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(i.) 27 + 2 + 2*-=12r2-8x, .. 92–7x=2, class between the two less wealthy than the upper, College, founded in 1848, for the promotion of whence x=18 + H=1 or-5.

and not so poor as the lower, and including public school education among the upper, middle,
Among its numbers small shopkeepers and artisans, and lower middle classes, and which already con-
for whom little or nothing had yet been done. A ducts three large schools of these several classes,
beginning has been made, and a very important is deserving of public support for the extension of

one, at St. Nicholas' College, in Sussex, by Mr. its operations."
+ 7
<= for- .

Woodward, towards supplying this great defect, “Mr. W. Cotton seconded the resolution,

and it is for the purpose of aiding these endeavours which was unanimously adopted. Whence x = 4, or 53.

that we are now assembled. I hold it to be abso- | Lord LYTTELTON said that he had recently in. lutely essential that the endeavours of Mr. Wood. spected the school at Lancing, and bore witness

ward should receive assistance, in order to promote to the excellent manner in which it was conducted, (12.) If a, b, c be continual proportions, then the great objects which he has in view. "(Hear, and the beneficial results which had arisen from a+c is > 26.

hear.) The school in all its details is a self-sup- its establishment. His Lordship moved “ That

porting one, and as regards the payments, they are this meeting accordingly pledges itself to assist If a:6::6:c and b> a, much more is c>b,

not, I believe, intended to be more than 131. the society of St. Nicholas' College in erecting .. a+c> 26.

a-year, the instruction being afforded by masters a public boarding school for the lower middle furnished by St. Nicholas' College. All that is classes, on a site which has been obtained near

wanted is a suitable building to receive the boys. the Balcombe station, on the London and Brighton (13.) Sum the series

The school already contains 300 boys, and they Railway.” (i.) 9+84+7++...... to 50 terms.

have demands made for the admission of 700 more Mr. G. A. Sala said that he had always felt (ii.) + 2 + 12+...... to 5 terms.

than can be accommodated. It is very unwise to a deep and serious interest in the progress of edu

delay proceedings of this sort until it may be too cation, and cordially seconded the resolution, (i.) 9+84 +73+ &c., to 50 terms=(18-49 x 2) 25 late. He hoped that in the course of the proceed. He expressed a hope that corporal punishment, =-3663.

ings all reference to the exciting politics at home which degraded alike the master and the pupils,

and abroad would be avoided, especially at this would be done away with at Shorebam. In the (ii.) } + 2 + 12, &c., to 5 terms=14

moment, when there existed a degree of sus- French Schools of which he had himself had

ceptibility, and of what was commonly called experience, this mode of punishment was entirely =5181.

touchiness, in certain quarters, not more in sove- dispensed with.

reigns, emperors, kings, and presidents, than in Sir W. PAGE WOOD supported the resolution, Jone 10th, 1861.


nations themselves; for if this age is distinguished and pointed out the healthful advantages which by many great qualities—by its progress in liberal accrued from the action of public schools in form

policy and its useful and wholesome institutions- ing the character of men in their social and politiMIDDLE-CLASS EDUCATION AT it is no less distinguished, as it appears to me, by cal capacity. Educated as a Wykehamite himself, SHOREHAM.

the irritability of national bodies. The mob has he had many advantages of seeing the manly A Public Meeting was held on Saturday I its caprices as well as monarchs, and it does not virtues and noble qualities which were attained in at St. James's I. for the purpose of im. become us in any manner or way to interfere or to that and kindred establishments; and knowing proving Middle-class Education in the coun

irritate ils caprices. For this reason I refuse to the value of the system of education adopted

preside at a meeting which I had previously pro- there, he felt it his duty to endeavour to the utmost try, and promoting the intersets of St. Nicholas'',

mised to attend, because I found that it was to of his power to provide the same advantages for College, Shoreham. The college was founded in assemble to consider the subject of American the middle classes. 1848, for the special object of improving mid- slavery. Heaven forbid, not only that I should Mr. ACKROYD also supported the resolution, dle-class education, and it has, in addition to preside which I can prevent myself from doing - which was carried unanimously. large buildings at Lancing, on a property of but Heaven forbid that any such meeting should Mr. A. B. Hope proposed a vote of thanks to 230 acres, at the head-quarters of the society, be held for such a purpose, for there is no one sub- the noble chairman, and paid an eloquent tribute with a grammar school for the sons of gentle-ject which our friends upon the other side of the to the great public services rendered by his lordmen-a college at Hurstpierpoint, in Sussex, Atlantic are so irritable upon as that question of ship. for training middle schoolmasters; a public American slavery. Nobody can doubt my opi.! Mr. BLENCOW seconded the proposition, which boarding school, in the same building, for the nions on that subject, but the present is not a mo- was carried by acclamation. upper class of tradesmen, farmers, clerks, &c.,

ment at which any such subject can safely be Lord BROCGHAM having briefly returned thanks at a payment varying, according to circumdiscussed in this country.

the meeting was brought to a close. stances, from 201. to 301. a year, containing

1 The Archbishop of YORK moved the following more than 250 boys, who are taught by seven

resolution:-“ That considering the growth of clergymen and graduates of the universities,

"intelligence among the lower classes, owing to the REVIEWS AND NOTICES. with six other trained masters; together with a blishment of public boarding schools for the educa- The Bromsgrove Latin Grammar. By the Rev.

impulse given of late years to education, the estacheaper boarding school at Shoreham, for the cation of the lower middling classes, which may be son3 of small shopkcepers and artisans, at cheap and self-supporting, is of great national im

G. A. Jacob. D.D., Upper Grammar Master which the payment for board and education is portance."

of Christ's Hospital. pp. 302. Fourth Edibut 13 guineas a year. This is carried on for Mr. WALTER, M. P., seconded the resolution,

tion. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 1858. the most part in houses hired by the parents which was supported by Lord REDESDALE and

| The Bromsgrove Elementary Latin Grammar. of the boys 230 of whom are already admitted, | Lord John MANNERS. The last speaker said | By the Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., pper and no more houses can be hired.' This dis- that M. Montalembert, in his interesting and phi- l Grammar Master of Christ's Hospital. pp. advantage it is now sought to remedy by the losophical work on the institutions of this country, | 85. London : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co.: erection of premises to accommodate 1,000 laid very very great and very just stress on the most The Bromsgrove Greek Grammar. By the Rev. boys, with an adequate staff of masters. It is important and beneficial influence which our great G. A. Jacob, D.D., Upper Grammar Master towards the building of this cheap school that

public schools had exercised on the fortunes of this of Christ's Hoenital no 396 Third Edi. the college now solicits aid. country. It was also said, that after the peace

tion. Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 1861. Among the noblemen and gentlemen present!)

which crowned the immortal services of the Duke were Lord Brougham, the Archbishop of the

J of Wellington, that great general said, on seeing Elementary Greek Grammar. By the Rev. York, Lord Redesdale, Lord Lyttelton, Lord

o the playing fields at Eton, that there had been won! G. A. Jacob, D.D., Upper Grammar Master

the crowning victory of Waterloo. In the conduct of Christ's Hospital. Second Edition. Lon. R. Cecil, M. P.; Sir W. Page Wood; Mr. of the present schools in Sussex for the lower don : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 1860 , Walter, M. P.; Mr. A. B. llope; Lord W. stratum of society, Mr. Woodward and its man." SCIENTIARUM janitrix Grammatica ” was the Lennox; Rev. Mr. Wood, and others.

agers would have the advantage of knowing what motto of Camden's old Greek Grammar ; a Lord BROUGHAM, in opening the proceedings to avoid of the evils and abuses which had been motto which commends itself more readily to of the meeting, said: It gives me great pleasure to showr

ure to shown to exist in the older schools. It was certainly our reason than many of the sharp epigrambe surrounded as I am by the tried friends of strange that while the upper and lower classes I mating).

lasses matical sayings which have obtained a greater education, without regard to sector party or dis of society were provided with facilities for obtain

Few persons probably tinction of any kind. It has been found at alling education so little should have been hitherto I currency among us. times that there exists great difficulty in providing done for the iniddle classes; and their position will be inclined to deny that it is of vast imthe means of education for certain classes of the reminded him of that of a middle child in a family portance that the porteress whose office it is to community, and these classes, far from being the the elder son, it was said, could walk over the conduct us to the “ sciences," should not be a least numerous, are still farther from being the gutter, the younger would be carried over, but the garrulous gossiping dame with a lightly furleast important. We have, by the munificence of middle one would tumble into it.

nished head and a tripping tongue, and they our ancestors, in former times, obtained the means. The resolution was unanimously agreed to. will therefore be proportionately gratified to be of education, more especially for the higher classes The Bishop of CHICHESTER moved the second introduced to such guides, through the thorny and the professional men. But there was still one resolution - That the Society termed St. Nicolas' approaches which lead to their treasured stores,







as we have enumerated at the head of this and to this part letters or syllables are added to FORMATION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. article.

form each particular case.
(a) That part of the noun which remains the

(ME] or [MI.] Dr. Jacob's series of Grammars enjoy a same throughout, is called the Crudeform (or root

G. me-I, (meum), mei reputation sufficiently well established to require of the noun.

D. mi-bHÍ, (or), mihi no " introduction," in the proper sense of the (6) The letter or syllable which is added to

Ac, me- (m lost), me. term, from us. Yet there may be many of our form each particular case, is called the case.

Ab. mi-e,

me. readers, to whom they may be new, or who lending or casual affix.

[TE] or [Tı.] may not have had an opportunity of examining! (c) Thus in declining pes a foot,

G. te-I (tuum),

D. ti-Bhi, (0.), them with the care and attention their merits! Gen. ped-is; Dat. pedi; Acc. ped-em; Abl. deserve. ped-e; the crudeform is [PED]; the case-endings,

Ac. te. (m.lost), | is, i, em, ..

Ab. ti-e,

te. Reserving for a future article an examina- 2. The casual affixes are nearly alike in all

[se] or [81.] tion of the Greek, we propose therefore here to nouns.

G. se-I (suun), give a short account of the two Latin Grammars



D. si. Bhi, (oi) which head our list, and we think we shall Nom. S, or (no affix] Nom. ES or I

Ac. se- (m lost), best perform our duties, both to the reader and Gen. IS, or I

Gen. UM or RUM

Ab. si-e,

se. to the author, by describing the principal fea- | Dat I

Dat. IBUS, or IS

Plural. tures of these works, as far as possible, in the Acc. eM

Acc. ES, (i. e. ems)

[No.] Voc. ES, or I

N. A. no-ES,

nos. author's own words. In most languages the loc. S, or (no affix] Abl-ě


Abl. YBUS, or IS. first part of grammar is necessarily taken up

(nostrum), nostri.

Da. Ab. no-BIS, nobis. with the forms and changes exhibited in their 3. In neuter nouns, the Nom. Acc. and Voc.

(vo.] separate words; and in languages which, like the are alike in both numbers, and in the plural

N. A. vo-ES,

Vos. Latin, abound in nominal and verbal inflexions, end in a.

G. (vestrum), vestri. this etymological part or “accidence” occu-l 4. The Nom. and Voc. of all nouns are alike

D. Ab. vo-BIS. vobis. pies, or ought to occupy, a most important in both numbers, except in the Sing. of nouns in

[sui.] place. In order to ground the pupil thoroughly / us of the second Declension.

Like the singular. in this important department of grammar Dr.! 5. The Dat. and Abl. plural of all nouns are These Extracts will be sufficient to afford Jacob, in a short introduction, presents a alike.

| the reader a key to the principle on which these general view of the principal component parts As a test of the application of these rules,

Grammars have been constructed-a constant which are found in declined or inflected words, we append Dr. Jacob's arrangement of a noun

"reference, namely, to the etymological prinand explains with admirable clearness the of the second and of the third declension.

"ciples of the language which they profess to various changes which they undergo, in the

explain. course of inflexion, composition, derivation, &c.

1 SECOND DECLENSION. Crudeform, ends in o. Although in Dr. Jacob's hands, Grammar The case endings of nouns, and the endings / SING.

SING. Nom. dominŭs Plur. Nom, domini becomes a really philosophical study and not a

Gen. domini cf the tenses, and persons of verbs, which at

Gen. dominorum mere exercise of memory, he has, we think, Dat. domino

Dat. dominis first sight present much variety and irregula

shown great good sense in avoiding, as far as Acc. dominum

Acc. dominos rity, are, when traced to their causes, shown to

possible, any unnecessary interference with the Voc. domině

Voc. domini be referable to certain laws, which, when once

established terms and arrangements of older Abl. domino

Abl. dominis clearly apprehended, will be found to simplify,

grammars, so far as they are in themselves in an amazing degree, the difficulties of the


unobjectionable, and have been sanctioned by

C. F. (DOMINO.] “ Accidence :

long usage. His object, while there is not Singular.

wanting abundant originality in the treatment “ Thus we have as Datives mensæ, diei, domino,

N. domino.

S u foro -us tussi, gradui; but an examination shows, that the

G. domino-I,

of his subject, which no reader can fail to ob.

contracted real termination of the Dative is one and the same D. domino-I,

serve, is evidently not innovation, but the incul


Ac. domino-M, in every noun in the language,-and that it is

u for o,

cation of sound principles of instruction at the

-um simply the letter [1].

V. domino,

very outsct of the pupil's career, which will For mense is contracted

altered, from mensai, a form found in actual use in the Ab. domino.e contracted

stand him in good stead thereafter, and carry Genitive. Domino is contracted from dominoi, as


him, with ease and advantage to himseli, may be plainly seen in the Greek declension, which N. domino-I, contracted i

through the subsequent stages of his progress. gives (abyos] óyo with the [1] subscript, compared

G. domino-RUM,


The Crude Forms are introduced, where they with the datives uol, sol, &c., and the adverbial

D. domino-IS, contracted is

are necessary to explain the formation or deridative oikos, &c. This also explains why many Ac. domino-ES,


vation of words, and the terminational indatives of this declension in Latin actually end in

V. domino-I,

flexions of nouns and verbs ; but the pupil is [i], as ullus, ulli; because in these words the letter

Ab. domino-IS,


never burdened, as in some works on this sys[i] has gained a greater prominence than the o. THIRD DECLENSION. Crudeform, ends in a tem, with long lists of these formidable vocables Tussi is a contraction for tussï, like ingenii, ingeni.


to commit to memory, and then expected to And diei and gradui, when the termination is rightly

1 diei and gradui, when the termination is ribauny I SING. N. V. lapis | PLUR. N. V. lapides set off, exhibit the [0] without any alteration.

reason out the language from them as in a

Gen. lapidis “The same thing inay be seen in Verbs. Thus

Gen. lapidum | proposition of Euclid.

Dat. lapidi we have amas, deles, audis, regis, all apparently

Dat. lapidibus We hoped to have been able to dwell at different, and yet [is] is the real termination of

Acc. lapidem

Acc. lapides

some length upon this feature in the plan of the Abl. lapidě

Abl. lapidibus them all. For umas is contracted from amais

Grammar which distinguishes it from every

Formation. (like tiué-els, tiuas) ; deles from (like

other with which we are acquainted; but

C. F. [LAPID.] tristeis, tristes); audis from audi-is, which makes


spatiis inclusi iniquis, we must refrain. We the syllable long; while regis remains uncontracted,

N. V. lapid-s, d dropped is

shall return to the subject, and to the other and therefore is short.

G. lapid.IS


grammars of the series in a future Number. “A similar explanation may be given of all the D. lapid. I


In the meantime we strongly recommend every other cases of nouns, and the other persons and Ac. lapid-eM

-idem teacher to examine these works for himself, tenses of verbs; from whence it follows, that, Ab. lapid.e

-ide. feeling assured that he will derive from them a strictly speaking, there is only one declension and


fund of information and instruction as to the one conjugation; the same terminations, with a

N. V. lapid-ES

.ides best mode of teaching the classical languages, few triding varieties, being found in all. But as G. lapid.UM

- dum

which he will look for in vain in any publicontractions produce many apparent differences, a

D. lapid-iBUS


cations of a similar character. distinction of declensions and conjugations is

Ac. lapid-ES

-ides perhaps better for beginners.”

Ab. lapid-iBUS


The Popular Education of the Bristol and Proceeding in this way, Dr. Jacob reduces. The pronouns, generally, present great dif- Plymouth Districts, with Special Reference all the variations in the formations of nouns, ficulties to the beginner, and would, at first to Ragged Schools and Pauper Children. through their various case-endings in the sight, appear to be utterly irreducible to the pp. 123. By Patrick Cumin, M.A., Assistseveral declensions, to the following simple laws of formation above given; but, on exami. ant-Commissioner to the Commissioners apo rules :

nation, (merely premising that the omitted ego pointed to inquire into the state of Popular FORMATION OF NOUNS.

has a different root from its oblique cases, being, Education in Enyland. London: Longman 1. In Latin nouns there is one part of the word in fact, an older form,) these difficulties will be and Co. 1861. which remains the same throughout all the cases ; 'found to melt away.

The most enthusiastic dabbler in educational

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statistics must, we think, have been satisfied a sum of not less than £302,731 was last year ferred upon society by such institutions may estab. with the abundance of the fare presented to contributed in the form of school pence out of lish some claim upon the pockets of the charitable, him within the last few months." Seven or the pockets of the parents. He adds: “ One but certainly none upon the public purse. If, eight huge Blue Books, officially published, of the chief motives which has induced me to instead of separating the pauper children from the have been followed by a shower of quartos and republish so much of the original report, has adults in the workhouse, so as to prevent conoctavos, each containing the original matter been to show the character of the English tamination; if, instead of educating the children presented by the Commissioners or Assistant- workman, and the high value which he sets out of the workhouse, so as to prevent them from Commissioners to their colleagues, before it was upon education.”

| lapsing into barbarism, the public authorities will pruned down and curtailed previously to its! We have already stated our reasons for not

insist upon neglecting their duty, that neglect can admission into the general report. It is im- entering at any length into this Ragged

create no claim upon the funds at the disposal of

Parliament.” possible not to admire the industry of several School question. We have not at present all of the gentlemen in question. Nothing seeins the data which would enable us to form a to have been too humble or too out of the way trustworthy opinion. When we get these

OUR LIBRARY TABLE. for their supervision and criticism. Conse- data, we shall probably return to the matter. quently, readers are treated with improving We shall at present content ourselves with giv

Tunes for Holy Worship : composed by various homilies on the folly of schoolmistresses wear- ing one or two short extracts from Mr. Cumin's

MM. Cum in English and Foreign Musicians, and simply Har.

monized for Four Voices, by Dr. H. J. Gauntlett, ing crinoline, and gay-coloured ribands in their interesting reports. He says : “ Of all the

Dr. C. J. Elvey, the Rev. W. H. Harergal, M.A., bonnets; or with speculations upon the useful. religious bodics there is none so active as the

and others. Compiled by the Rev. T. R. Matthews, ness of the trencher-caps and leathern breeches Church of England.”

B.A. London : Cramer, Beale, and Co.—This is a of charity-boys. Now that the novelty has been “This has often been asserted, but the return collection of Sacred Vocal Music arranged for slightly worn off, we are beginning to grow obtained by myself, which I subjoin, proves the four voices, compiled by Mr. Matthews, with great rather weary of these accurate and exhaustive truth of the assertion. The return does not contain taste, from the works of some of our best musical statistics; and to fear that the vexata questio of all the schools, because it was not always filled up. I writers. It includes, besides some of the finest education, high class. low class, or middle class. / Out of 114 public schools in the Bristol district, melodies of Dr. Gauntlett, and other popular Eng. has not been thoroughly solved even by the volu however, the table contains 94, and out of 79 in lish composers, several chorals of Bach, Men. minous treatises in question. Our remarks, 14

Marke the Plymouth district, the table contains 74; so delssohn, Layrz, Goss, Filitz, and others. The bowever, are not intended to apply to Mr. Cu-l

Co that the numbers are quite sufficient for my pur- lovers of Sacred Music will find here most min's volume. It was only natural that after the

pose. It should be observed that in the Plymouth of their favourite melodies, arranged and harmo.

che district there is not a single boys' school of any nized in a convenient form, and at an exceedingly attack made on him and the Commissioners kind, and only one for girls and one for infants, moderate price. in general, by Lord Shaftesbury, relative to which is connected with any denomination except | The Practice of Hand-Turning in Wood, Ivory, his Report on Ragged Schools, he should the Church of England." wish to tell the public exactly why and how

Shell, &c. With Illustrations for Turning such

Mr. Cumin speaks admiringly of the earnest- Works in Metal as may be required in the Practice these opinions were formed. At present welness with which adult students, composed of lof Turning in Wood, Ivory, &c. By Francis are not called upon to weigh the few pros and navigators and labourers, came to work :- Campin. E, and F. Spon. 1861.- This is a little the many cons which the Assistant Commissioner advances respecting these institutions in

“In Mr. Turner's evening school at Bristol I treatise that may be serviceable and pleasing alike the volume before us. The matter is still un

I was surprised to find the earnestness with which to young and old, to those who practise turning

"I the students applied themselves to their work. A only as amateurs, and to those who may have decided, as only a few days ago, the Duke of triting incident will illustrate this. I had been occasion to apply to it with : Newcastle informed Lord Shaftesbury that conversing with the master for some time, which of

vury that conversing with the master for some time, which of It contains useful remarks on lathes and other twenty-eight persons, male and female, were course prevented his attending to his business, tools, or materials, and on turning manipulation in DOW actively engaged in making inquiries as Presently I heard a restless humming, and even general. The style is agreeable, and the illustra. to the real utility of this class of schools. symptoms of whistling. The master said, “Do lions are apt and well executed. Having a due respect for that excellent apo- you understand that ?" I said, “ No." He re. We have received also “Cassel's Illustrated tbegm, Audite alteram partem, we shall not plied, “You see these people come to work, they Family Paper,” part XLII.; “ Cassel's Illustrated attempt to express our opinion on the points. I pay for coming here, and they don't mean to be | History of England,” part XVII. ; “The Ladies' &t issue merely from a one-sided statement curtailed of their rights." He instantly went off | Treasury,” No. LII., (Cassel and Co.); “Cassel's We may say, however, that Mr. Cumin's con-|

to attend them, and everything was silent. Illustrated Family Bible,” part XXV.; “Cassel's demnation of Ragged Schools is by no means the had come to study and they meant to study. Igraphy for Beginners," by Dr. Cornwell. -* A

myself found it difficult to get them to converse. Popular Natural History," part XXVII.; “Geo

from Lord They seemed to think that no one had a right to Map Book for Beginners”; “A Book of Blank Shaftesbury's denunciations. The Assistant- interrupt the school business."

Maps ;” and “A Book of Map Projections,” by Commissioner willingly allows that Evening. This anecdote reminds us of the motto of

of the same Author. “Inventional Geometry," by Ragged Schools have done, and are still doing, William of Wykeham's School, at Winchester, l for May: " The Journal of Public Instruction of

G. W. Spencer. “The Massachusetts Teacher," much good-an amount of good, however, « Disce, doce, aut discede,with the spirit, at| Lower Canada,” for May ; “Rheinische Blätter which he considers partially neutralized by least, of which these Bristol students seem to fur Erzeihung und Unterricht,” by Adolf Dies: the day schools of the same class. The gistin of his argument is, that these schools must be gst have been thoroughly impregnated.

terweg, for May and June; The “ Journal Général

Mr. Cumin holds that Ragged Schools should I del Instruction Publique,” of France, for June. looked on as nothing more than temporary, I not be aided by grants from the public funds; and partial expedients to stem the tide of and in defence of this opinion, which appears ignorance and misery ; that they are often to have been very unpalatable to many worthy | ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. ill managed, and that even when well managed they havo a tendency to paralyze the energies

persons, he says in his preface:of parents, many of whom will not contribute

“There are generally about 326,000 children for CANTAB.-Your letter in reference to the paper on anything to the education of their children if whom the State is bound, by the most imperious “Teaching Euclid” in our April Number, did they can procure an inferior education gratis.

o obligation of Christian charity, and by self-interest, not reach this office in time for insertion this Mr. Cumins very justly says: “ With respect the

to make provision. Assuming that 145,000 of month.

respect these obtain some sort of education, there remain W. S.-Write to the Dean; or to the Secretary, at to the independent poor, it is of the utmost

181,000. Of these last, 140,000 are in the streets, the College. ner, independence should be mercilessly abandoned to chance; the rest are in EXCELSIOR. - The appointment of Inspector of respected. The rich have no right to demo- work houses, too often studiously nurtured in Schools rests with Lord Granville. There is no ralize their poorer brethren by aiding those vice. Now, it is from this neglected class,' as instance on record, so far as we know, of a who can aid themselves, or by relieving them Sir J. Jebb says, 'that juvenile criminals spring, National Schoolmaster receiving such an appointe from the obligation to take care of their chil. and that the gaols are continually filled with adult ment. In France, Prussia, and the United dren. If experience proves that some men or criminals. From this class, of course, many States of America, such appointments are not women, in a humble rank of life, can afford to thousands must be yearly added to the adult popu uncommon. provide their children with decent clothing

lation of the country. No doubt the Day Ragged M.A.-The Schools of Greenwich Hospital have and a good education, it is never demoraliza

Schools, by taking a few of these neglected chil. been arranged in four divisions ; each under a

dren out of the streets for a few hours in the day, Head Master and staff of Assistants. We are tion for the rich to supply such wants to other

may do a little to stem the torrent of corruption not aware of any vacancy in the staff at present. men and women in the same rank of life, whol which is the

o which is thus continually poured upon society; The patronage of these appointments rests with prefer to spend their wages in the gin-shop.'l although it is tolerably clear that if the public the First Lord of the Admiralty. Mr. Cumin asks his readers to bear in mind authorities did their duty, the occupation of the Owing to the great pressure on our columns this that out of £695,388, the income of certain Day Ragged Schools would be, to a considerable month several Articles and Reviews, which are schools (inclusive of the Parliamentary grant), | degree, if not altogether, gone. The benefits con- in type, are unavoidably deferred.

30,000 copies of the work had been circulated. For even in Ireland men capable of filling the posts EDUCATIONAL AND LITERARY SUMMARY

these and other particulars we are indebted to the of Assistant Inspectors of Schools can be found, OF THE MONTH.

preface to the eighth edition, written by the editor, without there being any necessity whatever for subTHE speech-days of our public schools, not less than | Professor Traill. The sale of Archbishop Tenison's mitting them to further examination ? We certainly the hot weather, give note that summer is advancing. library occupied a week. The produce of the six days' were surprised to see among papers for testing clerks Eton leads the van; and Dr. Goodford's pupils have, sale amounted to only £1410. We read in the "Athe- and guagers a set of examination questions for the on the present occasion, received warm, and, we be næum ;'' “ Preparations are being made for the im- special behoof of Irish inspectors of schools. We have lieve, well-deserved compliments on the marked immediate removal of the State Papers from their present no wish at all to see the Chinese system of wholesale provement in the delivery of their speeches. The lodgings, part of them to the Repository of Records in examination adopted in this country. Paulines have also celebrated their Apposition day: Fetter Lane, and part to the Chapter House at the Merchant Taylors' School the annual election of its Westminster. The present edifice, it is said, is to be scholars toSt.John's College, Oxford; and the Stationers' demolished, to make room for the proposed new India MONTHLY RECORD OF SCIENCE AND Company's New Grammar School, in Fleet Street, the Office and Foreign Office. It is to be deplored that

ART. termination of its first session--all with the ordinary fes- so beautiful a building as the State Paper Office, one OUR scientific societies, following the good extivities of the wealthy Civic Corporations to which they so well contrived for its purpose, and so convenient, lample of our schools, are bringing their sessions to are attached. The Bishop of London has just laid by its proximity to the Offices of the Secretaries of a close and thinking about holidays. The Royal the first stone of the Godolpbin School at Hammer- State, should have to be sacrificed. Surely when the Seni

| Society, the Geographical, the Geological, and the smith, under a scheme of the Court of Chancery. The old Foreign Office is cleared away, together with s

Society of Arts, as well as most of the other prin. new school is to accommodate not less than 200 boys.- Fludyer Street, Crown Street, and Charles Street, A Bill has been published " for making provision for space enough will be obtained for the range of Offices apar,

cipal scientific bodies, have had their last soirées the good government and extension of the University contemplated, without touching the State Paper Office. I for the season, and their liberated members are of Durham," and appointing Commissioners with It is only thirty years since the building was erected dividing their attention between the sea-side and powers similar to those conferred upon the late Com- and fitted up at an expense of £50,000. It is an the preparations for the great scientific wind-up of missioners for the Universities of Oxford and Cam- enormous waste of the public money to build up and the year---the approaching meeting of the British bridge. The proposed Cominissioners are the Bishop pull down in this fashion, and we hope that some Association. of Durham, Hon. G. Liddell, Right Hon, R. Lowe, notice of this useless demolition will be taken in Par- The Gorilla controversy, and the various inRight Hon. C. B. Adderley, Dr. Vaughan, and R. liament before the session closes, and the necessity for teresting points of comparative anatomy in relation Ingham, Esq.-The Rev. Osborne Gordon, B.D., of it--if, indeed, there is any necessity-explained to the to man, and the higher orders of the quadrumana Christ Church, is, we learn, a candidate for the Cam- public satisfaction.”'_Tho Vienna correspondent of den Professorship of Ancient History, now vacant in The Times” says that an antiquarian of Padua has

growing out of it, which threatened at one time to the University of Oxford. Ex-Balliol men will see found in the archives of a noble family, fifty of these

set some of our most distinguished sarans by the with pride that their old College still holds the first missing books of Livy's great historicalwork. We fear ears, 1

ears, has by no means abated. The brain is the place in the University examinations. Looking at the that this is but another cuckoo-crv to be added to the special point at issue; Nr. Lockhart Clark is exlately published Moderation List, we find that Balliol! thousand and one already raised touching the lost de-amining the brain of the gorilla, with the view of has four firsts, and the same number of seconds; cades of the Roman historian.- Mr. Blight, in his little comparing it, by microscopic observation, with while Corpus has three firsts and two seconds. pleasant volume yclept“ A Weck at the Land's End," that of the human fætus at that period when it has Christ Church, New College, and Queen's have cach writes thus: “It is well known that Prince Lucien reached the stage of “development” attained one first and two seconds. Wadham and Trinity, Buonaparte has lately been studying the dialects of Eng- by the gorilla, which he considers to be at the one first and one second. Merton one first ; Lin- land, and whilst engaged in these researches he visited | age of three months. coln two seconds; and Exeter and St. John's one Mouse-hole, to learn what remained of the Cornish. | Professor Owen has a short paper " On the second each. In the University of Cambridge, C. One resultofthe Prince'sinterest in this matter may be Brain of Man and Apes." in the new number of Cardale Babington, Esq., and not the Rev. Churchill seen at St. Paul's, in the form of an inscribed granite

the “ Annals of Natural History," illustrated by Babington, as has been erroneously stated by many obelisk inserted into the churchyard wall. On the of our contemporaries, has been appointed to the upper part is a Maltese cross ; the inscription is as

alexact copies of the figures of the smallest negro's Chair of Botany, left vacant by the death of Professor follows:-" Here lieth interred Dorothy Pentreath, brain and of the brain of the chimpanzee-the Henslow. A new prize has just been founded in the who died in 1788, said to have been the last person latter as figured by the Dutch anatomists. The University, in memory of the late Bishop Kaye, who who conversed in the ancient Cornish, the peculiar results of his own dissections and of those of other in his undergraduate days took the highest University language of this country from the earliest records, till anatomists of the brains of the chimpanzee, the ouhonours on record. The prize is to be given every it expired in the eighteenth century, in this parish of rangoutang, and the gorilla, bave satisfied him that fourth year to the write • of the best English disser- St. Paul. This stone is erected by

ted by the Prince Lucien the rise in the cerebral development of the lowest tation upon some subject or question relating to Buonaparte, in union with the Rev. John Garrett, negro, as compared with the highest of the quad. Ancient Ecclesiastical History, or to the Canon of vicar of St. Pau!. June 1860."— The following in

rumana, is so marked, that "it seems to constitute Scripture, or important points of Biblical criticism.- scription has been written by Mr. Walter Savage We learn that the services of Mr. Bradshaw, Fellow of Landon, for Garibaldi's house at Nice :-“ His in

one of the most important of the differential strucKing's College, have been engaged for two years more, ædibus natus est Garibaldus, miles strenuus, impiger,

tural characters between the human and ape for the purpose of re-arranging, cataloguing and classi- dux sagax, providus, victor clemens, imperator mo

kinds." fying the MSS. and rare books in the University Lib. destus, vir probus."

The lately discovered metal, Aluminium, is daily rary. Mr. Bradshaw has been similarly engaged for the A meeting was lately held at the Devonshire Square (increasing in favour as a bijouterie metal; and the last two years.-The Senate has agreed to accept the School Rooms, Liverpool Street, Bishopsgate, under Emperor of the French when he ordered his exoffer of Dr. Goodacre, to present his Museum of Verte- the presidency of Mr. Sheriff Lusk, for the purpose of perimental cuirasses to be made from the then all brate Animals to the University, subject to the con- promoting freo libraries in the city of London. After but unknown substance, could scarcely have foredition of a proper store-house being found for them.- several speakers had urged reasons in favour of the seen the important part it was destined to play in Mr. Adam Black, M.P., gave lately a white-bait dinner measure, a Mr. Richardson proposed an amendment the history of popular ornaments. There are at at Greenwich, on the completion of the eighth edition declaring that the adoption of the Free Library Act

present at Leith two Danish vessels, of the merof the Encyclopædia Britannica, to the contributors. in the City of London was unnecessary and uncalled After dinner, Mr. Black read the following statistical for. The amendment was carried by a large majority.

cantile marine, which are about to sail to Greenland paragraph respecting the seventh and eighth editions --We read in “Galignani” that a manuscript missal of

; for the purpose of procuring cryolite, a metal from of this magnificent publication :-Amount paid to the fifteenth century which formerly belonged to the

which aluminium is readily extracted. The search contributors and editors, £10,970,-cost of paper, Abbey of St. Lo, at Rouen, was lately knocked down, for precious ores and stones is. €52,503,-of printing and stereotyping, £36,708,-of in a public sale-room in Paris, for the sum of 24,850 and had very much to do originally, with the hisengraving and plate-printing, £18,277,-of binding, francs.--Madame George Sand has received a gift of story of expeditions in the Arctic regions. Not £22,613,- of advertisinr, €11.081..of miscellaneous 20.000 francs from the Emperor as a compensation many years ago large cargoes of plumbayo were items, £2,269,-making a total cost of £184,421. for her loss of the prize given by the French Academy to brought to this country from these popularly styled Of these two editions of the Encyclopædia Bri. M. Thiers. Tuis latter writer, it is said, has resolved barren regions; and the abundance of cryolite in tannica,' there have been printed above 10,000 copies. to make over again to the Academy, his prize, to be be. Greenland is likely to reward the enterprise of the The amount of duty paid upon the paper, calculated stowed by the members upon somo author they may Danish owners and attract other adventurers to at 1 d., was £8,573 ; but 3d. per pound was paid on select, and who requires the money more than he does. The same shor a considerable part of the seventh edition." We may - The French Emperor, who, it is well known, has

the same shores. add that the first edition of the “Encyclopædia Bri- lately occupied himself in writing the life of Julius

| Another new metal has been discovered belongtannica" was completed in 1771 ; and a second Cæsar, paid a visit, a few days ago, to Alise-Sainte

c. paid a visit, a few dars ago. to Alise Sainte Jing to the alkaline group. It occurs in minute

ing to the aika edition, which consisted of eicht volumes, in 1789. In Reine to verify the account of the siece of Alise, I quantity in certain mineral springs and in the 1797, a third edition was called for; and eighteen given in the Commentaries of the Roman writer.mineral known as Lepedotite. It possesses a very volumes, followed shortly after by two of a supple-Vast excavations have been made here hy order of the high atomic weight, its alkaline oxide is as caustic mentary character, were issued from the press. The Emperor, and we learn that some most interesting as potassa, and it forms a deliquescent carbonate. fourth edition, completed in 1810, was still further discoveries have been made. We are happy to see Its determination, as it exists only in minute quanimproved and enlarged. The fifth and sixth editions that Mr. Baillie Cochrane's motion, which aimed attity, is another result of the new method of specwere little more than reprints of the fourth, but this nothing less than a total abolition of competitive trum analysis, which promises to make us e issue of no less than six examination, was negatived in the House of Commons

ents as to comfresh supplementary volumes, which were projected without a division. Mr. Cochrane could not make by Constable the publisher, who held the copyright of out a strong case even by taking disconnected scraps

pletely revolutionize chemical science. the fifth and sixth editions. Shortly after the com- of evidence from the reports of the Civil Service

The “ Chemical News" for June 22nd contains pletion of the Supplement in 1824, the copyright of Commissioners, and by jumbling together portions of an account of the

iccount of the met the work passed into the hands of the present firm, I examination questions set at various times on totally | the value of gilded and silvered articles. For who commenced the issue of a seventh edition in 1830, different subjects. At the same time we think there testing gilded articles, chloride of copper is prewhich was completed in 1842. Up to the year 1852, is danger lest the ultra-advocates for these examina-pared, not by precipitation from solution of nitrate, when the present edition was called for, more than tions should push their theories too far. Surely as ordinarily, but by dissolving carbonate of copper


was made up for


in hydrochloric acid. The resulting chloride of|ticular attention. This encouraging sign of life, 10 per cent. of the population. The total copper, when somewhat diluted, will blacken from the long slumbering laud of ancient classic number of primary schools was 65,100. These golden-coloured alloys,-as brass, pinchbeck, &c., | fame, is quite paralleled in interest by the discovery are divided into public communal (parochial). but will only slightly discolour thinly.gilt articles, of a new planet (the first which has ever been boys' schoolan

f a new, planet (the first which has ever been boys' schools, numbering in all 36,200 (or a and not affect at all those that are thickly gilt. The made in the Eastern world) by our astronomers in little

little more than one school for every commune chloride of copper obtained by precipitation with India at the Madras Observatory. To signalize

in France); private boys' schools, of which common salt from a solution of the nitrate of this achievement, of which they are naturally

there are 3,400; public girls' schools 13,900; copper, is apt to be associated with aqua regia, proud, the discoverers desire to name the new as

private girls' schools 11,600. Of the public which acts upon gold, and unfits it for a test. But teroid, Asia. when chloride is obtained as directed above, it! We learn that the first number of a new (communal) boys' schools 17,000 are mixed, forms a very satisfactory test of the thickness of “ Quarterly Review of Popular Science,” to be that is, they admit girls as well as boys. the gilding. For the testing of silvered articles a edited by Mr. Samuelson, author of the “Honey The great majority of the 56,200 communal solation is used, formed by the addition of nitric Bee" and other works, will appear in October. schools are taught by lay teachers, certificated acid of average strength to red chromate of potash, It is a gratifying indication of the increasing esti- by the Government; but of the 3,100 private in such proportions that all the chromate shall not mation in which science is beginning to be held, schools, about 3.000 are in the bands of the be dissolved, but part be held in mechanical sus and of the interest it possesses even for general

and of the interest it possesses even for general“ Christian Brothers.” Of the 25,000 girls' pension. The liquid is then stirred well, and al-readers, to observe that it is becoming an established schools 13 500 orato

ned schools, 13,500 are taught by nuns, including lowed to settle for some hours, when a reddish-topic of discussion and criticism, not only in our coloured liquid may be poured off the sediment, scientific periodicals, but also in our leading literary:

a certain proportion of communal schools, for

Y which it is often difficult to find female lay which gives upon silver a blood-red spot, perfectly and political journals. Some of these critical utcharacteristic of that metal. This spot may be re- terances are, it is true, sometimes sufficiently teachers in sufficient numbers. -Report of the moved by friction with the finger only. These amusips, as witness the following exquisite morceare Royal Commissioner on Popular Education in methods have been followed for some time in the of science which recently appeared in the “Sunday France. German revenue offices. Times”:

RUSSIA. The Minister of Public Instruction in France “ The atropa belladona, or common potato, is a

tato, is a We learn from the Allgemeine Deutsche has published a circular, addressed to the directors, member of the same family as the tobacco plant. Lehrerzeitung, that the exclusive 11se of the of schools and colleges throughout the Empire, and there may be obtained from the leaves of E. Russian language in girls' schools in Poland forbidding the use of tobacco and cigars by the Solanine a similarly acrid and narcotic poison, two has been abolished. The law passed under a students. The deepening conviction that the habi- grains of which would prove fatal.”

former Government, permitting the landed tual use of tobacco is a source of physical and Can it be a matter of surprise that the purple proprietors and others interested in an elemental degeneration has steadily obtained a firmer berries of the deadly nightshade have been sold in mentary school to close it at pleasure has, howhold of the public mind since the thorough expo- the streets of London as whortleberries, made into ever, not been repealed, and in consequence of sition of the opinions of the medical profession in pies, and eaten with fatal effects, when those, this law. 150 elementary schools have been the columns of our leading scientific journals. To whose office it is to diffuse information, confound that discussion the late manifesto of Sir Benjamin that plant, one of the most fatal of our indigenous

closed in one year. It is in contemplation to Brodi

roale must be considered as a supplement, afford- I species, with the wholesome notato, and then state establish at Helsingfors, a Normal school (Masng an authoritative sanction to the conclusions that there may be obtained from the E. Solanine terschule) for Finland. Natives of Finland which were arrived at by those most competent to a similarly acrid narcotic poison? What is E. are to be sent to Germany, England, and form an opinion on the subject. In this country Solanine ? And to what is the poison similar ? France to study the educational systems of of free discussion and free action, the changes were the editor's intellectual powers suffering those countries, after which they will be apwroaght by conviction are worked out slowly and from the narcotic influence of a common potato pointed to take charge of the new Institution. spontaneously by individual process of resolve. taken in conjunction with chops and stout-the Across the Channel, where “Facta, non verba," latter having been prescribed quantum suff? is the rule of the empire, the opinions elicited by

EXAMINATION OF CANDIDATES FOR OFFICERS the great English controversy have borne fruit in

OF THE CORPORATION.--Mr. W. T. Bedford, the deeds. Certain statistical results have been ob.

Chairman of the Officers' and Clerks' Committee, tained at the Ecole Polytechnique and other public


presented a report on the reference to consider as schools and colleges, attesting that the smokers


to the expediency of making provision for examiwere also the dunces, and that the intellectual as! THE Medical Graduates of Prussia, with a nation of candidates for the situations in the gift well as the physical development of the students population of 17,739,913 inhabitants, amount, of the Courts and of its Committees, &c., similar was checked by the use of tobacco. The Minister according to the last census, to 359 " district in principle to the examination conducted by the of Public Inst ruction and the Préfêt of the Seine physicians”' (who are paid by the Government, Ci

and the Práfar of the Seine breinions (who are paid by the Government Civil Service Commissioners. The Committee are said to be "unceasing in their exertions to and have to attend the poor gratis); 4,327

å have to attend the poor contigi. A 302 stated that they had been attended by Mr. John remedy the evil.” As Paris alone contains 29,000 ordinary physicians, who have the doctor's;

ons Symonds, the mover of the reference, who was pupils, the edict applies to a large population. Itli

heard upon the subject. The Committee also would be well could the authorities of the English

Ostated that they had obtained from the Civil Ser. colleges and universities decree the same abstinence

the second class; and 1,026 veterinary doctors

yetermary doctors vice Commissioners copies of the forms ordinarily

of all classes. for all students, in residence or otherwise under

To these may be added, as hav-I used in their office, and other information con. control. There are two classes of men in England

ing received, more or less a medical education; nected therewith; and having referred the further who at this moment are addicted to frightful excess",

consideration of the subject to their Sub-Comin tobacco-smoking and suffer the evil conse! We learn from the Allgemeine Deutsche mittee, they reported to them their opinion, that quences in depression, debility, hebetude, and ner- Lehrerzeitung, that the Council of Education considering the varied nature of the business revousness. These are students at college, and at Wurtemburg has, by a new official order, quire to be discharged in the several departments Officers in barrack, garrison, and camp. The recommended the introduction of Gumnastic of the Corporation, and also the very limited numlatter especially smoke incessantly, beginning Exercises into all elementary schools as a ber of appointments, it would not be desirable to early in the day, and continuing till the night has regular branch of education.

lay down any general principles upon which an fallen. The dulness of barrack life, which incites! The Society for the prevention of Cruelty to

tion of motor to examination similar to that conducted by the Civil to the excess, is deepened by the habitual depres- Animals, at Munich, has recently published,

Service Commissioners should be carried out in sion which tobacco in the end produces. The fi

do connection with appointments under the Corporadepressed and debilitated condition of numbers of

e for the use of the elementary schools of Bavaria,

bavaria; tion, and that the selection of the most eligible hla series of illustrated works, intended to instill candidates will be best secured by members of the these young men, who, from such depôts as the ? camp at Aldershott, visit London, has long been!

into the minds of children, lumane ideas towards Court and heads of departments exercising, in the the subject of observation among the surgeons who animals, and to discourage the cruel pastimes distribution of their patronage, a careful regard to are called to treat their complaints, and have the too often indulged in by the young, of wantonly the qualifications necessary for the efficient dis. opportunity of comparing their nervous force with tormenting them. Among these publications charge of the particular duties of the vacant office. the standard of civil life. Nowhere are the evils may be noticed, “ Pflichten gegen Thiere" The Committee fully concurring in the opinion o of tobacco-smoking more rampant than in the (Duties towards Animals), by the Rev. L. the Sub-Committee, submitted the same to the camp and the college. Is it impossible that higher Eccer : “ Die ungleichen Knäben(The un- judgment of the Court.- Mr. BEDFORD moved the

bority should intervene to ameliorate their con- like boys). a story for children. by W. Gail adoption of the report.-Nr. J. SYMONDS said he dition ? and Dr. Permer; “Uber die Hauptgebrechen

should not oppose the report upon that occasion,

although he decidedly objected to the recommenConsiderable interest has been excited by the the der Erziehung" (On the Chief Vices of Edu

dation it contained. The Committee had had the distribution among learned societies in Europe of

of cation), by Dr. Permer; “Geschichten aus dem

chten aus dem subject under their consideration a very long time, a respectable quarto volume, containing the records Thierleben" (Stories from Animal Life), by and he understood that they were unanimous in of the the Observatory recently established at Athens. A Friend of Animals.

their opinion. He, however, should take the liberty The work consists chiefly of papers on the physi


of bringing the subject before them in another cal geography of Greece, and the climate and the The total number of children in France under shape. The report was then agreed to. - City phenomena of vegetation of Attica receiving par- / instruction in 1857, was 3,858,000, or about Press, June 22.

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