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The oniy grammatical method with which reference to cognate languages. The crude- 1.- Rules applicable to all Nouns. I am acquainted that shows how this can be form, system has, in fact, arisen out of the 1. THE GENITIVE :-(i.) Singular: add is to done, is what is called “the crude-form sys-study of Sanscrit, to which the science of crude forms ending in consonants; s to those end. tem;" the advantages of which I shall now comparative grammar owes its existence. Foring in i oru; i to those ending in e or o (o beproceed to point out. Before I do so, however, I instance; on examining the words equu-s, Jing dropped); and c to those ending in a. (11.)
* Plural: add rum to crude forms ending in e, a, or I will premise a few explanations for the sake equu-m. equi, equo, equo-rum, equo-s, equi-s, it of those to whom the subject may, be novel.. might be difficult to determine whether equu, 1
0; and um to all other crude forms.
I . 2. TAE DATIVE :-(i.) Singular : add i to crade By the crude form of a word is meant the equo, or equi is the crude form from which
forms ending in a consonant, e, or u; e to those word in its most simple state, that is, sepa- they come. But on comparing with them a set
ending in a : lengthen the final vowel of those rated from the suffixes or other terminationalof corresponding Greek words, such as iTTO-s, lending in o or i. (ii.) Plural : add ibus to crude modifications which are included under the iTTTO-V, ITTO-u, iTTO, UTTO-, TITO'US, ITW., forms ending in consonants : bus to those ending general term, inflection. A crude-form is, iTTO-15, there is sufficient evidence to turn the ini, e, or u; and is to those ending in a or o, these therefore, the uninflected form of a word ca- scale in favour of equo-; and the Greek forms final vowels being dropped. pable of being inflected; and is regarded as the enable us to explain the apparent anomalies in 3. The ABLATIVE :-(i.) Singular : add e to original word from which all the cases, tenses, those of the Latin word. 1
crude forms ending in consonants : lengthen the persons, &c., are derived. Thus reg-is the crude These illustrations prove that the crude
final vowels of all other crude forms. (ii.) Plural;
e this case is exactly the same as the dative plural. form, from which rex (reg-s), reg-is, reg-em form system is thorouglily analytical. It pre
II.--Rules applicable to Jasculine and reg-ibus, &c., are derived. From the crude form sents words stripped of all accessories, in their
Feminine Nouns only. pac-come pax (pac-s), pac-i, pac-e, &c.; from essential simplicity of form and generality of 1. Tae NOMINATIVE:-(i.) Singular : add sto trah- are formed trah-o, tral-ebant, trax-i (= meaning; it displays the various prefixes and crude forms ending in any vowel except a, and to trah-si), trac-tus, &c. So in Greek, ay-, hajtad,
suffixes, and shows how they modify the signi- those ending in any mute or m: crade forms endYUKT., are, tlie crude forms from wbich are fications of words and by reducing the appa-ing in a, 8, 7, or 1, take no suffix; those ending made aš, acy-a, ay-es; Napra-s, Aautad-os, / rently innumerable varieties of inflections to al in on, ero, or eri, lose their final letters. (..) Nauta.6l;, YU&, VUKT-OS, YUKT.WV, &c.', 1, ... comparatively small number, it creatly dimi. Plural: add es to crude forms ending in conThat crude formıs are scientific abstractions, I nishes the labour and abridges the time requi- sonants
r as words cannot be com- site for gaining a knowledge of lancuace. In being changed into e: e to those ending in a; and bined in sentences without some marks of their a word, it enables the student, by means of
li to those ending in o, that vowel being dropped. mutual relations, that is, in the case of analysis and classification, to grasp that vast
2. THE ACCUSATIVE. — (i.) Singular : add em variable words, without suffixes,
vast to crude forms ending in consonants, m to those it is obvious object, the vocabulary of a language, which on ending in vowels. (ii.) Plural : add es to crude that crude forms, as such, are necessarily any other plau would require the labour of a forms ending in consonants, s to those ending in excluded from any spoken or written com- life for its acquisition. Some such method as I vowels. bination of words. But on this no valid objec- this is, in fact, necessarily adopted by all men III.-Rules applicable to Neuter Nouns only. tion to their, employment for grammatical when they begin to study and to think for! NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.-(i.) Singular : purposes can be founded; nay, if, as I believe, themselves. The question is, whether it is not add m to crude furms ending in 0; change final they greatly facilitate tlic acquisitiou of a better that the boy should, from the first, beli into e, and the vowels e and o in the terminations knowledge of all the varieties of inflection, and taught on the best plan, so that he may notes and os into u: all other crude forms remain anof the principles on which compound and derived only advance as rapidly as possible in his changed. (ii.) Plural: add a to all crude forms words are formed, it must surely be admitted, studies while he is at school, but may be in and omit the final vowel of those ending in o.* that these practical advantages far more than itiated into the proper mode of pursuing them, These rules possess two great advantages, as counterbalance the theoretical difficulty alluded should he in after years wish to continue and compared with tables of inflections-namely, to. 1, 31. turneringer og
extend them. i n .' ' ' But although crude forms are abstractions,
| perfect generality, and complete and accu
It may, perhaps, be objected that, granting lrate classification. The ordinary declenthey are arrived at by a process which is the crude-form system to be the most philo- Isions put togetlier classes of words dit. weither fanciful nor arbitrary, but a legitimate sophical, yet it is too difficult for children ; and ( fering widely from one another in some of method of induction. This will appear from that at the outset we must submit to sacrifice their inflections. Thus reg, custod, navi, imthe following illustration of the mode in which theoretical perfection, in order that the be- perator, legion, flumen, corpos, belong to the crude forms are ascertained. I was: ginner may not be disheartened at the thres- third declension; yet they all form at least
The verbs tágo-w and ouráco-w are exactly liold, but be allowed to make a little progress lone case, the nominative singular, differently alike in the characteristic of the present tense in the study; after which we can make him go from one another. This case, which is the the tense which grammarians have selected as back to first principles, and correct any errors | most difficult of all, is that in reference to the basis whereon to build their elaborate sys-l into which he may have fallen. I will not | which grammar3 afford the least assistance; toms of derivation; and from this similarity it occupy your time by showing the dangers of lit is, in fact, regarded in them as the original might be inferred that the crude fornis also such a plan, the inveteracy of early impres-land primary form of each noun, from which of these yerbs have similar endings.*. But ifsions, and the difficulty of uprooting error I the other cases are derived by a process of we decline to draw, a conclusion from such when it has once been implanted in the mind. I degradation, so to speak. Hence the absurd limited data, and proceed to compare other | All this is too well known to every educator to terms, casus rectus and casus obliqui, which tensez. we shall still find a striking identity. (require development here. But it will be easy I still keep their ground in some grammars. Thus we have túť w and pullás-w, Té:Tax-al for me to prove tliat, in this case at least, them and Te pulaxoa ; 6-tax önv, : aud, -pusáx. best theoretically is also the least difficult prac
1 The hopeless confusion to which this error Ony ; Té-tay-pal and. The purayottal. After this, I tically; and that much of the most tedious
gives rise is seen most clearly in the third most persons would probably conelude that I drudgery which has ordinarily to be encoun-u
declension, the dread equally of teachers and the crude forms must be similar. A coin- tered at the beginning of the study of Latin 19
of pupils, and the opprobrium of grammarians. parison of some clerived or cognate words and Greek, is by the crude form system ren
Nor is this surprising, when it is explained acwill appear to confirm this interence : 2.9. I dered unnecessary. the result being obtained in coramg to the method of such an authority as Tak tedy, pulak-TepV; Taşt-S, Dula&us., Ala more satisfactory way, and with a tithe of
Priscian, who commences his chapter on the more, extensive search, however, makes us the labour.
third declension by the staternent that it "conacquainted with such words as Táy-a, máy:o, To begin at the beginning. Every teacher tains seventy-eight, or rather more, termi. tay-ev, é-Túy-n; Qúlak-a, puak-os. Now, as knows the difficulty which boys experience in
Inations of the nominative singular !”+ Take the difference between the latter words cannot learning the declensions from a grammar; the
such words as rex and pax : if the nominative be accounted for on any known principle, it wearisome task may be said to have been ac-1:
singular is to be our guide, we might reasonably follows that it is a radical difference; or, in complished rapidly if completed in six months,
infer that, as their endings in that case are alike, other words, that the crude forms of the verbs! And what schoolmaster will deny the wsatis
I their other cases would differ only in the parts are respectively tay, and pulak- ; on which factory nature of the result obtained by this
that are different in the nominative, namely re ዜ sumption all the various forms, under which long-continued effort? How many boys have
and pa: but the accusative of one is reg-em, of they appear can be satisfactorily and easily any clear notion of the object for the accom.
the other pac-em. So, from the forms lapis and explained on universally admitted principles. plishment of which they have been striving, or Sometimes, however, it is impossible to have a ready command of the little knowledge
* These rules are confined to the endings of the ascertain what is the exact crude form without that they may have gained ? Now the crude
coined 2 Now the and cases, and take no notice of the various euphonic
changes which frequently occur in the body of the * Relati its inflections
the important and form systemi enables us to comprise all the in- crude forms, and which must, of course, be underdistincnishing part of crnde form is its termination, flections of nouns (substantives and adjectives) I stood before words can be properly declined. and generally its final letter only.. j' a i T in the following brief rules :
| | Instit. Gram. lib. vü. cap. 7.
navis, who could divine that their respective. The first of these is, that such a change the student should have any occasion to make genitives are lapid-is and navi-s? How can a would render it necessary for teachers to aban- use of such books, he ought to be thoroughly boy be expected to know, or even to remember.don the methods with which they have been familiar with the declensions and conjugations, that the genitives singular of servus, vulnus. I familiar for many years; to make themselves ac- , and consequently be able almost instinctively rirtus, palus, exercitus, are servi, vulneris, vir- quainted, laboriously, it may be supposed, with to form the nominative singular of any noun, tutis. paludis. exercitus? But if he is taught a new and strange nomenclature; and in lieu of land the 1st person singular of the pres. imperf. that the essential forms of these words are long-established modes of thought and of speech, sindic. of any verb. When a dictionary is for serco, vulnes, virtut. palud, exercitu, and that to adopt others that may be more philosophical, the first time put into his hands, he must be the suffixes which represent the cases vary but which would none the less jar upon their told that the words are arranged in it alphaaccording to the terminations of the crude minds and ears. · Why, then, it may be asked, | betically, according, not to their crude forms, forms, he will not be misled by the similar end. I should teachers willingly incur so much trouble but to those modifications of them just menings of their nominatives singular, for which , and annoyance?
stioned. This information will prevent him he is enabled to account by the annlication of he is enabled to account by the application ofl. To this the answer is two
To this the answer is twofold. The educator from experiencing the slightest incouvenience certain general rules.
is morally responsible for his methods, and for in' using a dictionary, The crude-form system is even more usefal their influence upon those committed to his! The last objection that I shall notice, is that in reference to the inflections of verbs, which care. Whatever personal inconveniences may founded on the difficulty of introducing new are far more numerous than those of nouns, attend the adoption of improvements in the books into schools ; this must be done either and are expressive of many meanings so refined. I art of instruction, it is the duty, then, of every partially, and then some care is required to that unless special attention is directed to
teacher to submit to them: why has he volun- prevent confusion ; or universally, which might them they are likely to be but imperfectly tarily engaged in the noble work of teaching, give rise to dissatisfaction on the part of those comprehended by the young student, whose
if he is not prepared and willing to do so ? whose old books could no longer be used. A notions about tense and mood are usually! In the case now under consideration, how- 1 little care will obviate this objection. In'a extremely vague and defective. I might illus. I ever, the difficulty is more apparent than real: school where the pupils are numerous and are trate the value of the crude-form system on the subject matter of instruction is the same ranged in classes, the obvious plan would be this point by means of the Greek language. J in the new as in the old system--the question to adopt the new method in the classes comthe conjugation of the verbs in which is the is one of form, not of substance. I have no mencing the study of Latin or Greek ; this chief difficulty to be encountered in its study : hesitation in asserting that any one who is com- would not interfere at all with the higher but our time will not at present allow me to I petently acquainted with Latin or Greek may classes ; and in the course of a few years the enter upon this extensive subject.
master the leading principles of the crude-form change would be gradually effected throughout I will now briefly refer to one or two other system in a single day i lor, like all theo
system in a single day ; for, like all theories the school. In smaller schools, where instrucpoints in which the advantages of the crude
founded on fact, it is extremely simple. The tion is addressed more directly to each pupil, form system are manifest.
facts of grammar being unchangeable, a person there can be little, if any, difficulty of this One great use of studying Latin and who has acquired a knowledge of them in the kind to overcome, and the innovation may be Greek is the light which they cast upon our
ordinary way loses no part of this when he made almost imperceptibly. ''''in ! own language, disclosing its affinities with adopts the crude-form system; he merely With a brief outline of the results w those and other languages and leading to a regards the facts from another point of view, I have seen obtained from the crude-form system, more exact apprehension of the significations and converts the technical terms of the old I will now conclude. of an important part of the English voca- system into the equivalent terms of the new. Suppose a class consisting of from twenty bulary. Whatever tends to facilitate this re- | My own experience enables me to say that this to thirty boys, of ages varying from eight to sult, by showing more clearly the connection may be done with the greatest ease and rapidity. twelve, to commence the study of Latin by writbetween words and their roots, must be ad
| I have innumerable times seen, also, with ing such exercises, and reading such lessons as mitted to be extremely useful ; and a few illus
| how little difficulty a boy, who has made some were described at the beginning of this paper : trations will be sufficient to prove that the
ove that the progress in Latin or Greek, may be initiated in three monthis, twelve hours per week being erude-form system possesses that merit.
into the crude-form system, and be put on a devoted to the study at school, the boys will The similarity of the crude forms re. gent. J par in this respect with other boys in a acquire a knowledge of the regular inflections milit. custod. pac. reg. audi. to the Enēlish class, who have studied on that system from of nouns, of the active imperfect tenses in the words te-al. - gent-ile. milit-aru, custod-u. I the beginning. All that is required for this lindicative mood, besides a somewhat extensive pac-ific, reg-al, audi-ble, is so obvious that purpose is, to explain clearly what a crude- vocabulary, and somie insight into the principles even a child could scarcely fail to observe
form is, and to give the pupil such a table as of derivation, grammar, and concord.“ They it; but few persons would detect their deriva- / the following:
will also be led to see the connection between tion from res, gens, miles, custos, pax, rex, audio.
Latin and their own language, which makes In like manner, thaumat-urgic, gen-esis, mathe- Crude-forms in a correspond to the 1st declension.
the study interesting, and acts as a powerful matics, path-os, leth-e, aesth-etics, prag-matic, » : 0 ,
incentive to diligence. The next three months are manifestly connected with the crude forms
i or any consonant 3rd
will enable the class to master the rest of the Davpar, yev, pabe, tao, lao (ano), alg 6, npay; » 1
active and all the passive tenses of the indicabut no one could be blamed for failing to sec
tive, the infinitives, participles, and gerunds, their descent from Davuáča, yiyvopai, pavdáva,
and the inflections of the pronouns. The pupils Terxw, Navdavw, aiobávouai, and spáoow.
W. Crude-forms in a correspond to the 1st conjugation. will also greatly extend their knowledge of I might, did time permit, give numerous illus
2nd » words, and of the principal rules of syntax. trations of the utility of the crude-form system
or any consonant 3rd ...
In three months more, the class will complete by comparing Latin with its modern descen
the elementary course, and read a small portion denta, the Romance languages, and thereby A similar table may be made for Greek.' of Caesar's Gallic war. Nes' tfl. obloy nit prove its value to the intelligent student of Ita- If a boy can decline a noun when he knows. This is no imaginary sketch, but a faithful lian, Spanish. Portuguese, or French. Those to which declension it belongs, this table will outline of what has repeatedly taken place who may wish to pursue this subject should enable him to perform the same process upon under my own tuition at University College consult such works as the Grammaire Com.) the corresponding class of crude forms, and School. I do not, of course, say that att parée, of Ravnouard, and the Grammatik and I also to determine, in most cases, what is the the members of a class could accomplish this Etymologisches Wörterbuch, der Romanischen crude form of a given word. If, for instance, I amount of work; there are laggards and dula Sprachen, of F. Diez. In these they will find | he knows that custodibus belongs to the 3rd | lards in every school and class; but even of abundant proof's of the advantages of the crude- / declension, and cornibus to the 4th, the table them it may fairly be asserted that what little: form system, which are the more striking, as shows that the crudef orm of the one must be they learn on this plan they really know ; their authors make no direct reference to it. custod, and of the other cornu. Similarly, as while the intelligent and industrious portion of
The superiority of the method of study which suming that moverunt is of the 2nd coniu-I the class (which will, I believe, always bear it I have endeavoured to explain, as a means gation, and constituerunt of the 3rd, the stu- direct ratio to the degree in which the reason of intellectual culture and development. will Ident would see at once that the crude form of of the pupils is addressed and exercised , hardly be denied; and the limits within which the former is move, of the other constitu. possesses an amount of knowledge which would I must confine myself compel me to be content! Great stress has often been laid on the diffi scarcely be acquired in thrice the time on the with this mere allusion to the topic.
culties to which those taught on the crude-form ordinary plan." I coine no: to the consideration of the prac system are subjected, through the want of Similar results have been obtained in Greek tical difficulties which hinder the general intro- dictionaries founded on that method. These classes, which I have generally found able to duction of this system into schools.
difficulties are wholly imaginary. Long before I begin the reading of the Anabasis about seven
or eight months after the commencement of Latin. In Dr. Pinches' school four hours only was an enthusiast, thoroughly acquainted with the study of the language,
per week is the average time allotted to it. It his subject, who insisted that his plans must Those who remember the years of dull had struck him that it was a fault in the sys- be adopted in their integrity ; on the other, the uninteresting drudgery which they spent in tem advocated in the paper that no Delectus Dean was an advocate of moderate views, endeavouring to commit to memory the Greck was employed, but that learners were supposed which extensive experience had convinced him and Latin Grammars, will admit that this to pass from the elementary course at once to were more practical than those which he had account presents a satisfactory contrast to their the reading of Caesar and Xenophon—the for- embraced in earlier life. Thus they were forown experience: should they be inclined to mer an admirable author, no doubt, but not a tunately placed for arriving at a sound conthink that it is “too good to be true,"' I can particularly easy one. Again, it seemed to be clusion. Enthusiasm, Mr. Payne observed, is only say, let them put the matter fairly to the expected that boys should analyze every word always deserving of respect; without it pro. test, and I venture to predict that the result that occurred in their reading a thing that gress is scarcely possible; and the enthusiasm will fully confirm my statements.
they could not do. Lastly, Dr. Pinches re. of to-day becomes the common sense of tho In this paper, I have quoted no authorities marked that the rules for the inflections of next generation. The paper was interesting, in support of my views : my feeling in such nouns, which Mr. Robson had read, appeared / and showed the advantages which teachers matters is expressed by a pithy sentence of to be too complicated to be readily understood would derive from being masters of this deliCicero's-plus apud me argumenta quam testes or committed to memory by boys.
cate and complicated machine, which Mr. valent; but I cannot sit down without ex1 Mr. Long stated that he agreed with Mr. Robson had set in action with so much facility; pressing my satisfaction that in attaching so Robson in attaching great value to the ana- but this machine was not one which could be high a value to the crude-form system, I am lytical system of studying the Classics, and entrusted to the rude hands of boys. It was, confirmed by the opinions of such eininent had for many years adopted that plan in his he continued, an erroneous assumption that scholars as Dr. Kennedy, the President of our own school; but as to crude-forms, lie was of children ought to understand everything that Council; of Professors Key and Malden, by the same opinion as the Dean. He reiterated they are taught; such was once his opinion, whom I was first made acquainted with the Dr. Pinches' objections to the rules of inflection but longer and wider experience had convinced method; and of our respected Dean, Dr. Jacob, contained in the paper, and to the early reading him that it was a mistaken one. As to the whose Latin and Greek Grammars were, I of Caesar. As to the decline of the study of practical working of the crude-form system, he believe, the earliest published in this country, the Classics, it must be recollected that school-might state that he had himself received pupils in which the crude-form system was adopted. boys are now required to be instructed in a far who had been carefully taught on it, and
greater variety of subjects than formerly; and / by means of Mr. Robson's own books, but
that the mental labour and the time devoted / whose mental condition was such as to illusDr. JACOB expressed his concurrence with to these modern studies, rendered it impossible trate the evils of the method, being essentially most of the opinions advanced by Mr. Robson, that Latin and Greek should be studied crude. but could not agree with him in thinking that thoroughly. Mr. Long highly recommended Mr. ROBSON, in reply, referred to his dis. the crude-form system was adapted for elemen- to the attention of teachers a work which he couraging position, not a single speaker having tary instruction. Crude forms had been rightly has used for thirty years, namely, Bosworth's supported his views; and expressed his regret defined in the paper as “philosophical ab. Latin Construing. Its merits, he said, are, that at the absence of an old friend and former colstractions :" but these are things which boys it is carefully graduated, and is an excellent league, whose practical acquaintance with the do not easily comprehend. Another objection introduction to the reading of the classical working of the crude-form system would have was, that the adoption of the crude-form system authors.
enabled him to speak with authority on the would necessitate a complete change of all Mr. WINGFIELD considered that the failures subject. As to the alleged difficulty experienced school-books-the evils of which would be very of boys in examinations were attributable, not by boys in understanding the system, Mr. great: dictionaries, also, would need to be to the badness of the ordinary system, but to Robson could only say, that during fourteen modified, so as to suit the new method. A the imperfect manner in which it is taught. years' experience as a master in University further serious difficulty was, that compa- This is shown by the fact, that great numbers College School, where he had to instruct boys ratively few assistant-masters would be found of candidates display almost entire ignorance of all ages and capacities in Greek and Latin either willing or competent to teach on the of even the declensions. To obviate this, Nir. upon the crude-form system, he had never met crude-form system. For the instruction of Wingfield recommended a weekly repetition of with such a case; but, on the contrary, had adults, however, that plan is decidedly tho all the declensions and conjugations. By this always found that the system greatly simplibest ; and for the higher classes in schools even, means he has found that boys could readily be fied the study. Mr. Robson explained that Some knowledge of it would be extremely use- so drilled as to repeat those inflections with the several of the speakers had entirely misunderful; and by them it might be readily under- same rapidity and accuracy as the multiplication stood his object in drawing up the rules for stood, Dr. Jacob stated that his first acquaint- table. One objection to the crude-form system the formation of the cases. Nothing could be ance with the crude-form system was made is, that it creates two difficulties in place of further from his intention, or more opposed to about thirty years ago, when be was a student one ; inasmuch as the pupil has to learn the his views, than the notion that such rules were at Oxford, through reading some articles in crude-form in addition to the nominative sin- to be given all together, or be committed to the Quarterly Journal of Education, with which gular. The chief cause of the unsatisfactory re- memory. In practice, these rules would be he was much struck: further study of the sub- sults too often obtained through the established presented to the pupil one by one, each being ject led him to the conclusion that it was desir- system of elementary classical instruction is, illustrated by numerous examples, for translaable to introduce the system into schools; and that so many of those who undertake to teach tion and retranslation. They were brought he consequently drew up a Latin grammar en-are utterly incompetent to do so.
together in the paper simply for the purpose of tirely based upon it, which was published in Mr. ISBISTER could speak from experience in showing how the crude-form system classifies 1836 ; in the second edition also of this work, he confirmation of Dr. Jacob's views on this sub- and generalizes the inflections, irrespectively of adhered to the same method. But subsequent ject, having been connected with an Institution the declensions. Lastly, he protested against experience having convinced him that the ordi in which there were classes for older students the role system of learning, which one of the mary plan was preferable for beginners, he had, in as well as a school for boys, and in which Mr. speakers had eulogized ; and denied that any the later editions of the Latin grammar, and also Robson's works had been used. They were knowledge, deserving of the name, could posiu his Greek grammar, reverted to the classi- found to answer well in the college classes, but sibly be acquired by so unintellectual a process. fication of declensions and conjugations; but in to be too difficult for the boys. Dr. Jacob's order that the advantages derivable from the Grammar was therefore adopted instead of crude-form system might not be lost, he had, them. Mr. Isbister thought that the analytical
The next Evening Meeting will be held on in the various tables of inflections, placed under method was much more commonly employed
od the 13th of November, (the 2nd, not the 3rd each word its crude form. By this means, he than Mr. Robson seemed to suppose ; and he
Wednesday in the month), when Mr. Dibdin had endeavoured to combine the advantages admitted that the crude-form system had done
will read a paper on “The Education of the of both systems, good by calling the attention of teachers to the
Eye.' a Dr. Pinches was glad to hear the crude advantages of that plau of studying language. form system so lucidly explained; but thought le believed that Mr. Robson was mistaken that the views of Dr. Jacob must command also in thinking that the nominative singular
School, AND HOME.--That education seems to
us to be the best, which mingles a domestic with a the assent of practical teachers. In judging ot is usually made the starting point in the de
school life, and which gives to a youth the adval. the results obtained on the ordinary method, it clensions ; the genitive being more frequently
ensions, the gemtive bems more nequently tage which is to be derived from the learning of a must be recollected that in very many of the employed for that purpose.
master, and the emulation which results from the schools which send up pupils for examination TheCHAIRMAN said he thought that every one society of other boys, together with the affectionate at the College, far less time than that men- might learn something from the evening's dis vigilance which he must experience in the boase tioned by Mr. Robson could be devoted to cussion. On the one hand, the reader of tho Paper Hof his parents.-Edinburgh Review.
Turning from these vast numbers of schools in agitation, and require discussion and solu
and scholars, let us consider for a moment tion. With regard to the workhouse schools Delivered before the
their multifarious variety. At the lowest step and reformatory institutions, the anomaly NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRO-1 of the ladder we have the infant schools : next, presents itself of providing a better and more
MOTION OF SOCIAL SCIENCE. to these we may place the ragged schools, the careful training for the criminal boy, and for By Sir J. G. SHAW LEFEVRE, President of the reformatory schools, the workhouse schools, | the children of the destitute, than can be Department of Education.
and then, in their successive order, the national obtained for the family of the labourer by his Os Fridos Ausst 16th the several See and parochial schools, in the various parts of own industry and econoiny-an anomaly distions of the Association having resumed their
their the kingdom, the middle-class schools, the couraging to his industry and self-denial, and sittings in the courts respectively assigned to pu
vodsioned to public schools, the colleges, and, lastly, the impressing him with a sense of injustice, . them, Sir John G. Shaw LEFEVRE, Vice
Vice universities. Every one of these institutions inasmuch as it creates an artificial competition Chancellor of the University of London, read
read has, during the last few years, occupied more in the labour market against his own children. the following address, which we have much
much or less the attention both of private individuals In former years, when I took a part in the pleasure in presenting to our readers, with the
ith the and of the public. Many have been set on introduction of the great changes of the Poor author's permission, in anticipation of its ap
foot and supported by private means, by Law in England, I felt the force of this pearance in the proceedings of the Associa
benevolent and public-spirited associations; difficulty, and I have never yet seen the solution:
others have been assisted from the public tion of it. As regards almost all the schools
resources; almost all have undergone searching for the lower classes, we have still the problem I KNOW that it is superfluous to ask for that linquiry by Royal or by Parliamentary Com- before us, how to reconcile with the demand indulgence which a stranger is sure to receive inissions, and have been reformed and improved for juvenile labour the continuance of schooling at your hands. I will, therefore, only observe by active legislative measures.
long enough to prevent the instruction passing that I have more than usual claim to it; for But this is not all that has been done for away like a mere dream. The late Royal notwithstanding my somewhat mature age, this education. The like activity has been displayed Commission of Inquiry, quoting from one of is the first occasion in my life that I have in reference to the final stage of education—I their intelligent assistant commissioners, Mr. been called upon to perform a duty of this mean professional education. This, in its | Fraser,--that in the country districts, “ on nature. But it is not this that forms my many branches, has undergone similar investi- the average, we must make up our minds to see principal embarrassment; it is the immense gations and similar experimental changes. the last of boys, as far as the day school is conimportance and the vast extent of the subject The English Inns of Court have occupied cerned, at 10 or 11, and of girls on the outside itself, and the impossibility of dealing with themselves with the consideration of legal at 12,”-state their views thus:-“ Believing more than a small portion of it in the time education. I may venture to say, in passing, this to be the fact, and that in country districts which I may reasonably occupy. I am guided, that their progress has been somewhat slow, 11 years ofí age will not cease to be a good however, to the selection of that small portion, and their advances most cautious, notwith-average for the day school, we have inquired by the consideration that any pretension which I standing they have been stimulated by Parlia- whether it may not be possible, even on this may have to the chair of the educational section ment, notwithstanding they have been advised | basis, to give children a good start in education, of this Association rests mainly, if not entirely, by a Royal Commission, in which the illus- and to render the knowledge of humbler subjects on my official position in two important bodies trious jurist, the late Lord Chancellor of and arts, now comparatively neglected, but having considerable influence on education-I Ireland, took a distinguished part, and not- peculiarly adapted to early years, the one mean the University of London, in which I withstanding they have had the advantage of absolute necessity for the minds of common have held the post of Vice-Chancellor for the example and the successful experience of men, and an invaluable substratum for a later about 20 years, and the Civil Service Com- the excellent arrangements both in the King's teaching, attainable by all. We liave already mission, in which I have acted since its com-Inns and in Edinburgh for the due education | adverted to the aid which may be gradually mencement in 1855. I shall accordingly limit of the Bar. Much more activity has been given to this later teaching by means of evening myself for the most part to those points on displayed by the medical profession in securing schools. If these two means can be combined which my experience derived from those avoca- | for all its members sound courses of instruction for a poor child; if he can receive an education tions may entitle me to form an opinion, and under the regulations of the council established / sound, as far as it goe3, till the age of 10 or may enable me to furnish information to the under the new Medical Act. If it were advisable, l 11, in the day school; if, from that time Association. I must ask your permission, lI might enumerate many other instances of onwards, he has an opportunity of continuing nevertheless, to offer to you in the outset some the advance of professional education. I might his first teaching in the evening school, and if observations of a general character.
notice the preparatory training for military it is made possible to establish an evening I think that I may remark, without fear of officers, their examinations on admission into school in almost every village in the country : contradiction, that the present time is peculiarly the service, the examinations and training for we believe that popular education will be placed favourable for the consideration and adoption, the civil service in this country and India, to on a foundation at once suited to the education by the public and the Government, of any which I shall presently and particularly advert, of the labourer, and calculated, while it offers suggestions which may originate from this the extensive organization for education in to all children the necessary amount of teachAssociation on the all-important subject of practical science and art as applicable to ing, to give full cultivation to those who, even education. There never was a period in which manufactures, and the enforcement of the in the hunibler classes, are found endowed there existed a greater fermentation of public adequate instruction of those who are to be with superior mental powers, and with the opinion on any subject of social economy. intrusted with commands in the mercantile | legitimate desire to raise themselves by their There is not any subject connected with social marine of this country. All these various improvement." I must say that if this limited economy involving the immediate and pro- schemes of education are at this moment more period of attendance at the day-school is all spective welfare of so large a mass of the or less occupying the attention of the classes that we can expect in rural districts, it appears population. There never has been a subject to which they relate. Old prejudices are being to me of paramount necessity that the principal upon which there has been greater unanimity put aside, ancient privileges are abandoned, efforts of the teachers should be directed to the as to the object to be obtained, and a greater and although, as I said before, there is much better instructing of the children in the elementdiversity of opinion as to the means of obtaining difference of opinion as to the means, there is ary subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic; it. The recent Commission on the state of a common end which all are pursuing the and that, as compared with these, everything popular education tell us that in England and instructing and elevating each profession and beyond, so far as secular education is conWales there are, in round numbers, 59,000 employment, and the better fitting those who cerned, should be treated as secondary. This Freek-day schools, with two millions and a follow it to perform their duties to their fellow matter seems to be of pressing importance ; for half of scholars on their books, nine-tenths of men.
it appears that, notwithstanding the intelligence whom are the children of the poorer classes. I have dwelt so much on what has been and accomplishments of the trained teachers, The Commissioners of National Education in already done, or is now doing, in the matter they fail in imparting to the children the this portion of the United Kingdom speak of of education, that I may have raised a mo- power of reading tolerably, and of simul800,000 children, in 1859, on the rolls of the mentary inférence that there is hardly any taneously understanding what they read. I 6,400 schools then within their cognisance. occasion or opportunity for the aid of this may further observe that the question of what I advert to these enormous numbers, not only Association. Such is far from being the case; should be taught is not limited to the schools as showing the magnitude of the subject, but for, notwithstanding all the progress that has of the labouring classes ; the difficulty is very as indicating the great value even of any single been made towards providing the means of similar with regard to the middle schools, and suggestion for facilitating elementary instruc-education for every class, many questions of even the public schools and Universities. In tion, multiplied as it may be by the numbers grave importance, and some of which are at all these there are two conficting alternatives : of those who may receive benefit from it. the very root of the existing systems, are still whether the matters taught should be selected
with a view to improve and develope the mental her claims to a separate privilege of this nature, of Arts, it is unnecessary to say more than powers, or with a view to be useful in the ordi) and consented to give up her name of an Uni- that it involves the necessity of somewhat nary business of life. The former appears to the versity, and to be affiliated with King's College, higher attainments than at Oxford or Cam. to be the safest principle of selection, but how and many other Colleges and schools, amonst bridge, in order to pass, and that the standard this principle is to be apnlied--wliether Latinsliich were included several in Ireland, 'to the tor honoui's resembles that at Cambridge, to and Greek are indispensable subjects for that new University of London.' I shall not offer such an extent, indeed, that there are several purpose, or whether other languages or branches huy árology for entering into some details instances in which graduates of the University of knowledge, tauglit with equal care, and as, as to the University of London, hud this for of London, having found it desirable to pass thoroughly, would not be equally efficacious, several reasons. It was a large educational through Cambridge, have taken thevery highest are questions noir winch niuch difference of experiment, and I rejoice to say it has been mathematical honour's, fully justifying those opinion may exist Another question akin to successful.' It has already been, and is likely' which they liad previously obtained these, and which requires consideration' in again to be, the model of other newly founded The degree of Master of Arts, which is reference to education, is, what should be the Universities. It is as much a University for granted as of course in the older Universities limits of general and professional education, Ireland äs for England; and although as yet to Bachelors of a given standing, is only given where the one is to cease and the other is to little known here," it offers some facilities for in the University of London upon an 'examinabegin, or whether they can be carried on devrees in arts to non-residents, which the tion of a high character in classics, or mathetogetlier. Upon this I venture to say that the regulations of the great Irish Universities, matics, or mental science, and by this nieans tendency of professional to encroach on general liberal as they are, do not afford; and it grants an induceinent is held out to students to prolong cducation should be watched with the greatest degrees in science which have not yet been their education beyond their ordinary Bachelor's vigilance. This is 110€ only because the en founded in thosc Universities. Tlie University degree. This may be considered as in some gagements of an active profession prevent of London differs essentially from all that have degree compensating for the want of fellowshiips. further opportunity of self-education, but be- hitherto existed in the United Kingdom'; it is Ther discretion confided to the senate as to cause the time apparently gaincd by shortening not an educating, but an examining body?" It making regulations, the entire absence of all the gencral education is often lost, from the is governed and nianaged by a senate of persons restrictions, as in the case of Oxford and mind not being sufficiently matured to coni: chosen by the Cidwn, which comprises some Cambridge, and of all antiquated usages, have mence professional study. If I were not afraid of the most distinguished public men of this enabled them to look at one single object, the of wearying you, I miglit point out inany country in combination with men of the highest promotion of sound education, and from time other important questions wllicli deserve the eminence in literature and science, of whoni I to time to introduce such improvements as their attention of those who interest themselves in' will only nature Grote, Sir George Lewis,'| own experience or the criticism of others may the progress, of education." I look forward to Paraday, and Sir John Lubbock. The Univer- have suggested. Amongst these I may mention some of them being raised and discussed here; sity Imas the power of'conferring degrees in arts, two very important changes which have recently for I can say in all sincerity, I am come here to medicine, and law, and in other branches of been made with respect to the degrees in the learn, and not to teach. I feel, indeed, that I knowledge but its principal action has been in University of London, and which, although of llave extended my general remarks to a greater arts and iv medicine. With regard to the latter, an experimental character, promise satisfactory lengtlı' than is becoming and therefore lasten the opportuvities of studying medicine in Lon results. Up to the year 1857 the University to the topics which I have a more just clain don necessarily surpass those in any other part could only grant degrees in arts to colleges to place before you." BIT 11wy24141011
of the kingdom, possibly in any other part of and schools affiliated to it by tlio Secretary of I have adverted to the movement and progress the world, and it is not surprising that by a State. These colleges and institutions were throughout the whole field of education. In carefully framed code of regulations, from' in many parts of the kiugdom ; in some of no part has it been, more remarkable than ini time to time revised by the light of subsequent them the students were resident under college the Universities. And here I feel called upon experience, the University bas placed itself in discipline, in others they merely 'attended to add that the University of London has, the first rank of institutions for medical educa- classes and lectures, living at their houses ;
10.10. 016 DATEN owing to peculiar circumstances, been able to tion, and that its graduates, 'now'arriving at the senate had no means of controlling or even take the lead in various changes in which it the maturity of their repntation,''occupy the ascertaining their condition. It appeared, lias been followed by some of the older institu-" föreniøst places in hospitals and general prac. therefore, that there was no definiie priuciple tions. I must be allowed to say a few words” tice. The University, however, in providing upon which the privilege of obtaining degrees itspecting its origin." It was incorporated adequate conditions for securing the requisite should be limited to persons coming from these under the advice of the then 'Government, and medical and surgical knowledgo for its gra- colleges and institutions, and that those educspecially of Lord Monteavle, then Chancellor duates, has kept carefully in view the point to cated elsewhere might be equally fit for this of the Exchequer who took the níost lively which I have before adverted, their general distinction. A precedent to this effect was interest in it. But its real origin dates from edncation. This has been effected by requiring found to exist in the University of Dublin, an earlier period, and is due to one to whom for medical students the same matriculation which granted degrees to individuals not resive ove so many other measures of social im- examination, on their admission into the dent or educated in the college, but who provenient, 2 to our great schoolmaster using University as for those who intend to proceed passed successive examinations for a prescribed that title'in its highest sense, to one whom I in arts. This matriculation examination, I number of terins. Following in this course, will only venture to designate here as the equally applicable to students in arts and the University of London obtained a new President of this Association," IIe was inainly medicine, was" a 'revy "feature in University charter,cmpowering them to grant degrees in the founder of the previous institution, under education in England. It enforces the necessity arts to any one, wherever educated, who should the aphellation of the London, University of a certain, fliouch" limited, knowledge of fulfil the requisite conditions of age and chawhich now flourishes Imder the title of Cuivers Greek and Látin, chemistry, mathematics, and iacter, and should pass the matriculation sity College. It was through his infuence, er French, on'every student on his first'admission. examination, and two subsequent examinations ample, and exertions, that the first effort was This arrangement has had a much wider result at proper intervals, previous to the Bachelor made to put an end to the monopoly of high than was anticipated by the senate. The of Arts degree.' A considerable number of education possessed, ill England at least, certificate of matriculation, and the examina- persons have been found to avail themselves of by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, tion in order to obtain it, are regarded by the this new opening to academic study, and an to open the door of academic knowledge to public as a kind of niinor degree,' and give to opportunity will thus be afforded of comparing those who were shut out by their nonconformist tliose who pass it a higher status than could the results of public or collegiate, and private opinions and to extend its benefits to those have been 'supposed; but, what is of more or home education. The other change to who could not'ind the time or the means for the importance, the matriculation acts most be- which I have adverted was made in consequence three years' residence in those ancient institu- neficially on the schools, whether public or of the earnest solicitation of the principal sciedtions. Although University College offered private, from which tlie students may proceed.tific mien in England. They represented to us the means of studying the same branches of Our standard of admission becomes their that those who intended to pursue the higher luigh knowledge which were studied at the old standard of education. The candidates exert branches of science were excluded from degrees Universities, as well as other sciences and themselves to pass and to take honours and and honours by the classical requirements languages which had not formed part of their prizes ; but the competition is felt also among attached to degrees in aris, and that, without course, it did not obtain the privilege to which the schools themselves, which gain propor abandoning altogether the study of the ancient it was fairly entitled, 'of granting academical tionate credit by the success or failure of their languages, a curriculum might be formed quite degroes, but when the establishment of the scholars. I have enlarged on this peculiarity as useful for the development of the intellectual present University of London was under con- of the system, as well on account of its novelty powers, and leading gradually, but without sideration, University College, in a most dis-') as on account of its success. !!!!!!!presi interruption, into the higher department of interested and public-spirited manner, waiyed With respect to thc examination for Bachelors) science. The Senate, after careful inquiry and