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PRACTICAL ELEMENTARY

EXERCISES IN THE ART OF THINKING;

BEING AN INTRODUCTION TO
COMPOSITION AND LOGICAL ANALYSIS.
BY CHARLES SCHAIBLE, Ph.D., M.D., L.C.P.,

Examiner in German in the University of London, and in the College of Preceptors.

say it."

EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE.

and make realities subservient to the discipline of the mind, is what we seek “... The object aimed at by the Author, is to train the pupil to the practice in education. Dr. S.'s book will find its way by its merits alone; it can of composition by a series of practical and easy, yet systematic exercises in dispense, therefore, with our approval. But it is so rare to meet in England thinking; the main purposes of which are the development of an obvious and with a true educationist, that we deem it our duty to give to this book the natural flow of ideas, and the exposition and arrangement of these ideas in warmest praise and the widest publicity in our power...."- Illustrated News logical succession and natural connexion. To stimulate and develope thought, of the World, March 24, 1860. is one process; to suggest ideas, and to clothe them in the best language, is “ Written in a concise style, this work forms an admirable introduction another process, distinct from the former; and however necessary or essential to composition and logical analysis. It is an admirable rade mecum both for the combination of these may be, in order to produce excellence in the art of the teacher and the pupil. This book deserves the attention of the educacomposition, yet it appears to the Author that they ought to be taught tional world.... We hope that Dr. S.'s system will speedily supersede the separately, and as nature teaches them--first what to say, and then how to old-fashioned ways of training the thinking faculties of the young."-Court

Circular, March 24, 1860.

As a useful aid to preliminary education this little work is, in our EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS.

judgment, well deserving of commendation. The soundness of its prociple “The work before us is not in any proper sense of the term a Grammar,

is indisputable.... It is certainly worth the while of the teacher to inake nor is it professedly a work on Composition; and yet it is a very excellent

trial of this system, which be will find to be a good basis of operations in preparation and training for both. . . . There can be no doubt that the

' teaching the young idea how to shoot,' and exercising the intellectual distinction drawn by the author between the expression of ideas by words,

faculty. To attain to the clear expression of clear thought, is an object of and the power of developing or producing these ideas, is one of great practical

paramount importance, and the progress indicated in Dr. Schaible's manual importance in education. Instances are continually occurring, in the expe.

is calculated to be of good assistance in this respect. ... The exercises and rience of every teacher, of pupils who possess a fair knowledge of grammar,

explanatory examples are judiciously selected and arranged. We beg to term

the book The Threshold of Logic,' and as such to recommend its use in and of the analysis and construction of sentences, who are yet unable to write

tuition, both as being a beneficial trainer to the pupil, and a servic or connect a c nposition, simply because they have never been trained to think or to arrange their ideas on any subject in a systematic manner....

indicator to the teacher."- National Standard, Jan. 21, 1860. The • Art of Thinking' rests upon a sound philosophical basis, and it is at

“Dr. Schaible has offered helps in the Arts of 'I hinking and Composition, any rate the principle on which the teachers of Germany, perhaps the most which will be found especially useful to preceptors."- Leader and Saturday profoundly versed of any country in the theory of education, habitually pro

Analyst, March 3, 1860. ceed in teaching their own language.

"... A further acquaintance with Dr. Schaible's work will convince readers “Dr. Schaible is entitled to the thanks of the Profession, for introducing how much may be gained by training in this respect."- The Bookseller, the principle to the notice of the Teachers of this country, and for the ingenious

March 24, 1860. and really interesting series of exercises by which the system is developed and

“These exercises begin with the simplest processes of thought, and go on worked out in the volume before us. ... The demands on our space preclude

to the more complex. They are arranged with great care...."-Clerical us from entering at greater length into the merits of Dr. Schaible's very

Journal, Feb. 14, 1860. useful and interesting work, which we cordially recommend to the attention of

“This work breaks fresh ground in the educational system.... This is a teachers, as one of the best introductions to the study of Composition with

book destined to set the professional world reflecting on the question whether which we are acquainted. We do not know any class of schools in which a change ought not to be introduced in the method at present prevailing of the work will not prove useful, but it appears to us particularly adapted to the forming the mind of the pupil. Looked at from this point only, the book of requirements of ladies' schools, and of preparatory and commercial schools,

Dr. Schaible may be pronounced a good and significant one."'--Morning where, in the absence of the higher classical and mathematical studies, some

Advertiser, Jan. 5, 1860. efficient substitute is urgently required for the purpose of supplying the

"... Dr. S. has succeeded in producing a work of an elementary and strictly logical training and discipline which those studies are intended to afford." introductory character-a sort of primer to logic, well calculated to fill that Educational Times, Jan. 1860.

void that has hitherto existed in our educational literature...."--Morning “ Among the many works which have appeared in this country on the best Chronicle, March 28, 1860. method of training the reasoning powers of youth, the present book takes a

"Among the class books intended to develop the thinking faculty in the marked position of its own. It is sui generis. In Germany and some parts

minds of the young, we know of none more simple, and at the same time of the United States, it is true, the principle on which Dr. Schaible bases his

more useful, than the little work which Dr. Schaible has writien. There is manual has already obtained great currency. It is the principle, in fact, of

no doubt that the system too often pursued in this country exercises a mis. Pestalozzi, of Diesterweg, Krause, Becker, Wurst, and others, who, follow

chievous influence on the mind of the pupil. We refer to those cases in ing the precepts of nature, have laid down the maxim that it is necessary

which a knowledge of the mechanical rules of grammar is too exclasively to develop the reasoning faculty of children before introducing them to the insisted upon, or the practice of composition is unduly forced. This work, intricacies of grammar or burdening them with the arduous task of compo.

by its lucid explanations of the principles of composition, and by its numerous sition. In accordance with this method, the author--and he is the first

exercises, is eminently calculated to stimulate into activity the reasoning to do so in England-has given a number of exercises, at once easy and

powers of the young, and to induce, on their part, habits of logical analysis scientific, by which the pupil is gradually led from the most simple conceptions and inquiry.... Such is the general explanation which Dr. Schaible fur. into the domain of higher and more refined ideas." --TheCritic, Feb. 25, 1860. nishes of the purpose for which he wrote his work, and that purpose he

"... It appears to be carefully arranged; and we should say that for schools appears to have amply realized."- Morning Star, July 2, 1860. it would be found a very useful work."-Literary Gazette, Feb. 11, 1860.

"... We have very peculiar pleasure in drawing the attention of parents, "... The main object of the

object of these Exercises appears to be the development of teachers, and all interested in instruction, to the little book whi se title we ideas in the mind of a child, and the inculcation of the habit of viewing give above. It consists of a series of exercises admirably adapted to teach everything that is objective to the external sense, or capable of mental con. the art of thinking, through the right use of language. In the plan bere templation in all its bearings; or in other words, it aims at emancipating the developed were but extensively employed in our eleiventary education, far thinking principle from the influence of imitation and associatior, in order to more would be done for developing and training the mind of the young than give fuller scope for the exercise of reflection and invention. ... The plan is now accomplished through our system of crainming the mind with facts, pursued by Dr. Schaible will be found to have for its exclusive object the and crude, second-hand notions of things. These exercises are at once amplification of ideas in the pupil's mind. . . We recommend these · Exercises' simple and scientific. They might be used and varied by any intelligent to the perusal of all those who take an interest in the education of the young, teacher that will take the trouble to study the book...."- Bradford Review, and in every effort made to advance the growth of intelligence in the juvenile Feb. 4, 1860. mind."-St. James's Chronicle, Feb. 23, 1860.

"... We hope that Dr. Schaible's work will be welcomeil in schools. The This is a very excellent manual, compiled for schools and the student book will, moreover, by means of a great number of gradualed exercises, and seeking to expand his perceptions and increase his vocabulary. The plan of by supplying the minds of children with a certain richness of thought, form the the work is simple, original, and entertaining-a great consideration for most natural introduction to the study of English coin position."--Sunderland pupil and teacher...."--The Press, May 5, 1860.

Herald, Feb. 10, 1560. "Dr. S. aims to give a more philosophical character to matters which in "... Dr. S. treats the art of thinking in a manner both ingenious and philoEngland are studied far too mechanically. In this aspiring and in this sophical, anıl we doubt not that his work will have a rapid popularity and an attempt he has our most cordial commendation. He is, in the best sense of extensive circulation. It has probably not its equal in inerit for the purpose the word, a reformer of education, and is a worthy successor of perhaps the intended. It has our heartiest commendations, and our warınest wishes....' greatest of all educationists-Pestalozzi. To go beyond words to realities, | - Manchester Reriew, March 31, 1860).

LONDON: W. AYLOTT AND SON, 8, PATERNOSTER ROW. OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH

Printed and Published, monthly, by CHARLES FRANCIS HODGSON, Gough Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London ; and sold by W. Aylott and Son,

8, Paternoster Row; and W. Wesley, 2 Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster Row. MAY 1, 1861.

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PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL.
The Rev. B. H. KENNEDY, D.D., Head Master of the Grammar School, Shrewsbury. "

VICE-PRESIDENTS.
A. HILL, Esq., F.C.P., Principal of Bruce Castle School, Tottenham. -
Rev. J. S. Howson, M.A., Head Master of the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool.
Rev. J. R. MAJOR, D.D., Head Master of King's College School, London.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
DEAN--The Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., Worcester College, Oxford ; Head Master of Christ's Hospital.
MODERATOR FOR CLASSICS—Wm. Smith, Esq., LL.D., Classical Examiner in the University of London.

MODERATOR FOR MATHEMATICS—The Rev. C. Pritchard, M.A., F.R.S.; late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge.
MODERATOR FOR SCIENCE AND ART-Dr. L. Playfair, C.B., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh, late Inspector General of the

Department of Science and Art.
EXAMINERS.

EXAMINERS.
Rev. W. Rogers, M.A., Incumb. St. Thomas, Charterhouse,

(Dr. L. Loewe, M.R.A.S., late Principal of the Jews' ColChaplain to the Queen.

HEBREW AND ORIENTAL)
THEORY AND PRACTICE

lege, London.
Rey I. Selby Watson, M.A., F.C.P., M.R .L

LANGUAGES ............... Rev. R. Wilson, D.D., St. John's College, Cambridge.
OF EDUCATION .........
Joseph Payne, Esq., P.C.P.

(K. Kalisch, Ph.D., Berlin.
Dr. H. s. Turrell, F.C.P.

(Rev. W. T. Jones, M.A., F.C.P., Queens' Coll., Cambridge. Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., F.C.P., Worcester College, Oxford. | HISTORY .

C.P. Mason, Esq., B.A., Fellow of Univ. College, London.
C. S. Townshend, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Jesus Coll., Camb.

Dr. C. H. Pinches, F.C.P., F.R.A.S.
CLASSICS...................
Rev. J. Selby Watson, M.A., F.C.P., M.R.S.L

(H. F. Bowker, Esq., Christ's Hospital.
J. Wingfield, Esq., B.A., Christ's Hospital.

(Rev. R. Wilson, D.D., F.C.P., St. John's Coll., Cambridge. (John Robson, Esq., B.A. Lond., Barrister-at-LAW.

Rev. W. T. Jones, M.A., F.C.P., Queens' Coll., Cambridge.
SCRIPTURB HISTORY ......

Rev. P. Smith, B.A. Lond.
Rev. C. Pritchard, M.A., F.R.S., St. John's College, Camb.

(Rev. W.F. Greenfield, M.A., Dulwich College.
W. Lethbridge, Esq., M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge.
Rev. R. H. Wright, M.A., Ashford Gramniar School.

NATURAL HISTORY:-
MATIEMATION ..........

(Dr. Lankester, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc., New College, London.
Rev. W. C. Izard, M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge. Geology, Mineralogy, Phy- Professor Tennant, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., King's Coll., London,
Rev. T. J. Potter, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. siology, Zoology, & Botany (A. K. Isbister, Esq., M.A., University of Edinburgh.
Rev. J. H. Stevens, M.A., Magdalen College, Cambridge.

(W. McLeod, Esq., F.R.G.S., Royal Mil. Asylum, Cheben.
(Rev. C. Pritchard, M.A., F.R.S., St. John's College, Camb. GEOGRAPHY ......
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY

W. Hughes, Esq., F.R.G.S., King's College, London.
AND ASTRONOMY......... Rev. s. Newth, M.A., New College,
W.J. Reynolds, Esq., M.A., Queens' College, Cambridge.

(Dr. White, F.C.P.

Professor Miller, M.D., F.R.S., King's College, London.
ENGINEERING AND FOB-SW.J. Reynolds, Esq., M.A., Queens' College, Cambridge. !

W.Odling, Esq., M. B. Lond. F.R.S.
CHEMISTRY ...

.............
TIFICATION ...
(T. Kimber, Esq., M.A. Lond., L.C.P.

J. P. Bidlake, Esq., B.A. Lond.. F.C.P. F.C.S.

(J.C. Buckmaster, Esq., South Kensington Museum. (L. Stievenard, Esq., Lecturer, King's College, London.

MORAL AND POLITICAL S Professor Hoppus, LL.D., F.R.S., Univ. College, London.
Professor Marzials, Wellington College.
M. Wattez, L.C.P., King's College, London

PHILOSOPHY ............... T. S. Baynes, Esq., LL.D., Examiner in Univ. of London.
W. Chapman, Esq., Christ's Hospital.
CIVIL AND COMERCIAL (Professor Leoni Levi, King's Collega

lege.
J. D'Arnaud, Esq., L.C.P.

T. B. O'Feily, Esq., LL.B., Queen's University, Ireland.

LAW .....
F. Braudicourt, Esq., B.A.

(J. Haddon, Esq., M.A., King's College, London.
(Professor Wintzer, King's College, London.

(H. A. Bowler, Esq., Art Inspector, S. Kensington Museum. Karl Schaible, Ph.D., M.P., L.C.P., Examiner in the Uni

J.L.Kenworthy, Esq.,L.C.P.,F.R.AS., R.Mil. Asyl. Chelsea. versity of London.

DRAWIXG ....

H. Hagreen, Esq., Dep.of Art, South Kensington Museun. (Falck Lebahn, Ph.D.

J. C. Ogle, Esq., West Brompton.

(T. C. Dibden, Esq., Banstead.
ITALIAN
..Professor Arrivabene, University College, London

(E. F. Rimbault, LL.D., F.S.A.
(Professor Masson, M.A., University College, London.

J. Hullah, Esq.

MUSIC
LISH LANGUAGE AND C. P. Mason, Esq., B.A. Lond.

Dr. Stegpall.
Y J. P. Bidlake, Esq., B.A. Lond., F.C.P.

(u.st. Leftwich, Esq., M.R.A.M.
Dr. E. Adams, University College.

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CE. F. Rinn, Esq., Bansrompton.'

LITERATURE

Rericu,

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2nd. The union of teachers of ever

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The College of Preceptors was incorporated in 1849, by , entrance fee. A single payment of Ten Guineas confers of the College are recognized by the Royal College of
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conclusive as regards either master or pupil ; spect of the pupil for its tabular results, and in CONTENTS.

for in spite of every exertion and foresight, enabling the tutor to arrive at a correct conPage when the examination extends over a whole clusion respecting each pupil's conduct and

subject, as History or Geography, and improvement. Again, a question of much ollege of Preceptors :-Sixth Monthly Meeting : Paper

i that to be decided by perhaps six or eight interest arises how the register should be kept; on the "Best Means of Registering the Progress

of Pupils," by the Rev. W. Taylor Jones, M.A ...... 75 questions, very much must depend upon the whether it is advisable to value a pupil's proThe Royal Commissioners on Cheap Private and

previous reading of the examiner himself, as ficiency by the place he takes in the class Endowed Schools.........

76 On Corporal Punishment in Schools..........

17 well as upon chance. But a good system of each day, or to give a certain value for the University Intelligence..........

79 registration, by which the Master may at a manner in which the work is performed, withCollege of Preceptors :-Class List of Pupils' Ex nation ........

su glance test the conduct, attention, and pro- out reference to, or comparison with, his fellows Proprietary Boarding Schools in Devon ..... ........ 84 gress of his pupils while studying each parti-l in the class. Some strongly deprecate the Middle Class Education at Shoreham .....

85 cular subject, must be an invaluable aid in system of taking places daily in the class, and College of Preceptors Benevolent Fund ............. Solutions of the Papers in Arithmetic and Algebra, as enabling him to judge and report upon their consider it trifling, if not injurious, to encourage

given at the Examination of Pupils at the College proficiency, and must prove a powerful agency so powerfully the desire of excelling others as

of Preceptors, 1861
Reviews:- The Bromsgrove Grammars:- Cumin's

in the onerous duty of watching over and likely to excite feelings of jealousy and envy Popular Education in the Bristol and Plymouth forming the moral and intellectual character of in the youthful mind, so susceptible of early

Districts &c. ............
Answers to Correspondents.........
his charge.

impressions, so easily led into evil. But we Educational and Literary Summary of the Month

We may theorize well and loudly upon the must remember that in these days of absorbing Monthly Record of Science and Art ......

90 question of rewards and punishments ; upon competition in every department, public or Mathematics..........

92 exciting too strongly self-esteem, or the love of private, it is essential for the future well-being Rev. R. H. Wright on Abridged Notation .....

approbation, or awakening dread in the as yet of the student, in a worldly sense, to awaken List of College and School Books ........ College of Preceptors.--Meeting of Council, &c. ....

unformed minds of our pupils ; but whilst we every energy, and to induce perseverance in have to act upon human nature as it is, it is securing excellence in every department of

impossible for us to ignore such powerful study. We admire any man who is resolved The Educational Times, agents, but rather we are bound carefully to to obtain, if possible, the highest position in

employ them, and by their judicious use to the walk of life he has selected, and a Blondin,

exert an invigorating influence upon the educa- as well as a Lord Chancellor or a Senior COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS. tional faculties. I know that many protest Wrangler, may in this respect command

entirely against the use of corporal punish- our admiration to a certain extent. “What.

ment; but I cannot understand how they can ever is worth doing, is worth doing well;" SIXTH EVENING MEETING,

peculiarly apply the term to any particular and in even the more trifling pursuits of life, , June 19, 1861.

form of inflicting punishment ; for every excellence should be the rule, as well as in The Rev. Dr. JACOB, Dean of the College. I punishment must act upon the body, if only those duties which require the highest exin the Chair.

'through its action on the mind; and in man's ercise of our faculties. Emulation, properly The Rev. W. TAYLOR JONES MA of nature it is impossible to influence one without employed, is a noble instrument for good ; wydenham College, read the following Paper Auence upon the other. Severe personal chas- most generous impulses, ove

more or less producing a corresponding in- and carefully directed, may merge into the upon

tisement, or flogging, is undoubtedly, in nearly and gaining victories over obstacles apparently THE BEST MEANS OF REGISTERING |

all cases, objectionable ; but a parent or a tutor insurmountable. But there are some disTHE PROGRESS OF PUPILS.

must ensure obedience for the sake of those for positions upon which emulation has but

whom he is responsible. I believe that punish- little influence; they count the cost, and conIn naming this subject for an evening's dis- ment, in whatever form it may be inflicted, is sider the gain hardly worth the price which cussion, I did so under a strong sense of its too frequently the resort of the inefficient must be paid to obtain it. Some, from innate practical difficulties, and with an earnest de- teacher, and an excuse for him whose patience sluggishness, at once decline to enter upon the sire to obtain from experienced teachers the would be too severely strained were a different contest; in others, the perpetual strugeling information in which I felt myself deficient. I system of discipline adopted : but it is abso-against adverse circumstances crush out the conceived that one of the most valuable advan-lutely impossible to avoid punishment in par- impulse, and the continued exertion and exercise tages likely to accrue from these Meetings, ticular cases; and sometimes a sharp, active of self-denial required to ensure success fail would consist in the opportunities afforded for remedy is more efficient in preventing or re. when the wearied spirit becomes cither careless discussing questions connected. with school moving disease, than homeopathic doses, work- or desponding, or sometimes reckless of consemanagement and discipline ; and I doubt not, ing for a lengthened period upon the system. quences. The daily register of work, satisfacthat by Members stating their experience and The purposes of registration appear to me, to torily or unsatisfactorily performed, has in such ditticulties, a valuable mass of information may carry out the figure, to be that of a gentle cases the advantage; for then the dispirited boy be elicited, and, the minds of many being alterative upon the mental system ; a minimum has a hope that his exertions may yet be apprearoused to meditate upon any given subject. I of reward or of punishment being applied upon ciated, and his labour recognized; while the some important practical results may ensue. Teach particular exercise of the mind; for such (idle or careless will know that there is not the

I bare, with much anxiety, year after year, is the influence of the bene or male, the 1, 2, excuse at hand of others' superior abilities. tried various plans for registering the progress or 3, the good or bad mark of the teacher making it but a vain attempt on his part to of my pupils, but, I must confess, with very entered in his register.

secure success. In this view of the case, little satisfaction. I have for some vears adopted! What is required in the system is simplicity, another question presents itself: whether it is a plan of requiring with every puvil over twelve combined with completeness, and a ready means advisable to subdivide the subjects of study years of age, when entering my school, a testi-l of adding up and comparing results. The and conduct, or to comprehend them under but monial as to character and progress from his great difficulty of almost every schenie I have few heads. For several years I adopted a former tutor. This plan I would urge upon tried, if efficient in its purpose of keeping a register, classified into general English submy fellow schoolmasters unanimously to adopt. complete register of daily work and conduct, jects, languages, mathematics, the mechanical It has been valuable in several ways. upon has been in the continued labour and expendi- subjects, and conduct, each of these subwhich this is not the opportunity to dilate : ture of time incurred by the master, and in the divided, so that I had 35 various items upon dut, if generally established, it would be alaccumulated work towards the end of each which to receive reports. I found, however, that powerful instrument in the hands of the Pro-term in tabulating results, and making the the trouble incurred by the masters in keeping Iession for curing many evils to which we are necessary comparison to discover accurately the registers was so onerous, and the temptation subject. However, from these testimonials, the relative position of each pupil. The ques- therefore to omit or neglect the entries so great, varying so frequently as they do from the tion has often arisch, whether the benefit that I felt compelled to abandon it; for unless monthly reports that have been sent in to the arising from this careful system has in any kept thoroughly correct a register is valueless. parents, I perceive that others, as well as myself. I way corresponded to the labour and time em | The system, too, of marking was very minute, experience, the difficulty of a cood system of ployed upon the register ; and further, I have there being six different grades, varying from registration.

found that various masters place different values perfection to disgraceful. At the end of each Examinations give evidence by their results I upon the same amount of excellence, one giving term, the marks in each subject were added of the progress which youths have madein their the highest mark for that which is considereat together, and entered upon the last pace, with

dies, and may sometimes tend to show the but as mediocrity by another. To procure the result of the term's examination, and the relative position of each punil. but I do not this uniformity of system in marking the regis- | book was then sent home with the pupil. The

sider the result of an examination always lter, is an essential element in securug the re-plan failed because of its completeness, and

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relief

of the heavy labour, although simple, which it | sued, in the course of which Dr. Pinches, Dr. migrated, leaving only warehouses in place of consequently entailed.

White, Mr. Templeton of Exeter, Mr. Pop-former houses of residence. Monthly reports of the position, improve-pleton, and the Chairman, explained their It is not proposed, however, to make "a ment, and conduct of the pupil are frequently various systems, which, although they varied in harsh application of economical principles to employed. At times I have been led to question many of their details, yet evidenced a remark- funds devoted to the relief of the poor.” Alms. their value, for they appear in many cases to able similarity in the principles upon which houses, therefore, are not to be interfered with, merge into a mere formality, containing either they were founded. Several of tlie subjects nor charities for orphans or widows, but others expressions of a warm approval, or a round of alluded to in the paper were warmly discussed, may be decisively dealt with. Of these is set phrases neither cold nor hot; for the temp- and after the Rev. W. T. Jones had made Jarvis's Charity, in Herefordshire, the amount tation is very great for the tutor to soften some some observations in reply, the Chairman ex-distributed from which, on a settlement of the of the harsher features of character or conduct. pressed the thanks of the Meeting to that gen- charity in 1802, being “almost equal to that Parents like not to hear that their dear boy's tleman for his Paper, as affording them the of the wages of the labouring population in the progress is not equal to their desires ; at opportunity of discussing a question of such three parishes for the benefit of which it was home he may be a pest, but at school he inust great practical importance.

| founded,” it had the simple effect of populating be perfection. Nor is it well to expose the

them with a wretched class of people, at the faults of children, it sometimes makes them. The next Evening Meeting will take place on expense of the depopulation of all parishes careless and impervious to shame; faults com- the 18th of Septeniber, when a Paper on Physi-immediately adjacent. Parliament, in 1852, mitted at home should not be proclaimed from cal Education will be read by J. Reynolds, Esq., sanctioned a scheine for converting a large the house-top, nor, on the other hand, should L.C.P.

portion of this charity to educational purposes, tales be told out of school; the little world in

but it is applied with little wisdom, and, with which the child for the time lives, is quite large THE ROYAL COMMISSIONERS ON

respect to a portion of it, in complete opposienough to know his weakness or his shame, | CHEAP PRIVATE, AND ENDOWED

tion to, and departure from, the testator's will! nor should it in general cases be extended

SCHOOLS.

So of the “Mayor's Charity” at Manchester. beyond. The strictest confidence should be

(Continued from page 54.)

“ I examined,” says Mr, Cumin, “105 of the maintained between parent and teacher, and no

nomination papers in presence of the relieving attempt be ever made to palliate or excuse a fault/ CIARITIES NOT AT PRESENT APPLICABLE TO

officers, and I found that in some cases the upon either side ; but, still I would say, expose

EDUCATION.

names were fictitious; in others relations bad not the weaknesses or errors of your pupils THERE are charities not at present appli- recommended their relations; in others the unnecessarily; spread not their praises without cable to education, which the Commisioners persons recommended were drunkards or of full and due consideration, for praise or blame, are of opinion might be legitimately devoted bad character; in others they were in receipt undeservedly or incautiously bestowed, can to this purpose. In 1818-37, it was ascer- of considerable wages, and unfit objects of tend only to injure the sensitive mind, and to tained that the total income of these was as charity. To come to particulars, it appeared render it callous to the future, follows:

that 30 cases out of 105 were able-bodied men Many very careful and judicious reports

£. $. d. and women under the age of 46, many of them have come under my notice, but by far the ma For the poor generally . . 101,113 9 3 between 17 and 30. As a further illustration jority that I have seen, have evidenced a want For the poor not receiving parish

of the want of proper inquiry, I may mention of thought in those who have compiled them,

this case. A woman in the receipt of 6s. per and have tended to produce an injurious rather

For the poor specifically · · 55,133 10 3

week from the Poor Law Board, but living by than a beneficial influence on parent, child, and

£167,908 0 1

selling oranges, nuts, shell-fish, &c., at dramtutor. A report of this kind should be as brief The Charity Commissioners recommended, I shops and public-houses, obtained three difas the nature of the case will allow, merely in 1856, that the charities embraced in the first fercnt recommendations, under three different stating results; but yet it is almost impossible, of the above classes should be applied to edu- names, from three different persons. None of from the very best report, to form an accurate cation, or some other substantial benefit to the the recommenders knew the woman, but they opinion of the pupil's advancement. The num- poor. The Education Commissioners remark, kept the public-house vaults where the woman ber in the class must make a wondrous diffe- that “Experience has proved that no 'benefit' sold her oranges." rence in the position in the class, and other which charity can bestow upon the poor is so So also of Salisbury and Coventry, which arrangements must cause every report to differ; substantial,' so little subversive of indepen- furnish an illustration of Dr. Chalmers' words, therefore it cannot be made to convey a fair dence of character and self-reliance, or capable quoted by the Commissioners:--" There must impression upon those points concerning which of doing good to so many persons in propor- be a mockery in the magnificence of these it professes to afford information. I have at tion to the sum expended, as a moderate public charities, which have not, to all appear. present abandoned sending home a report, assistance towards the expenses of education;' ances, bettered the circumstances or advanced otherwise than as a private friendly communi- and that much mischief is done by the chari- the comforts of the people among whom they cation conveying some particulars concerning ties, as at present distributed, to thic character are instituted, beyond those of a people where the pupil which it may be essential for the pa- of the independent poor. “There is a great they are utterly unknown;" and the opinion rents to know.

difference,"also, “between the effects of cha- of the same divine and economist, that these Being desirous of eliciting the views and rity from the living and those which attend the charities“ forin an adhesive nucleus around practices of others, I have thus made my ob- periodical distribution of alms under the will which the poor accumulate and settle, misled servations suggestive rather than didactic, and of a dead founder. The hand of living charity by vague hopes of benefit from the charities deeply obliged shall I be for any lints by is held out ouly to present necd; it promises which they fail to confer ;” and that they which a simple comprehensive plan of register- no periodical alms to indolence and impor- “ occasion a relaxation of economy and of the ing the pupils' progress can be formed ; it is a tunity; and if it necessarily somewhat impairs relative duties of parents, children, and relawant which I believe many would be glad to the spirit of independence, it produces good tions, which is in the ratio of the hope that is have supplied, and a system easy of applica. will and gratitude. The dead hand’ of the felt, and not of the hope that is realized." The tion, enabling the master to tabulate and com- founder of an annual dole does not distinguish Coventry charities, the Commissioners add, pare results quickly, to trace the conduct of a between the years of prosperity among the are believed to be very useful in elections. * Pupil through any given range of time, would labouring classes and years of distress ; in Canterbury is still worse :-In Canterbury, be invaluable to many, who, like myself, have prosperous years it leads those who are not in there is Lovejoy's charity, part of which is to been searching for it as a desideratum. need to represent themselves to be so; it holds be applied to poor, ancient, and sick people

“:Order is Heaven's first law," and in a out annual hopes to improvidence; it more not receiving relief.” The following list of school without an efficient system of discipline, frequently excites jealousy and ill feeling than recipients will show the mode in which the seeds are sown which in after life produce the good will, both on the part of the recipients founder's intentions are carried into effect:most lamentable results ; the more perfect we towards the distributors of the charity and Convicted felon. can make our arrangements, the better shall among the recipients themselves. For one Brothel keepers we be enabled to carry out the great work en-person who receives substantial benefit from

Drunkards

Other bad characters
trusted to us of training, by God's help, a sound these doles, many feel their demoralizing
mind in a healthy body.
effects."

Paupers . . . . . . 36
Other objections are also urged, such as

Occasional paupers : :
Upon the conclusion of the Paper, the Rev. that charities in some cases become excessive,
Chairman called upon the Members present to through the diminution of the population; In good employment or not needy . 51
express their views upon the subject of the which is especially the case in cities such as

Total improper objects Paper, and a very interesting discussion en- Bristol and London, where the population has

* Mr. Erle's Evidence, 8826.

145

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