingly reject it, and print The argument which Mr. Federer derives

the sentence as I have given it. Schmitz, from corresponding words in French and other To the Editor of the Educational Times. Editor of Chambers's Edition, translates modern languages, is a legitimate one, when SIR,-May I take the liberty of pointing,

“ quod præstare debeat,” “because it must used as secondary or collateral evidence, in out an oversight which appears in the “Edu

| be preferable (they say) to bear the sway of support of proofs drawn from the actual use of cational Times” for January, 1863 ?

the Gauls, than that of the Romans." To a word in its own language ; but when, as in - In the second column of p. 229, my name is

construe, 'debeat præstare' by 'it must be the present case, it is opposed to such proofs, mentioned among some distinguished authors

preferable,' seems to be so opposed to the it is utterly worthless. What should we think of educational works to whom medals have

ordinary usage of these words, that I cannot of a learned foreigner, who affirmed that the not been awarded at the International Ex

reconcile myself to the use of it; and yet there English word “glass” must mean ice, because hibition of 1862. And you remark, that the

appears no other mode of resolving the dif- this is the meaning of “ glace” in French, and works of these gentlemen have“ directly in

ficulty. Long, following Anthon, suggests glacies in Latin, Derivatives often depart iluenced, and in many cases almost revolu

‘quod præstare debeant;' but as he leaves from the meaning of their original ; and the tionized, the elementary teaching of this

neque dubitare debeant 'in the next clause, only real and reliable proof of the meaning of country. The least deserving of them will,

he appears to me to make the sentence worse a word, at any rate in a dead language, must we think, be found on inquiry to have done than he found it.

| be taken from its use in good authors of the something more for education, and contributed

| I should feel much obliged if any of your language itself. something more worthy of mention to our

learned correspondents would give a translation I proved by a reference to clear and unmiseducational literature, &c.”

of the passage (if it is translatable), or a better takeable passages in good Latin authors, that I beg leave to refer to p. 313 of the Jurym

| reading from some generally received text.-I corvus is a “rook," and generally a bird of Awards, in which it will be seen that a medal

I am, Sir, yours obediently,

M. C. P. good omen. I beg permission to quote some was awarded to "R. Potts, for the excellence

Bristol, 27th Jan.

such passages again :of his works on Geometry;" and to state that

“Tum liquidas voces presso ter gutture corvi I received the medal a few days ago. I may To the Editor of the Educational Times,

Aut quater ingeminant, et sæpe cubilibus altis also add, that at an early period (in April, SIR.- On turning to Forbiger's “ Virgil,” Inter se in foliis strepitant, &c."--VIRG.

Nescio qua præter solitum dulcedine læti
1861,) I received a circular respecting the ex. I find that he gives the rendering of "numen”|
hibition of educational works, with instruc-
Coproposed by your correspondent “ Aliquis."

“Hinc ille avium consentus in agris hat form to make application for He makes also the following remark :-“Quam

Et lætæ pecudes et ovantes gutture corvi."-VIRG. space. All my educational works were duly | locum capiendi rationem jam Servio probatam

“Et e pastu decedens agmine magno sent, simply for the inspection of any persons

who had not seen them, but who might desire in support of the rendering, “By what Her

Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus alis."-VIRG.
I venture to submit two reasons

“Corvorumque greges."--LUCRET, &c. &c. to see them. The circulation which the books

Majesty having been insulted.” 1. There Now, Sir, if corvus in these passages is a have attained may be seen noted in the Official Catalogue, Class 29, which was not issued

appears to be a parallelism between the two “raven,” or anything else than an honest

I participial clauses,“ Quo numine laeso," and “rook," I have no more to say.
until after the Awards of Medals by the Ju " quid dolens." Quid indicates the cause of Non est quod multa loquamur
rors had been published.-I am, Sir, your the feeling expressed in dolens, and quo of
obedient servant,

Nil intra est oleam, nil extra est in puce duri. that expressed in laeso. If Virgil could have But if Mr. Federer is right in so translating

Trinity College, Cambridge,

written" quo vexata," or something like it, cormus he not only

1; corvus, he not only proves our dictionaries to instead of "quid dolens," no question would be correct. but establishes a remarkable fact 17 Jan., 1863.

have arisen.
2. In the phrase, "numine laeso,” Virgil +1

:., in natural history, respecting which our orni

rgh thologists, and every one else in the country, CLASSICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. seems to make a near approach to the expres-lh

expres have been hitherto strangely in the dark. For sion laedere majestatem, the sound of which it will fi

it will follow that the interesting birds which To the Editor of the Educational Times. I was familiar enough to Roman ears. The we

he we have often watched doing exactly as Virgil SIR,—The extent to which Cæsar is used as

chief objection to this translation is that the

the describes, and which we in our ignorance have a text book in Classical Schools, will, I trust, be

use of quo as an ablative of the cause, along called for

ong called rooks, are not rooks at all, but ravens. my apology for troubling you with a request her with the ablative absolute, is rather forced. It wa

: We must no longer speak of rookeries, but call for some elucidation, from your classical coris very little more so than “quid dolens." ||

them "ravenries ;" and the “caw amusive" Both are instances of contracted questions, a respondents, of the following passage in Book

must be acknowledged to be a dismal raven's 1. c. 18:-“ Hos seditiosa atque improba style of expression conunon enough in Greek,

croak. I would request Mr. Federer to conoratione multitudinem deterrere, ne frumenbut foreign to the genius of the Latin

sider this. On the whole of this question, I tum conferant ; quod præstare debeat, si jam

language.--Yours respectfully,

would beg your readers to mark the following Jan. 6.

G. F. H. Sykes. principatum Galliæ obtinere non possent, Gal

points. lorum, quam Romanorum imperia perferre;

11. That the Romans bad only two names, neque dubitare debeant, quin, si Helvetios

To the Editor of the Educational Times. ] Cornix and Corvus, for the three birds, which superaverunt Romani una cum reliqua Gallia ŞIR,--My friends Cornix and Corous have we call raven, rook, and crow. Æduis libertatem sint erepturi. ...." I use elicited some discussion and difference of opi. 2. That Corvus is most distinctly proved, by the Oxford Edition of Messrs. Parker in my nion in your pages ; which I am glad to see, such passages as those given above, to have classes, and I find this is also the reading of as by such means the truth is best sifted and been a rook. Chambers's Edition-both of which profess to freed from error.

3. That Cornix is with less distinctness, but be from Schneider's text, considered to be the Allow me to observe, in reply to Mr. K. A. still with very good reasons, shown to have best published.

Federer, that the passage which he quotes been a raven ; for it is described as a lonely

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solitary bird,-it uttered a harsh ill-omened | fore the student betakes himself to the spe- mentioned in the list. We confess we should note, which the Greeks (if any argument is to cial profession which he intends to follow, no have wished to see a knowledge of Latin made croak ;' kpá¢w, root kpwk. And besides it

as we do, a matter what that profession may be, is patent compulsory on every candidate. Our law is so is most improbable that the raven and rook,

to everybody. No amount of legal lore will interwoven with that of the Romans, that we two birds so obviously different in size, appearcompensate for the absence of that general | hardly see how a philosophical knowledge of it ance, and habits, should have been called by information which every English gentleman can be acquired by any person altogether unthe same name; while the “crow,”a bird very may be expected to possess. This general acquainted with Latin. Nevertheless a correct much like a rook, was distinguished by a knowledge, too, is especially necessary for and accurate acquaintance with the other subwas certainly a rook, it could not have meant

corvus the future Attorney or Solicitor, seeing jects mentioned in the schedule, will in a great a raven also.

that it is vastly important to the public measure insure the necessity of the law student 4. That the “ crow," a bird of the same welfare that he should take a large and being possessed of some amount at least of size and appearance as a rook, though differing liberal view of his profession, and should general knowledge not the less useful that it from it in its habits, would naturally, in a lan- not merely know what the laws are, but also only bears indirectly upon his future profezguage which had only the two names cornix why and how they have taken their present sion. and corvus, be called by the same name as the rook, i. e. corvos, with which it might "

form. The Law Society has taken the easily be confounded. Hence passages are most direct mode of effecting this desirable found in Latin authors, in which acts be- object, by requiring all persons intending to

obiect, by requiring all persons intending to We recommend to the attention of our reaonging to the crow, and not to the rook, are become articled clerks to produce certificates ders the letter from Mr. J. G. Fitch, which ascribed to the corvus; as, non pasces in cruce of having passed certain specified examinations;

f having passed certain specified examinations: appears in another column of this journal. corvos. From these considerations it follows that

or failing this, to undergo an examination by This letter, though professedly a refutation of cornix must be translated « raven." and their own examiners. The subjects for this

the complaint which we made in our last numcorvus rook” or “crow.” examination announced by the Society for the

ber against the miserable jobbery which chaI am, Sir, your obedient servant, present year, are as follows:

racterised the Educational Department of the ZETA. 1. Reading aloud a passage from some English

International Exhibition, really furvishes Jan. 20th, 1863.

author. 2. Writing from dictation. 3. English strong proofs of the justice of that complaint.

Grammar. 4. Writing a short English compo- We regret to have to say, that we copaider SCALE FOR ADVERTISEMENTS,

sition. 5. Arithmetic. A competent knowledge Mr. Fitel's statements, notwithstanding their

of the four first rules, simple and compound. 6.

€. s. a. Geography of Europe and of the British Isles. apparent tone of moderation, to be neither acSpace of Shi Lisand under, (Body Type) 0 3 6

7. History.-Questions on English History. 8. curate nor fair. Every Additional Line .......

... 0 0 6

1 5 Half a Columu .......

Latin.-Elementary knowledge of Latin. 0

9. j. Mr. Fitch eommences his letter by saying, 2 6 8 Latin. ii. Greek; Modern or Ancient. iii. French. -17 A Column ...... Half a Page.......... iv. German. v. Spanish.

: “It is quite true that the work of the College

vi. Italian.- Candi. U 5 100

dates in the subjects numbered 9, will be examined “of Preceptors is not described, or even reAdvertisements cannot be inserted without either a in the following books at the examinations in “ ferred to, in the Jury Report. But it is written order, or pre-payment; and it is particularly requested that they may be sent in as early in the month as February and May, 1863 :

“ equally true that the Universities of Oxford possible, as none can be inserted after the 25th..

February Examinatioil.

“and Cambridge, the great public schools of Advertigements, Books, Music, and School Appliances In Latin. --Sallust, Catilana; and Virgil, Æneid, for Notice, and Comunicationsshould be addressed to to book i.

“ Eton, Harrow, and Rugby, and many of he Editor, 1, Gougl Square, Fleet Strect.

In Greek.-Xenophon, Memorabilia.

“ the noblest educational establishments in the The adoption of the Educational Times as the Journal of the College of Preceptors, has made no change what-i In Modern Greck.-Bekkaplov, nepl 'Adiknuétww“ country, are not mentioned in that docuever in the Proprietorship of the Periodical, in which the Kai Houvw ustaopaouévov &To Thy 'Italık v raão.

“ ment." There is a suppressio veri in this College has no pecuniary interest.

cav, 1–15; or, Bevtotñs 'lotopía rîs 'Auepikas, * * Advertisements may be sent to the Publisher, No. 1

statement which, we must say, is not altogether 1, Gough Square. Fleet Street; or to Mr. W. Wesle No.2, Queen's Ilead Passage, Paternoster Row.

In French.-Voltaire, Charles XII.; or, P. creditable to Mr. Fitch as a fair champion of Corneille, Pompée.

the cause which he seeks to uphold. Our

In German-Göthe's Torquato Tasso; or, THE EDUCATIONAL TIMES. Schiller's Abfall der Niederlande. 1. Buch. y complaint was, that, though several of the ef

In Spanish.--Cervantes' Don Quixote, capit, i. anining bodies of the country were referred to xx.; 01, Dom Hartzenbusch La Coja y el En in the Report of the Jury, the College of Pre

cogido. ELSEWIIERE in this journal will be found an In Italian.- Manzoni's Promessi Sposi, cap. i.

ceptors, which was the first to devise and announcement which we hail wiile no little x; or, Torquato Tasso's La Gerusalemme, first

carry out the system of Middle Class Exami

pations, was altogether ignored. Mr. Fiteb satisfaction, as a proof that the eclucational 4 cantos.

May Examinations. exertions of the College of Preceptors are

cannot require to be told that “the great pub

In Latin.-Cicero, De Amicitiâ ; and Horace, gradually meeting with due appreciation. Lodes, book i.

“lic schools of Eton, Harrow, and Rugby” By order of the Judges, the First Class In Greek.-Herodotus, book i.

are not examining bodies, and that therefore Certificate of the College is in future to be In Modern Greek.-Berkaplov, teplAdiknudtwr the mention of their names would be altogether

Kal Noivwv uera paouévoy åTO THvItalık) v ruwo- linonnronrinta in the Bonort. recognised by the Incorporated Law Society,

inappropriate in the Report; although not Joav, 17--30; or, Bevtorîs 'lotopla tñs 'Auepirns, as on a par with those given by the Exa- Bibilov g'.

" more so, it is true, than the singularly illminers at the Oxford and Cambridge Loca! In French.-Voltaire, Sémiramis; or, Molière, judged reference to Mr. Fitch's own school, ia Examinations : and all Law students who gain Le Malade Imaginaire.

that document. When he tells us, bowever,

In German.-Schiller's Willhelm Tell ; or, that " the Universities of Oxford and Cam. the certificates in question will henceforth be Göthe's Campagne in Frankreich. exempted from passing the preliminary exa- In Spanish. - Cervantes' Don Quixote, capit. bridge are not mentioned in that document," mination now required from all persons who xxx.-xlv.; or, Fernandez de Moratin, El Sí de we must ask him to use his eyes, and turn to are desirous of entering into articles of clerk

p. 12 of his own Report, where he will read1 In Italian.-Manzoni's Promessi Sposi, cap. ship to Attorneys and Solicitors.

xii. xxii.; or, Torquato Tasso's La Gerusalemme,

: The last ten years have witnessed two ar It is hardly within the province of this 6, 7, 8, and 9 cantos.

| “ three movements, the incidental influence of journal to discuss the past history of the With reference to the subjects numbered 9, |" which on the middle-class schools, has been Law Society, though we may state our each candidate will be examined in one lan. “ most salutary, and has produced a visible opinion that its founders and conductors have guage only, according to his own selection. “ improvement. The establishment of exam done very much to raise the branch of the Candidates who select Latin will be examined“ nations, as the only avenue to the Civil legal profession to which they belong in the in both Cicero and IIorace. In Modern Greek, “ Service of the Crown, the opening of many estimation of the public at large. The neces- French, German, Spanish, and Italian, can- " important posts in the Indian Service to sity of a general preliminary examination be. I didates have the choice of either of the authors “ public competition, and the system of Oxford

as Nenas.

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" and Cambridge examinations for youths the Christian Knowledge Society, the Sunday" vitation of the Commissioners.” Where is
“ who have completed their school life, but School Union, the Congregational Board, and this invitation mentioned in the Report, and to
u are not members of the Universities, have other similar bodies, though not "subsidized," whom was it sent ? Mr. Fitch goes on to say:
“done much to stimulate the energy of the are yet mentioned in the Report of the Jury ? “I wish simply to remind your readers, that
“ teachers, and to improve the quality of the Mr. Fitch goes on to say, “a similar remark “ in regard alike to authors, to publishers, and
o instruction in middle-class schools. . ...." applies to the awards made by the Jury to “ to societies, the Jury could only deal with
“ The Jury regret that they had not before "authors and publishers of educational books. “ that which was officially before them.” If
" them, in any formal shape, the programmes - Many of the most eminent of these were not this statement be correct, why is Mr. Fitch
" and schemes for the education and examina-" represented in the Exhibition.” This mix. himself brought forward in the Report as de-
“tion of adults, which were specified in the ing up of publishers and authors together is serving of a medal for his “labours" in the
“ list drawn up by the National Committee, hardly ingenuous, though it is not ill calcu- | British and Foreign Training “ College”?
" and circulated by the Royal Commissioners. lated to mislead the reader.

Were these “laboursexhibited, or were they
“ Especially they regret that they had not Our complaint was and is, that the Jury, in any way before the Jury?
" before them the programme of the examina-composed mainly of foreigners and persons un-' With regard to the last paragraph of Mr.
“tions instituted by the Society of Arts." connected with education, should have ventured | Fitch's letter, our language will not bear the
Mr. Fitch and the Jury then proceed to avail to decide upon the merits of educational authors construction which he endeavours to put upon
themselves of the absence of the programme in at all, inasmuch as it was quite impossible for it. We never either stated or insinuated that
question, to pass a very lengthy and glowing such a body to do them justice. The merits of Mr. Fitch had “availed himself of the acci-
eulogium upon the Society of Arts, and upon a book, so far as relates to the publisher, “ dent of his position as Juror to obtain indi-
“our colleagues” in that society; to detail printer, or engraver, is a matter of compara-“ rectly honourable mention of himself,” &c.
the number and names of its examiners ; the tively easy decision, and may fairly enough. We believe, since Mr. Fitch compels us to be
extent of its examining operations, &c. &c. come under the cognizance of a jury such as explicit, that he owes this distinction solely to
We yield to no one in our appreciation of the that to which Mr. Fitch belonged; but an the accident of being himself a member of the
important services rendered to education by author, to be estimated, must be read. Will Jury, to whom, but for this circumstance, his
the Society of Arts, but without instituting Mr. Fitch maintain that either he or any other name would in all probability have been un-
any comparison between that body and the member of the Jury has read through a tithe known. Our complaint against him is, that
College of Preceptors, we must be permitted to even of the small collection of books which the in assuming, in his capacity of Reporter to
say, that the names of the examiners connected Exhibition contained, not to speak of the host the Jury, the function of reviewing the con-
with the latter corporation are at least as emi- of authors who were altogether unrepresented | dition of education and educational literature
nent in the literary and educational world, there? Is he prepared to say, that the works of in this country, for which he is qualified
(Mr. Fitch may satisfy himself of this fact by even the five or six authors selected for medals neither by position, reputation, or knowledge
a glance at the first page of this journal) as were perused by the Jury? If so, by what of the subject on which he undertakes to write,
the supporters of the Society of Arts, or any standard have their merits been adjudged? If he has performed his task with culpable neg.
other examining board in the kingdom. The “circulation” is taken as the criterion, what ligence and injustice, and that by holding
College of Preceptors, too, had this further clainıs have they against such publications as up hin, and persons of his stamp, to the public
claim to mention, viz., that it was the first Butter's Spelling, Darnell's Writing Books; and to foreigners, as the representatives either
educational body in England which established or to rise somewhat higher in the intellectual of the educational profession, or the educa-
the system of Middle-Class Examinations. scale, the really useful and deservedly popular tional writers of England, the Jury have thrown
Speaking deliberately, therefore, we reiterate works of Professor Sullivan, of the Irish Na- a marked slur upon both.
our charge against the Report of the Jury as tional Board? As a further proof (if such were
showing culpable incapacity, or still more, needed) of the great unfairness of the system of
culpable unfairness.

management, or mismanagement, adopted by
We need only read the next sentence of Mr. the Jury, we may instance the letter of Mr.

The Bible Hand-book : an Introduction to the
Fitch's letter, to show that he therein flatly Potts, of Trinity College, Cambridge, which is

Study of Sacred Scripture. (pp. 660.) By J.
contradicts the words of his own Report. If to be found in another column of this journal.

Angus, D.D., Member of the Royal Asiatic
the Jury took cognizance only of those facts Here is a gentleman who was directly invited

Society. London: the Religious Tract So-
* which came before them in connection with to contribute. To how many authors, we ciety. 1862.
“the Exhibition," why does Mr. Fitch go should like to knoir, was such an invitation This handy and comprehensive compila-
out of his way in the Report of the Jury to sent? Instead of a public and general invita-

invitation is evidently a work of very considerable

labour; and, so far as we have examined it,
take cognizance of the Society of Arts (which tion to authors, the Jury appear to have sent

it seems trustworthy and correct. It is fur-
he regretfully says in his Report was not reout private invitations to some few favoured nished with a copious index, an indispensable
presented before the Jury), and which he persons. We have already, perhaps, suffi- adjunct in works of this class. Numerous
praises in language which almost amounts to ciently burdened our columns with instances sections are marked which the younger reader
adulation ?
of Mr. Fitch's self-contradictions, but we must

will perhaps do well to omit, at least on a first
A few sentences further on we find another ask our readers to refer to the latter portion

perusal, as it has been the aim of the writer to

make lis work a suitable book of reference for palpable contradiction between Mr. Fitch's of the Report of the Jury quoted in Mr. Fitch's more

Fitch s more advanced as well as for young students. Report and his letter to us. “The very copious letter. Ilow, we may ask, was the measure of Dr. Angus says in his Preface: “To some of “extracts," he says, “ from the Report which the “ beneficial influence," alluded to by Mr. the subjects enumerated in this list, this volume “have appeared in your recent numbers, will Fitch, decided ? What representative was is only an introduction, intended to guide " suffice to show how limited the inquiry was, there on the Jury of middle class education in the advanced reader to larger works; but on

most it will be found sufficiently full to enable “and will account for the fact, that while the this country, or of the books which circulate

carnest-minded inquirers to study and master “ Training Colleges, which are subsidized by among middle-class schools? We pointed out the evidences, facts, and doctrines of Scripture. “the State, and form a part of Government before, and we reiterate the assertion, that no | Its aim is to teach men to understand and “machinery of education, are described in the just or competent tribunal moderately ac- appreciate the Bible, and at the same time to "Report, many other institutions of undoubted/quainted with the state of educational litera- / give such information on ancient literature and “ importance, and probably of superior use-ture in this country, would have made such a

history, as may aid the work of general edu

cation among all classes.” Although the work "fulness, are not so described.”

so described." If this be selection as that on which we have felt it our can claim no higher honours than are usually

If this be selection as that on which we have felt it our
true, why then is it that the Society of Arts, duty, however unwillingly, to animadvert. accorded to successful compilations, it may be
the Civil Service Commission, the Universities,! Mr. Fitch, in his letter, speaks of “the in. I doubted whether the Biblical student will find

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elsewhere so much aid within so moderate a of Tiberius begins A. U. c. 779. Christ, therefore, tation of the races by which our islands have been compass, and at so reasonable a cost. The was born in A. U. c. 750, or 749. ... Again, from successively peopled; in the extent of Anglo. introductory chapter is especially well done : John 2. 20, we learn that then the temple had been | Norman dominion on the Continent; and in the in it the manuscripts. apcient versions and forty-six years in building (Greek). Josephus geographical discoveries which immediately pre. the more important of various readings of

states that Herod began this work in the 18th ceded the planting of our earliest colonial seitle. Scripture, are carefully noted and compared.

year of his reign (which is reckoned from the ments ? Surely these and kindred topics are at We select a specimen or two, almost at our

death of Antigonus, A. U. c. 714). Hence, when least of equal importance to the youth of Britain,

at our Lord spoke (the time being the date of his in the nineteenth century, with the topography haphazard, of the contents of these pages : first Passover, when he was probably thirty and of the Thrasimene Lake or the Caudine Forks."" Classical Usage.

| a-half years old), the 65th year from the com- The interweaving of History and Geography, “In the case of the New Testament, we may mencement of

s, or in the way Mr. Hughes recommends, is unseek the meaning of its words and phrases in clas. A. U. c. 779. On this reckoning, therefore, Christ

doubtedly calculated to be of material assistance sic authors.

must have been born A. U. c. 749. The Latin "Totis, which commonly means • faith,' is used fathers, moreover, had a tradition, that Christ was

as in the study of both these important subjects. in the sense of proof. Acts 17. 31 : so Aristotle. I put to death in the consulate of the Gemini, Ru- Districts and particular places become asso

bellius and Fufius, i.e., A. U. c. 782-3, and reck- ciated in the mind with the great events of “dtayyérouai means, by itself, to announce,' oning his ministry at three and a half years, we which they have been the theatre, and not unand so to promise:' followed by certain nouns, it are again brought to A. 0.c. 749, as the date of frequently, as is well shown in the rise and means to profess' (1 Tim. 2. io). The word is his birth.” (pp. 563. 564.)

progress of commercial and manufacturing regularly used for professing an art or science, of some of the more usually received towns, their history is intimately connected Diog. Laert., Proem 5, 12; Xen. Mem. i. 2, 7. Jinterpretations of the Book of Revelations, with the geographical peculiarities of the lo"mapá, in composition, often means in the Greek I the author gives his readers a concise sum-1

calities in which they are situated, and by Testament by the way,' Rom. 5. 20; or secretly,' Gal. 2. 14: Jude 4 ; a usage found in classic

mary. Of course his book would not have which their fortunes have been mainly influ.

| been complete without such an addendum, ] enced. Keeping this important relation conauthors, Polyh., Herodian, Plut.

“To emißáadov uepos, Luke 15. 12, is a legal though we feel almost inclined to say of his stantly before the reader, Mr. Hughes, in the phrase, indicating the share which fell to a man as attempts to reconche councing statement

is attempts to reconcile conflicting statements in present work, begins by giving a general view heir: the use of the word here shows how com. this portion of his work

of the situation, extent, and superficial aspect pletely the prodigal son was estranged from all


of the British Isles; their climate, animal and filial feeling.

Effusus labor.--

vegetable productions, &c. The history of "étrißarwy ěkdalev, Mark 14. 72, when he

Great Britain from the earliest times is next thought thereon,'rather, “having rushed out;' and

traced, through the Roman, Saxon, Norman, The Geography of British History. By Wilso it agrees with Matthew and Luke, Polyb.

and succeeding periods; and short notices are "fxwv ev åolevela, John 5. 5, is classic Greek liam Hughes, F.R.G.S. (pp. 719.) London : 1

given of the chief battle-fields, the divisions of for to be ill;' so that, when these words are ! Longman & Co. 1863.

the country at various periods, the growth of translated there was a sick man thirty eight years. This work, which owes its origin to a series of

its great towns, and the rise and extension of old” (Paulus), the rendering is contrary to Greek lectures which the author was called upon to deliver at King's College, London, on English

its commerce and manufactures. usage. “ The apparently-incomplete sentences in Luke History and Geography, fills a void which has

| In this way, the Geography and History 13. 9: 19. 42: 22. 42 (Gr.), are all good Greek ; long existed in our educational literature. On

Us of England, Scotland, and Ireland are sucthe custom being, frequently, to omit the apodosis the Geography of the British Empire. Physical, i

cessively passed under review; each illustrating. (or conclusion) of a sentence after ei or éáv, when Political, and Commercial, we have had trea

and being illustrated by, the other. The value the meaning is clear, Raphel. “Bos, Elsner, KYPKE, Grotius, Wolf, WETSTEIN, tises numberless; but few or none worthy of

f of the work is greatly enhanced by some careRAPHEL, have largely illustrated the phraseology

"fully executed maps, showing the extent and

the name, on what may be called the “Geoof the New Testament from

divisions of the British dominions at various classic

graphy of its History;" a terin which Mr. sources ;

Ir. periods of our history, and by a very complete Kypke and Raphel from particular authors, and | Hughes thus dennes:

and copious index.
the rest from classic authorities generally." (pp. “By the geography of history, the writer under-
188, 189.)

stands not only what is universally admitted, at
least in theory, to constitute the basis of all his.

Schiller's Wallenstein. New
Touching the Chronology of the Gospels, we

Edition. With torical study-viz., a description of the natural have a short but useful summary, part of which

English Notes, Arguments, and an Hisfeatures, climate, and productions of a country; torical and Critical Introduction. (pp. 523.) wo extract:

but, in addition, some account of its race (or races) By Dr. H. Buchheim, Lecturer on Modern The Chronology of the Gospels. of people, of their place in the family of nations, and Ancient Languages at the Medical Col “The chronology of the Gospels is a subject of and of the successive stages by which they have

leges of the London and Middlesex Hospitals. nuch interest and considerable difficulty. It will advanced towards the position at which their pro 8c. London: Whittaker & Co. Bell and be sufficient to indicate the evidence and results per history as a distinct nation begins. To these Polo 1869 which have been ascertained by recent and pro- subjects he adds a commentary (geographical in

Daldy, 1862. tracted inquiry.

its main features and purpose on such external | Dr. Buchheim speaks thus in the preface of “1. The present Christian era A. D. 1, is A .U.c. events as require reference to the map for their his editorial labours :754, and was fixed in the 6th century by Dyo. full comprehension, and an adequate appreciation “The present commentary is the result of nysius Exiguus. It came into use in the 8th of which is admittedly necessary, not merely for several years' study and labour. I have read century, and was adopted by Bede. Shortly after the sake of the facts themselves, but from their nearly everything that has been written on the wards we find it employed in public transactions place in the record of those changes, social and trilogy, and I have carefully perused the most imby Pepin and Clarlemagne. Now Herod the political, which belong to the higher aims of his portant historical works on tie Thirty Years' War, Great died A. 0.0.750, just before the Passover tory. With these latter, the writer does not affect from the quaint little pamphlets of the year of (i.e. between the latter part of March, and the lat. to interfere : he seeks only to cast on them such / Wallenstein's death down to the most recent ter part of April) : a statement made by Josephus, light as geography-using the word in its highest historical writings. These studies and researches and confirmed by astronomy, which shows that sense-may hope to supply. The distribution of bave enabled me to make the present commentary, an eclipse of the moon, said to have taken place population and industrial pursuits, the foreign and in which I have fully explained every idiomatical just before his death, did take place in that year. internal trade of a nation, and the characteristic difficulty, and all the historical allusions, which Allowing, then, four or six months for the visit of conditions of its manufacturing and commercial are far more numerous, and have a much deeper the Magi, and the flight into Egypt, the birth of industry, may be claimed as constituting a portion meaning, than the general reader may suppose. our Lord cannot be later than January, 750, or of his subject so regarded.....

I have done the same for the astrological passages, October, 749, see Matt. 2. 1-6; Jos. Antiq. xvii. ' “ That the relationship of Geography to History is which cannot be thoroughly understood without xviii. 1, xvii., 9, 3. The Christian era, therefore, too liable to neglect in the case of our own country, some knowledge of the science of astrology, is wrong by at least four years, and in this decision is fully recognised in the instances of the great and which contain terms which have not yet bees nearly all chronologers agree.

historic countries of antiquity. Our students be translated or explained, not even in the best Ga. “The conclusion to which the testimony of Jose- stow (and worthily bestow) elaborate care upon the man dictionaries. phus leads us, is confirmed by other evidence.... geographical conditions of Greece and Italy, of an. “The Introduction contains a brief summary of From Luke 3. 1, 2, 23, we learn that John entered cient Egypt and Assyria. The minutest typo. the Thirty Years' War, a biographical sketch of upon his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius, graphical details that are associated with the names Wallenstein, and some information about the and that Christ was about thirty years of age at of Marathon and Salamis, with the campaigns of organization of his army; and lastly, a short bis baptism. Both probably entered upon their Hannibal or Cæsar, are diligently sought out by analysis of the drama and its relation to history. work when they were thirty (see Num. 4. 3, 35, the student. Should not the student of British “I am well aware that those who think that 39, 43, 47). Tiberius was associated with Au- history entertain something of correspondent inte. eitber the master or the book should do the whole gustus (and the original of Luke implies that he rest in connexion with Bosworth and Naseby, work for them will consider my notes insufficient, dates from that time), A. u.c.764; so that the 15th Clarendon and Runnymead; in the local habi. whilst others will be of opinion that I have done

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too much for them. I feel, therefore, bound to and with an almost surprising command of the principle on which the method is based. But
declare that, during the ten years of my profes- Latin language; we doubt, however, whether by whatever name it may be designated, the
sional career, I have very often read Wallen- the young beginner will find these pages as system itself, and Mr. McLeod's work as the
stein' with my pupils, and I have thus practically leave

s practically easy as his Latin Delectus. As a specimen of most complete exposition of it which has
found out what kind of notes students with average the
abilities and earnest diligence require. I have
Se the work, we quote the following (page 63) hitherto been published, are well worthy of the

attention of teachers.
further most carefully examined the German- / quite at nap-hazard :-
English dictionaries most in use, and whenever I "In tugurii ostio sedebat

Philip's Library Atlas of Ancient and Mo-
did not find the required version, I put it in my

Vetus ille sagittarum faber

dern Geography. Edited by William Hughes, notes. It is a matter of course that I could not,

In terrá Dacotarum mucrones

F.R.G.S. London: Philip and Son. such instances, give the merely literal transla

Ex iaspare et achate concinnans; This very elegant and useful atlas comprises a tion, but only such a one as seemed to me best

Filia autem sedebat juxtà

series of forty-seven maps, constructed from adapted to convey the poetical meaning of the

Pulchra-Minnehaha amabilis,

the most recent authorities, and embracing the original."

Componens scirpeas storeasque.

| principal countries of the world. In addition So far as we have been able to examine Dr.

Ille de præteritis rebus,

to the ordinary maps of the various States,

Hæc de futuris cogitabat.
Buchheim's work, we can conscientiously say

corrected and brought down to the date of pub

Ille de priscis venatoribus, that it is greatly in advance of its prede

Quibus nemo jam viveret compar;

lication, it includes special charts of Palestine, cessors. Even that terrible crux to Anglo

Hæc de juvene quodam venatore,

the Roman Empire, Greece, and the world as German scholars the “ Lager" will be found

Qui sagittas patris pridem emerat ;

kpown to the ancients; together with a diam. in these pages, thanks to the editor's assist

Quem sane pater laudaverat

gram, showing the comparative heights of ance, by no means formidable to the diligent

Ut fortem virum atque sagacem.

| mountains and lengths of rivers. A copious: student. And the student who has vanquished

Numne iterum a torrente Minnehaha consulting index is added, giving the latitude
Schiller's Wallenstein has achieved no mean

Idem forte sagittas petet?

and longitude of upwards of 22,000 places. victory. He has literally vanquished the Ger

Talia meditans, vacuis oculis,

| The work is thus, whether for reference or for man language itself. All students of Schiller

Manus intermisit industrias.

study, as complete and comprehensive as can are aware how full “Wallenstein" is of his

Inter hæc frondium agitatio

be desired. For accuracy and judicious selec

Et hominis gressus auditur : torical and astrological allusions; these the

tion, as well as for legibility and beauty of

Mox genis et fronte fervida editor has most carefully and laboriously ex

execution, the maps are unsurpassed by any

Damam in humero portans plained, while he has in no case, that we can

thing we have seen. The sea is uniformly

Prodiit subitus Hiawatha." discover, neglected a real idiomatic difficulty.

tinted a light blue; the effect of which, in This book is, indeed, a specimen of laborious

Among the new words which Professor softening and harmonizing the colouring of and conscientious editing-a phenomenon in

Newman affiliates upon the Latin language the divisions of the land, is very remarkable..
these days of perfunctory performances which are arrisus, a smile; atror, blackness; effasci. Each page, though a mass of colour, forms a
ought to be duly chronicled.

namentum, a fascinating object, mussatio, a complete and harmonious picture, in which,
buzzing; noctuolus, an owlet; ruscetum, a while the outlines of land and water, and the
heath; subsaltus, a hop, &c.

divisions of each country, stand out clearly and
Hiawatha : rendered into Latin, with Abridge Solutions of Questions in Arithmetic by First distinctly, there is nothing gaudy or offensive

Solutions of Questions in Arithmetic by First distinctly, there is nothing
ment. (pp. 110.) By Francis William Newman, Principles. (pp. 103.) By Walter McLeod, to the eye. The printing, binding, and general
Professor of Latin in University College | F.R.G.S. London : Longman and Co. 1863. appearance of the work are in harmony with
London, London: Walton and Maberlu. 1862: -The present work is an attempt to teach the excellence and beauty of the maps. It
- Professor Newman says in his preface, arithmetic by a system of analysis, without forms altogether a very handsome volume
“My object in this version is, to afford to rules, which Mr. McLeod terms the method of for the library table ; and when we add that it
learners of Latin a pleasing book, which will "First Principles.” This system, which will l is brought out at the low price of fifteen shil-
smooth their way to some of the difficulties of be familiar to those acquainted with the arith-lings-less than four-pence for each map-it
the language, and allure them to enlarge their metical books of Mr. Tate and Mr. Hunter, is may fairly claim, considering the labour ex---
vocabulary." Elsewhere, Professor Newman sometimes termed the method of analysis, and pended on it, and the style in which it is got
has suggested that a competent version of can scarcely be made intelligible by a defivi-up, the merit, among its other recommenda-
Robinson Crusoe into Latin would be much tion. It will, however, be readily understood | tions, of marvellous cheapness.
more likely to allure the young learner than from the following example of a question in The Poetry and Poets of Britain. (pp. 557.)
the Latin authors ordinarily chosen for that Interest, which we give as worked out by | Edinburgh : Adam and Charles Black. -
purpose. It is 'on this plan that Hiawatha Mr. McLeod.

From among the almost innumerable selec-
has been here rendered into Latin. We fear, « Question. Find the interest on £325 from

tions of English poetry which offer themhowever, that such crustula blanda will prove March 1, 1841, to May 31, 1844, both inclusive, selves to the choice of the student, the handof but small avail. The merits of Hiawatha at 4 per cent. per annum ?-Colenso's Arithmetic, some volume before us merits a word of are, to our taste, very moderate, even in the


praise. It contains several hundred poetical original English; and they hardly become A. The number of days=(365 x 3) +31 +30 + extracts, from the time of Chaucer to the premore conspicuous in their borrowed garb. 31 =1187 days.

sent day, many of which are well chosen. Professor Newman insists, however, that in B. The interest

To the name of each writer is appended a brief these pages the beginner will become ac- on £100 for 365 days=£4

but tolerably comprehensive resumé of his quainted with a far larger vocabulary than can

life and writings. Perhaps, however, the most be found in native poetry ; a commendation

y = 100x 365*

useful part of the volume consists in the Notes which is doubtless true, as the Professor has

illustrative of the text. Many of them _ 4 x 325 x 1187

are discarded all metre in his translation, and has :: „ £325 for 1187 days = !

Sr Cays=

etymological, and contain useful and interest

100 365 * enlarged the Latin language by presenting it

ing notices of the various alterations which
with many words hitherto unknown in its

= £42.58.649d. Ans." (have taken place in the forms in words, and
vocabulary-words, however, we believe, in all! Here each step leads on to another, until, by of the grammatical condition of the English
cases more or less strictly formed on analogy, an insensible gradation from the given number language in successive stages of its develop--
With the following we agree, partly at least: to unity, and from unity to the number required, ment. The Notes further contain an abun-
“I cannot afford space here to defend, what I the result is arrived at by a process of simple dance of parallel passages, and explanations
believe to be a sound principle, that we ought, demonstration. The most striking advantage respecting the geography, mythology, and his-
whenever possible, to learn a language first, of this method is, that the rules of arithmetic tory referred to in the text. That the selec-
and study its more characteristic and arduous are altogether dispensed with. The present tions, as a whole, are well chosen, we have
literature afterwards. I have written in the work consists of a series of solutions of already stated; though, of course, it would not
Edinburgh Museum (January 1862) a rather questions in simple and compound propor- be difficult to name extracts for which we
elaborate argument, that it is wise to teach tion, per centa res, commission, interest, dis- think better substitutes might readily have
Latin by modern compositions,easier than those count, stocks, profit and loss, partnership, &c., been found. Much, however, will depend on
of the ancients, precisely because we cannot fully worked out on this plan; and thus showing the taste of the reader ; though, in forming our
teach by talking. Unless books are very easy. its application to all the ordinary rules, and to judgment of a book of this class, we ought to
few pupils can read enough to get imbued with every form of arithmetical calculation. The consider how far the extracts will tend to the
the words and genius of a foreign tongue; and term “ First Principles” is, we think, an un improvement as well as to the pleasure of the
nothing can make up for want of quantity." fortunate one. The “Unitary System” would, reader. Tested by the former, it may, per-
Mr. Newman has translated with great fidelity, in our opinion, more correctly indicate the haps, be doubted how far such extracts as

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