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is said in the romances of chivalry and the England is on a shield of Richard I., A.D. tion of all. Pages or servants of the chamchronicles of the middle ages, was no other 1195.
pions were appointed to watch the suspended than the banner of St. Denis, borrowed for the When Edward III. laid claim to the throne shields to observe if any knight accepted the encouragement of the soldiers from the abbey of France, he quartered the arms of France challenge. These pages were frequently dressed of that saint near Paris. It was flame colored, (golden lilies on a blue ground) with the English in grotesque costume, and assumed some mon. and divided into three parts, being fastened to lions.
strous or hideous disguise in order to provoke the lance by cords of green silk.
Henry V. following the example of the merriment. From these figures were derived The banners of our Saxon kings, St. Ed. French monarch, reduced the number of lilies supporters, such as the well-known lion and mund and St. Edward, accompanied the to three, and they remained on the royal shield unicorn. English armies and waved over the fields on of England till the title of King of France was The supporters borne by our monarchs have which our Edwards and our Henries gained dropped by George III in 1801.
frequently varied. their victories. The device of the Confessor. Mary, by her marriage with Philip of Spain, Edward III. bore a lion and raven was the cross and martlets as they appeor brought the Castles of Castile, and the Lion of
Henry IV. , swan and antelope'! carved in stone on his tomb in Westminster Leon, and other bearings, into association with Henry V. lion and antelope Abbey.
her ancestral device. These were dropped on Henry VI. leopard and antelope This device was never adopted by the Nor the accession of Elizabeth.
Edward IV. bull and lion mans, and but rarely by succeeding sovereigns, James I. added the lion rampant of Scot Richard III. boar and lion yet a principal part of the accusation of trea- land, which was first borne by William the Henry VII. son brought against the Duke of Norfolk and Lion, who thence probably derived his cogno Henry VIII. "
}dragon and greyhound his son in the reign of Henry VIII., was men. Old heralds, however, assert that it was Edward VI. grounded on their assumption of this device, first assumed by Fergus I. " for the niagna. Elizabeth
„ lion and dragon to which they had an hereditary title, but the nimity of his courage," and that the tressure Mary 1. „ eagle and dragon taking of which was held to be an overt act or border, adorned with fleur-de-lis which sur: on the accession of James, he replaced the of treason, manifesting their intention to seize rounds it, was granted to Achaius by Charle-dragon of Elizabeth by the unicorn of Scotthe crown. magne in token that "the lilies of France in
land, the supporters of the Scottish arms being The national banner of England is pecu. would always protect the lion of Scotland,' two uni liarly a religious one. It was the practice of|and as a memorial of the ancient alliance be-1 These supporters and crests often gave rise Christian nations, as well as of individuals, in tween the two countries.
to inp-signs. mediæval days, to place themselves under the On the accession of William III., the lion | Badoes or devices are the legitimate despecial protection of some saint.
and billets of Orange-Nassau were added to scendants of ancient heraldry, or rather they England's patron saint was St. George: why the English escutcheon, but they were re-l are the ancient system itself, proceeding col. he was selected antiquarians are puzzled to de. moved at his death,
laterally with, but independent of, the modern. termine, but “ St. George for England" was al George I. introduced the arms of Hanover. I
Almost every prince or royal fatnily of Europe favorite war-cry, and his banner, the red cross which were variously borne by his successors,
has owned a distinguishing badge; nor has the on a white ground. was, above all, the national and finally disappeared from the royal stand
" practice been unknown in private families of emblem of an Englishman. Whatever other ard on the accession of Victoria.
distinction. banners were displayed, this," the meteor-flag
Many legendary tales are associated with Badges do not seem to have been substiof England," was always foremost in the the so.cat
il the so-called lilies of France, and much doubl tute for armorial devices in the field, excepting field, and to the present day it forms the most
has arisen as to the real meaning of the device. I upon banners during the ciyil wars of York conspicuous feature in the national ensign.
The ancient Franks, we are told, proclaimed and Lancaster, but chiefly as ornaments of the There's not a shore that ocean laves,
and inaugurated their chiefs liy elevating tliem canarison of horses, to distinguish domestic But freedom there may see,
Jon a shield, and placing in their hands al reed furniture and feudal dependants, or to be painted That England's red-cross banner waves
or flag in blossom as a sceptre. Still the ques. or sculptured on buildings. The foremost of the free. tion recurs, what are these emblenis? Toads,
1 Henry II. (Plantagenet) is the first English crescents, fags, bees, diadems or spear-head: The national emblems of Scotland and Ire- for each has been suggested ? Certainly all his cognizances was a genet, or kind of civet.
ad: sovereign who adopted a badge, and one of land are respectively the crosses of St. Andrew our poetical and historical associations tell in cat. passing between two sprigs of broom, and St. Patrick, the former a white cross like favour of its being a flower. Dante speaks oli li portait ung genetle passant entre deux an X, on a blue ground, the latter a red one of the fleur-de-lis as growing in Artois; Chaucer plantes de geneste.” Edward III. adopted the similar shape, on a white ground.
speaks of it as a " lily floure,'' and the scrip-Stump of a tree. The crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, I tural motto accompanying the French arnis, The Black Prince had a “Sun arising out with the harp for Ireland, formed the heraldic “ Neque laborant, neque nent," “ They toil not, I of the clouds;" and afterwards, at the battle bearings of the Commonwealth, the two former neither do they spin," while alluding to the lof Crecy, assumed the three ostrich feathers occupying the places of the well-known lions provisions of the Salic law, evidently refers to and motto of the King of Bohemia, whom he on the royal arnis. the emblems as lilies.
had slain, which have continued ever since the The Union Jack, as first used by James I., Richard I. is generally supposed to have badge of the Prince of Wales. consisted of the finibriated cross of St. George been the first English monarch who placed a The badge of Richard 11. was a white hart placed upon the cross of St. Andrew, and pro-crest upon his helmet, and that he wore a lodged, with a crown round its peck and chained, bably derived its name from Jaques, the usual golden lion. The same was borne by Ed.
" as may be seen on the northern front of Westsignature of our first Stuart sovereign. ward III., Henry VII., Edward VI., James I., mir
umes 1.,/ minster Hall, and in a window of St. Olave's, The Union Jack, as now used, was contrived and his successors. Other figures were, huw- Old Jewry London in 1801 to symbolize the United Kingdom, by lever, employed as crests by several sovereigns, Henry'iy among other devices. bore the the combination of the three national crosses. and in some instances different crests were red rosa u
crests were red rose, which he inherited from his grand[The lecturer then proceeded, by reference borne at different times by the same in
foronnal borne at different times by the same indi-l father, the first duke of Lancaster. The swan to a series of diagrams, to explain the various the variouvidual.
and antelope he exhibited in his judicial comchanges in the royal arms, consequent on the Thus, the crest of
bat with Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, who successive changes in the succession to the Edward III, was a white raven
lumself bore mulberry trees as his device in throne. In the absence of woodcuts, which Richard II. , white hart
ailusion to his name. would be necessary fully to illustrate this part Henry IV. , black swan
Edward IV. took the white rose, the badge of the lecture, we can only present a few of the
Henry V. , white ibex
of the earls of March; he afterwards added
Edward IV. , leading facts which were brought forward.]
golden rays to the rose. Richard III. „ boar
Richard III, adopted his brother's badge of The first real heraldic device yet discovered
Henry VIL? sred dragon
“the rose in the sun," but is better known by appears on a seal of Philip, Count of Flanders,
his cognizance of the boar. AD. 1164; it dates from the Crusades, when
sred dragon Philip took from the King of Albania his
These cognizances of the house of York are golden shield, on which was depicted a sable
very frequently alluded to by Shakespere in lion. This formed afterwards the arms of Supporters form another appendage to a his historical plays; e.g., Brabant, and is now the national embleru of coat of arms. When a tournament was pro
“Now is the winter of our discontent Belgium
| posed to be held, the challengers hung up their Made glorious summer by the sun of York," The earliest appearance of the three lions of shields in a conspicuous place for the inspec- refers to the badge of Edward IV.
chan. Again, Richard III. is called
rose and the fleur-de-lis, stud the cornices and WE REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ended "The wretched, bloody, and usurping boar.” the panels. The Lancastrian device of his
ON EDUCATION. mother, Margaret, the marguerite or daisy, [From the Nonconformist, which is edited by one Hastings says,and the equally familiar Yorkist cognizance
of the Commissioners.] mob. "To fly the boar, before the boar pursues, of the falcon and fetterlock, occur in various! The Report of the Commissioners appointed rovoke Were to incense the boar to follow us." parts. Thus might we go over St. George's nearly three years since to "inquire into the preerived
These allusions, as well as the doggerel rhyme, chapel, Windsor, the hall at Hampton Court. sent state of popular education in England, and to n and “The cat and rat and Lovell the dog
consider and report what measures, if any, are the chapel of King's College, Cambridge, and co laat, though not least, that treasure house
required for the extension of sound and cheap s have Govern all England under the hog,"
elementary instruction to all classes of the people," of historic heraldry, the new palace of Westare explained by the Complainte of Colling
was given to the public on the 4th April. It is by the Complainte of Colling: mivster. bourne in Sackville's “Mirror of Magistrates,'|
a most voluminous document, occupying, with the If material utility be the standard of good, statistical tables, more than 700 pages of a Parliawhere he says,
heraldry may still advance her pretensions. mentary Blue Book. This space is devoted to the " For where I meant the king by name of Hog, He wlio, of old, asserted the prerogatives of his Report only; but in a few days five other volumes I only alluded to his badge, the boar.” rank without fulfilling his duties was not es- / wi
rank without fulfilling his duties was not es- I will be published, containing the Reports of the
teemed a knight “sans peur et sans reproche,” Assistant Commissioners on the State of Education Henry VII. adopted the portcullis of the
but was held to have defiled his shield, to have in the ten specimen districts, the special Reports on house of Somerset, the conjoined roses, thel a blot on his escutcheon.
Education in France, Germany, and Switzerland, bound crown in the bush, with other devices, as seen
“ Three families at least.” says Bigland, the answers to a circular of questions, issued by the in the windows of Henry VII. 's chapel, Westo have acquired estates by virtue of vresery
Commissioners to persons interested in popular minster. ing the arms and escutcheons of their an
education in various parts of the country, and the Henry VIII. bore the white on a red rose,
viva voce evidence of certain witnesses whom the cestors.” the surtnounted with a crown.
Commissioners examined especially in reference to If the maintenance of a high spirit of honour the Privy Council system. Since the reign of Elizabeth, badges have Scot
and ot attachment to existing institutions, or Seeing the time that has elapsed since the Com. been less used; a trace of them remains on the the being
reservation of those distinctions to which mission hegan its work, it may be desirable to badges of the Livery Companies' and Lord
Lord society is indebted for its symmetry, and so- state that it was appointed as far back as June, Dlayors Waternien, and till lately in those lidity be obiects of importance, heraldry has 1858, on the motion of Sir John Pakington. worn by the firemen of London. valuably contributed to them all.
whose aim was to obtain such an exposure of the ce de The white and red rose crowned is still the
True, its early origin was in a period of present costly system under the Privy Council as - they badge of England, the thistle of Scotland, and feudal dominion
ha feudal dominion and gross oppression; but would lead to the substitution of the rate-in-aid me shamrock of Ireland. Of the two other l ose yra vicious characteristics of the dark plan. The gentlemen who accepted the trust were
ancient devices of Ireland, the harp and the vdern.
aces soon yielded to an ambitious desire among the Duke of Newcastle (as Chairman), Sir John white hart issuing from a turret, the former is
Töylor Coleridge, the Revs. W. C. Lake and W. the great of displaying imagined virtues, and
Rogers, Clergymen (the latter one of the most s, and the latter as the from the blemished periods of our history! crest for Ireland.
successful promoters of education among the poor Lies oi
I may be dated the commencement of many of in London), Mr. N. W. Senior, the Political The badge of Wales is a red dragon on a the important advantages which, as a people, Economist, Mr. Goldwin Smith, Regius Professor green mound. we now enjoy.
of Modern History at Oxford, and Mr. Edward The badge of Ulster, the bloody hand, is the Under te emblazoned banners of their lords Miall, who was chosen as the representative of the mark of a baronet.
our ancestry resisted the encroachments of Dissenters and Voluntaries. The Commission of the
were often applied as per feudal monarchs, and bequeathed to us, their was appointed under the Marquis of Salisbury, at
us services; Ichildren, the enjoyment of peaceful liberty. that time President of the Education Board in thus the Howards of Norfolk hear on their|
The wealthy barons, sacrificing their sub- Lord Derby's Government.
The wealthy barons, sacrificing their su shield a demi-lion of Scotland, transfixed with
The information collected by the Commissioners, "stance at the shrines of superstition and war. an arrow, in remembrance of Flodden.
into this the substance and drift of which is embodied in the caused their princely domains to come into the The escutcheons of Marlborough and Wel
Report, was obtained from every available source. one of
hands of toiling merchants, industrivus vassals, Lington were augmented, the former by the
Perhaps the reports of the Assistant Commissioners ne and sturdy yeomen; while the rude people learn
" Cross of St. George, and the latter by the ed an honourable ambition and love of justice, tion to the evidence contained in the volume. The
will be esteemed to be the most valuable contribu. deui Union Badge, in memory of Blenheim and
which ultimately raised them from the depths Commissioners, at an early period of their labours, Waterloo. d the
of jgnorance, barbarity, and serfiom, to the appointed ten gentlemen to examine minutely into Charles II. granted the lions of England to
11. granted the lions of England to vantage ground of knowledge, civilization, and the condition of education in ten selected districts. be borne by the family of Lane, in recognition freedom.
These were as follows:- Two Agricultural Dis. nesle of the hospitality he had received when a fugi
tricts, Rev. T. Hedley and Rev. J. Fraser; two Remembering, as we ever must, that tive from Worcester. The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
Manufacturing Districts, Mr. Winder and Mr. Several of the nobles in Henry VIII.'s reign raceived roses, lions, fleur-de-lis, &c., in reward With all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave, Coode; two Mining Districts, Mr. Foster and Me
Jenkins; two Maritinie Districts, Mr. J. M. Hare Await alike the inevitable hour, for services, or to mark their affinity to the The path of glory leads but to the grave:- and Mr. Howson; two Metropolitan Districts e hari king through his several marriages, as the Remembering this, we yet cannot, even with | 'These gentlemen, who were styled Assistant
with Mr. Wilkinson and Dr. Hodgson. Seymours, the Howards, &c. The arms of London consist, as is well u all the utilitarian ideas of the 19th century, I
mtury, Commissioners, commenced their inquiries in
record the study of heraldry as unworthy our | October, 1858, and completed them by the end of late's
Foown, of the cross of St. George, and a sword wtention, while the philosopher may well be April, 1859. The result of their inquiries as to the dexter quarter of the shield. This sword required to tolerate a science which the man of the ten districts, which were selected so as to com. de symbol of St. Paul, the tu elar saint of letters finds a most valuable clue amid the unex-prehend populations einployed in every variety of
prea, says Camden, | plored labyrinths of biography and history. un commemoration of the mayor, Sir William
occupation distributed over every part of the
country, and placed in very different circumhaving killed Wat Tyler with the This Paper did not afford any theme for stances as to prosperity or the reverse, is a collec.
discussion, but remarks arising out of or sug- tion of information of the most complete and the application of heroldry to architectural costed by it were made by the Chairman, by instruction given in schools, but as to the general
exhaustive character, with respect not only to the 025, while rendering them ornamental, inTests them with a power of speaking the lan
| Dr. Brewer. and by Messrs. Robson and condition of the population as to education, and fonology and history to succeeding Wharton. A vote of thanks having been as to its effect on their habits and conduct.
passed to Mr. Bidlake, the doors of the refresh- Besides this, however, the Commissioners co dge Look, for instance, at Henry VII.'s chapel,
smunicated with more than fifty persons interested mbi Westminste ment-room were thrown open ; but many of
in popular education in different parts of the and suster; the whole pedigree of his descent the company remained to examine the coats of country. Amongst those wbose answers are re. and his connection with both branches of the larms suspended on the wants Cartagenets, are shown by the heraldic inil both branches of the lorne suspended on the walls, and to listen to ferred to in this volume are the Bishop of Carlisle. the explanations of them, which were cour-Lord Lyttelton, the Rev. Canon Guthrie.
Akroyd, Lady Dukinfield, Miss Carpenter, Rev.
G. H. Hamilton, Rev. T. W. Davis, Mr. H, S. sagland, the dragon of Cadwal- teously given by the Lecturer. 4, and the greyhound of York, cling to the
Skeats, Col. Stobart, &c. al battresses and turrets, and 10 the in
The next Evening Meeting will take on The witnesses examined by the Commissioners piers and windows. The portcullis of Wear
" Wednesday, the 15th May, when Dr. Pinches included Sir J. P. K. Shuttleworth, Mr. R. W. 1 ancestry of Beaufort. with the will read a Paper on " Public Examinations." | Lingen, Rev. Dr. Temple, Mr. Harry Chester.
thers m he
re the granu) Londo
Walworth, having kil
eity sword of state.”
guage of chronology and history to
signia lavished on every part.
The lion of England, the or
maternal ancestry of be
Rev. W. J. Unwin, and several of the Govern. the words of the Commissioners, that “indepen.
The Privy Council System. ment Inspectors of Schools.
dence is of more importance than education."| The Commissioners trace the history of the In addition to the information thus obtained, the They, therefore, donot recommend any compnl- Privy Council system from its commencement, and Commissioners put themselves in communication sory system. Their several convictions on this explain. in considerable detail, its characteristic with the leading Educational Societies, from part of the subject--one of the most important features. They believe it has accomplished much whom they obtained information generally of so sections of the inquiry--are contained in the fol
good, but that, as a system, it has great defects. complete a character as to enable them to publishlowing:
It assists 7,000 schools; but it leaves unassisted, a series of statistical tables, wbich almost equal in
unimproved, and uninspected, nearly 16,000 denovalue those obtained in the Census of 1851. I Our principal conclusions in relation to this part of minational schools; while the private schools, conSchools and Scholars. the subject are as follows:-)
taining more than half-a-million of children, are It is proved by the returns published by the That the present conditions of school attendance are
entirely passed over. The assistance is offered Commissioners, that the schools have done more
such that three-fifths of the children resorting to than simply keep pace with the increase of nonu, elementary schools attend sufficiently to be able, with on such conditions that the poorer districts, which lation. Lord Brougham's return of 1818 showed
proper instruction, to learn to read and write with want the aid most, cannot avail themselves of it; that at that time the proportion of week-day
tolerable ease, and to cipher well enough for the nor is there any immediate prospect of their being
eek-day purposes of their condition in life, besides being able to do so. It is commonly said that the system scholars to the population was l in 17-25. Next came
125. Next came grounded in the principles of religion. This, however, “helps those who help themselves.” But this, Lord Kerzy's returns in 1833 (imperfect, no doubt, is subject to some deduction on the score of the the Commissioners observe, is a fallacy, since the but still approximately correct), which showed frequent removal of children from school to school. I poor cannot help themselves in the districts where a proportion of 1 week-day scholar to 11:27 of the That coupling these conditions of attendance with ihe rich will not help them. To make exceptions population. The returns of the Census of 1851 | the increasing interest felt in popular education, and in favour of special cases of need is quite out of the gave a proportion of 1 to 8.36 of the population, the prospect of better and more attractive teachers.
power of Government, which cannot grant a favour and now those obtained by the Education Commis and schools, the state of things in this respect is not, I!
on the whole, discouraging. sion gire a proportion of i scholar to every 7.7 of
to one claimant without granting it to all, and the estimated population of 1858.
Chat the difficulties and evils of any ceneral measure which, in making special allowances to the district
c of compulsion would outweigh any good results which the poor of which are most in need, would, in fact, popular education. They show that the quantity of things. // could be expected from it under the present state of be giving a premium to the illiberality or apathy
of the landlords in these districts. Another grave education increases. They also show that without That neither the Government nor private persons objection to the present system, as we have seeny any general system of State Education ihis country I can effectually resist, or would be morally justified in is that, though the inspected schools are far supehas reached a position which is now inferior only to resisting, the natural demand of labour when the child rior to the uninspected, inspection fails to secure that of Prussia. Of the 2,535,492 scholars in has arrived, physically speaking, at the proper age for the grand object of sound elementary instruction. week-day schools, in 1858 as many as 1,675,158 labour, and when its wages are such as to form a The elder scholars are somewhat ambitiously were in public schools; 860,304 were in private strong motive to its parents for withdrawing it from
educated, but the younger scholars are not adventure schools, or schools kept for the profit of school,
That this being the case, public efforts should be
thoroughly grounded in private persons. Of the 1,675,158 scholars in
reading, writing, and
of the public schools, 1,549,312 were in week-day schools
| directed principally to increasing the regularity of the arithmetic; , and as a large proportion supported by the various religious bodies; 43,098
attendance, rather than to prolonging its duration : scholars leave at an early age, the consequence is,
and that so far as the prolongation of attendance is “ that there is overwhelming evidence from Her were in Ragged, Philanthropic, Birkbeck, and med at, the division of the children's time between Majesty's Inspectors to the effect that not more factory schools ; 47,748 in workhouse, reformatory, school and labour will be found more feasible than than one-fourth of the children receive a good naval, and military schools; and about 35,000 in their retention for the whole of their time in school. leducation. The examination made by the in. Collegiate and richer endowed schools. Thel That under the present circumstances of society, aspectors into the most elementary part of the inreligious bodies are, therefore, the chief supporters satisfactory point will have been reached when children
struction is not sufficiently searching, and the of education.
go to the infant school at the age of three and from the The number of scholars in Sunday schools in infant school to the day school at the age of six or
master or mistress has no sufficient motive to 1858 was 2,411,554, and in evening schools seven, and remain in the day school till ten, eleven,
undergo the drudgery which such instruction in 80,966.
or twelve, according to the circumstances of their volves. The administrative complication of the Accommodation and Allendance.
parents and the calling to which they are destined : system appears also to be growing excessive, the The accommodation for scholars is found to be
provided that they attend, whilst on the school-books, Privy Council Office having to correspond sepaion for scholars 18 found to be not less than four hours a day for five days in the rately with each of the 7,000 schools. The eviample. We gather from the statistical tables
week, and not less than thirty weeks, ranging, under dence of Mr. Lingen and Mr. Chester, who have little reference being made to this subject in the the most favourable circumstances, up to forty-four been the chief administrators for some years past, general Report-- that for every 100 scholars in weeks in the year.
is very strong on this head, and plainly shows average attendance in the ten specimen districts That there is nothing in the feelings of the parents that the office is being reduced, by the overwhelmthere was accommodation for 146.7. on the subject of education to prevent well-directed
ing mass of details, from a superior and controlling With regard to the nature of the attendance. it eff rts to insure this amount of attendance from meet. is found to be very irregular, but least so in the ing
intelligence to a mere machine governed by pre
eneral success. private schools. One result is very gratifying In
Excessive centralization, That special efforts should at the same time be cedent and routine. answer to the question, What number of children made, by means of evening schools, to keep up the attended by undue rigidity and by diminution of
education once received, to which the encouragement local interest in popular education, is another should be on the books of some schools ? the Com- of free and lending libraries would form a valuable l alleged defect. Finally, there is the great p missioners state their conviction that, with the auxiliary.
on the central revenue to which Chancellors of the exception of the few who are educated at home, That much time may also be redeemed for educa-| Exchequer are beginning to demur. According and the few who are incapacitated from sickness or tional purposes, from the years of childhood now I to the estimate of the Commission, the present neglect, “all the children in the country capable neglected, by preparing the children for the day system, if extended to the whole country, would of going to school receive some instruction." The schools in good infant schools. average duration of attendance is fonnd to be
cost upwards of two millions a-year. Dr. Temple,
who is thoroughly acquainted with it, and is much
With reference to the worth of the instruction nearly six years.
opposed to its continuance, states that its tendency Causes of and Remedies for Non-Attendance given in the schools, the Commissioners have
is, by constant relaxations of its conditions, to The Commissioners made minute inquiries as arrived at conclusions that will not be deemed very attain
T attain the enormous sum of five millions. to the causes of non-attendance at school. As a satisfactory by the supporters of the Privy Council | The Commissioners' record of the present result it is stated that two propositions are estab- system. All the Assistant Commissioners report system is expressed in the following words: lished. The first is, that almost all parents appre- that the elementary teaching in schools is very ciate the importance of Elementary Education, and defective, that the children, whatever else they! We have seen that its leading principles have been that the respectable parents are anxious to obtain may learn, do not learn to write or cipher, while to proportion public aid to private subscription, and it for their children. The second is, that they religious knowledge seems to be little better tanght.) to raise the standard of education by improving the are
prepared to sacrifice the earnings of their The Commissioners, however, do not consider general character of the schools throughout the children for this purpose; and that they accord that the teachers are entirely responsible for these
country; that it has enlisted, in the promotion of ipgly remove them from school as soon as they failures.
education, a large amount of religious activity, and
The utmost that can be said against that avoiding all unnecessary interference with opinion, have an opportunity of earning wages of an them is, that they do not perform a most arduous lit has practically left the management of the schools amount which adds in any considerable degree to duty, which they have no direct personal motive in the hands of the different religious denominations. the family income. Many proofs of the estimate for performing, and which they seem to have been in these respects it has been most successful. But set upon the value of education, even by the accustomed to look upon as almost hopeless. They we find that it demands, as a condition of aid, an poorest, are given from the reports of the ds. quote Mr. Unwin to show that the fault rests with amount of voluntary subscriptions which many schools sistant Commissioners, but they cannot forego the inanagers of schools. The result 18, they say. I placed under disadvantageous circumstances can the wages of their children. Poverty, itself. is that “while it would be far from the truth to infer scarcely be expected to raise : that it enlists in many proved not to be a cause of non-attendance, nor that the inspected schools have failed, they have places too
t the inspected schools have failed, they have places too little of local support ; that its teaching is is religion, nor is indifference. Where there is an certainly not succeeded in educating to any cinsider.
der deficient in the more elementary branches, and in its entire absence of schooling, the cause of it is to be able extent the bulk of the children who have passed
bearing on the younger pupils; and that while the
necessity of referring many arrangements in every found in the intemperance, apathy, and reckless through them." Inspected and assisted schools
school to the central office embarrassed the Com. ness of the most degraded part of the population. are proved, however, to be superior to uninspected mittee of Council with a mass of detail, tbe difficulty The result of their examination is expressed in and unassisted schools.
of investigating minute and distant claims threatens
to become an element at once of expense and of dis-much good has been done by means of the grant; shall contain at least eight square feet of superficial pate. We find, further, that one of its leading sup.though they think it not unlikely that more solid and area for each child in average daily attendance. porters asserted in Parliament that “it was not lasting good would have been done, that waste would 3. That there shall be paid upon the average daily intended by those who in 1839 commenced the system have been avoided, that the different wants of various attendance of the children during the year preceding that its plan should be such as to pervade the whole classes and districts would have been more suitably the Inspector's visit, as the Committee of Council shall country;" we see that it has been found necessary to supplied, that some sharpening of religious divisions fix from time to time, the sums specified in Part I., break in upon its original principle of proportioning in the matter of education would bave been spared, Chap. 6, for each child, according to the opinion formed aid to subscription, and that this leads to a vast in- and that the indirect effects upon the character of the by the Inspectors of the discipline, efficiency, and crease of expense; and we, therefore, conclude that nation, aod the relations between class and class, would general character of the school. if the system is to become national, prompt means have been better, had the Government abstained from 4. That there shall also be paid an additional grant of should be taken to remedy defects which threaten to interference, and given free course to the sense of duty 28. 6d. a child on so many of the average number of injure its success in proportion to its extension, and and the benevolence which, since the mind of the nation children in attendance throughout the year as have to involve the revenue in an excessive expenditure. has been turned from foreign war to domestic improve-been under the instruction of pr perly-qualified pupil. Practical Recommendation.
ment, have spontaneously achieved great results in teachers, or assistant-teachers, allowing thirty children other directions.
for each pupil-teacher, or six for each assistantAfter a review of the facts that have been brought before them, and of the circumstances of
. These members of the Commission desire that, a teacher.
good type of schools and teachers having now been ex 5. That every school which applies for aid out of the the country with reference to education, and of
and oftensively introduced, the benefits of popular education county rate shall be examined by a county examiner schemes that have been proposed, the Commis- having been manifested. and public interest in the within twelve months after the ap sioners proceed to state their own plan. It is im
subject having been thoroughly awakened, Govern-writing, and arithmetic, and that any one of Her portant here to mention that their plan is a plan ment should abstain from making further grants, Majesty's laspectors of schoo:
ection only of a majority. The statements of the majority except grants for the building of schools, to which the the school will fall shall be entitled to be present at the and minority with respect to it are given in the public assistance was originally confinell, and the con- examination. following words:-
tinuance of which will be fair towards the parishes 6. That subject to recommendation 7, the managers Vieus of the Majority.
which have hitherto received no assistance; that the of all schools fulfilling the conditions specified in Rule
annual grants which are now made should be gradually 3, shall be entitled to be paid out of the county rate a It is right here to stato, in speaking on this subject, withdrawn and that Government should confiae
ject, withdrawn; and that Government should confine its sum varying from 22s. 6d. to 21s. for every child who that there exists among the members of the Commis-action to the improvement of union schools, reform
| action to the improvement of union schools, reforma- has attended the school during 140 days in the year sion, as anong the nation at large, deeply-seated tories, and schools connected with public establish- preceding the day of examination
passes an differences of opinion with regard to the duty of God
ments, at the same time developing to the utmost the examination before the exam vernment in this country towards education.
resources of the public charities, which either are or arithmetic, and who, if a girl, also passes an examinaThe greater portion of the members of the Commission are of opinion that the course pursued by the
may be made applicable to popular education, and tion in plain work. That scholars under seven years
affording every facility which lerislation can give to of age shall not be examined, but the amount of the Government in 1839, in recommending a grant of private munificence in building and endowing sche
private munificence in building and endowing schools grant shail be determined by the average number of public money for the assistance of education, was for the poor. It appears to them that if the State children in
tion, was for the poor. It appears to them that if the State children in daily attendauce, 20s. being paid on account wise; that the methods adopted to carry out that
proceeds further in its present course, and adopts as of each child. vuject Dave provea successful and that, wnuo CIS sitive tho svetem which has bitherto been provi. 7.That the combined prants from no veua fund expedient to make considerable alterations in the form 1 si
| definitive the system which has hithe in which this public assistance is given, it would not land social duty to undertake the burden which it ought subscriptions, or 153. per child o sional, it will be difficult hereafter to induce parental and the County Board shall never exceed the fees and
per child on the average atten. be desirable either to withdraw it or largely to diminish| to bear, or to escape from the position, neither just in dance. its amount. Without entering into general consider itself nór socially expedient, that large and ill-defineill County and Borough Boarus of Education. ations of the duty of a State with regard to the educa-I classes of the people are entitled, without reference to 8. That in every county or division of a county tion of the poorer classes of a community, they think individual need, or to the natural claims which any of having a separate county rate there shall be a County it sufficient to refer to the fact that all the principal them may possess on the assistance of masters and Board of Education appointed in the following manner : nations of Europe, and the United States of America,
employers, to have their education paid for, in part at - The Court of Quarter Sessions shall eloct any number as well as British North America, have felt it neces.
it neces- least, out of the public taxes. Nor do they feel con. of members, not exceeding six, being in the Commission sary to provide for the education of the people by lfident that Government will ever be able to control of the Peace, or being Cnairmen or Vice-Chairmen of public taxation; and to express their own belief that, the growing expenditure and multiplving appointments Boards of Guardians, and the members so elected shall when the grant to education was first begun, the of a denartinent, the operations of which are regulated elect any other persons not exceeding si
x. The number education of the greater portion of the labouring by the increasing and varying demands of philanthro- of Ministers of religion on any County Board of Eau. classes had long been in a neglected state, that the nists rather than by the definite requirements of the cation shall not exceed one-third of the whole number. parents were insensible to its advantages, and were, public service. (and still continue to be,) in most cases incapable
9. That in corporate towns, which at the census last They have felt it their duty, however, to regard the preceding contained more than 40,000 inhabitants, from poverty of providing for their children, and that
al question as it stands after twenty-nine years of a the Town Council may appoint a Borough Board of religious and charitable persons, interested in the
policy opposed to their own; and on the rejection of Education, to consist of any number of persons not condition of the poor, had not the power to supply their own view. they cordially adopt, in the second exceeding six, of which not more than two Shailoc the main cost of an education, which, to be good, resort the scheme of assistance approved by the Ministers of religion. This Board shall within the must ulways be expensive. They are further of
majority of their colleagues, which they regard as better limits of the borough have the powers of a County opinion that, although the advance of education during
in every respect, and above all as a far nearer approach Board of Education. the last tweoty years has led to a wider and more just
to justice, than the present extremely partial system. 10. That where there is a Borough Board of EduSense of its advantages, the principal reasons which originally rendered
We have thought fit to-tate the ditferences existing cation, the grant which would have been paid out of the assistance of Government
among us on this important point. It must not be the county rate shall be paid out of the borough rate, desirable still form a valid ground for its continuance, linferred that this is the only matter on which we differ. or other municipal funds. partly because large portions of the country have been
In a subject involving so many statements, so many u. That the election of County and Borough Boards unable to obtain a due share in the advantages of the general principles, and so many executive details, uni. of Education shall be for three years, but at the end of grants and improvements in education which have resulted from
aveversal concurrence was not to be expected, and has each year one-third of the Board shall retiro, but be its operation, partly because there is not, in fact, been obtained. still no prospect that the poor will be able by the as.
capable of re-election. At the end of the first and sistance of charitable persons to meet the expense of
second years, the members to retire shall be determined
by lot. The Court of Quarter Sessions, at the next giving an education to their children. They believe, The Commissioners then proceed to develop therefore, that a withdrawal to any considerable ex- their proposed plan, of which the following is an
succeeding Quarter Sessions after the vacancies made tent of the public grant would have a tendency to outline :
in the County Board, shall fill up the places, but so as check the general advance of education, and to give
always to preserve as near as may be the proportion up much of the ground that has been won : and while
Plan for giving assistance to the schools of the
between the number chosen froin the Commission of they think that the present method of distributing
the Peace, and from the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen the grant has many disadvantages, they believe them
ing 1. That all assistance given to the annual main- of the Boards of Guardians and the other meinbers. to consist in the manver in which
tenance of schools shall be simplified and reduced to The vacancy in the Borough Boards of Education shall
the principle of giving public aid is applied and carried out, and not
grants of two kinds. The first of these grants shall be be filled up by the Town Council, at a meeting to be in the principle itself. Upon these grounds they have consideration of the fulfilment of certain conditions by made.
paid out of the general taxation of the country, in held one calendar month from the day of the vacancies endeavoured, in various parts of their Report, to indicate the points in which improvements are necessary
the managers of the schools. Compliance with these 12. That an Inspector of Schools, to be appointed and the manner in which they may be most effectually
conditions is to be ascertained by the Inspectors. by the Committee of Council, shall be a member of introduced.
The second shall be paid out of the county rates, in each County and Borough Board.
consideration of the attainment of a certain degree of 13. That the Boards of Education shall appoint Views of the Minority.
knowledge by the children in the school during the examiners, being certificated masters of at least seven The minority admit that the responsibilities and year preceding the payroent. The existence of this vears' standing and receive communications and decide functions of Government may be enlarged by special degree of knowledge shall be ascertained by examiners upon complaints as to their proceedings. drcumstances, and in cases where political disasters appointed by County and Borough Boards of Education have retarded the natural progress of society. But hereinafter described,
The recommendation of the Commissioners on they hold that in a country situated politically and 2. That po school shall be entitled to these grants
s the other branches of their inquiry we also subjoin. dis, Government has, ordi speak
Vovernment bas, ordinarily | which shall not fulfil the following general conditions : They were arrived at only after the most exhausug, no educational duties, except towards those --The school shall have been registered at the office of tive inquiry into the subjeets referred to.
destitation, vagrancy, or crime casts upon its the Privy Council, on the report of the Inspector, as Training Colleges for Masters and Mistresses. hands $. They make no attempt at this distance of an elementary school for the education of the poor. That the grants now made by the Government to
intimate the urgency of the circumstances The school shall be certified by the Inspector to be the Training Colleges be continued which
originally led the Government of this country to healthy and properly drained and ventilated, and That the sums paid to the Queen's Scholars in the here in popular education. They fully admit that supplied with offices; and the principal schoolroom Training Colleges be for the present continued.
That the attention of the Committee of Privy imposed by the founder in regard to the religious de. tco limited, the Scotch Act (Mr. Dunlop's, 17 and 18 Council be drawn to the possibility of shortening the nomination of trustees or teachers, or in regard to the Vict. c. 74), be extended to England. hours of study, both for male and female students in kind of religious instruction to be given in the school. That though certified industrial schools are at present the Training Colleges.
The combination of small endowments. The changing very effective, they should be regarded as provisional That their attention be also drawn to the importance where it is desirable the sites of endowed schools. institutions; and that children who are peculiarly in of giving such a training to all schoolmistresses as The reorganization of the boards of trustees
danger of being criminal be educated in the district shall enable them to give proper instruction to infants. That all endowed schools now subject to inspection or separate schools for pauper children. ,
That certain alterations be made in the present by the Charity Commission become subject to inspec. That district and separate schools for pauper syllabus of studies, and, in particular, that more at- tion by the Privy Council, and that the middle and children be declared to be ipso facto industrial schools. tention be given to political economy, and other subjects elementary schools be annually visited and examined That the education of children in reformatories of practical utility.
by the Privy Council Inspectors, and their accounts being satisfactorily conducted, the aid given to them That the method of giving certificates of proficiency audited on the spot.
be continued. to teachers be altered as follows:
That no person shall be appointed to the mastership Education of Children in State Schools. “That there bean annual examination at the Training of an endowed school who shall not have either taken That an Annual Report upon the Army Schools be Colleges, open to all the students and to all teachers an academical degree or obtained a certificate of com. issued and forwarded to the commanding officer of actually engaged in schools, public or private, and petency from some authorized body, and that every every regiment. properly recommended as to moral character.
appointment shall be certified to, and if duly made, That a normal school be established at Greenwich si That the names of those who have passed this ex- confirmed by the Privy Council.
for the Navy, similar to the one at Chelsea for the amination be arranged in four classes, of which the That the Privy Council be empowered in case of need Army; and that the students at the close of their first three shall, as at present, be each arranged in to call upon trustees to institute an inquiry into the career be examined and receive a certificate of quali. three divisions.
cate of any endowed school, and in case the master be fication. “That any person who, having passed this exami- found inefficient, to empower the trustees to remove That the pupil-teacher system be introduced into nation, has for two years subsequently been employed him or pension him off; and in the last resort to schools under the Admiralty. in an elementary school which has, during that time, remove him or pension him off themselves.
That a class of assistant schcolmasters and three been twice inspected, shall receive a certificate corres. That every appointment of a master to an endowed classes of Royal Navy Schoolmasters be established. ponding to his place in the examination.
school be made after public notice, stating the quali. That ship schools be inspected and reports be made "That the Inspector have the right of reducing the fications required and invitiog candidates to send in to the Committee of Council. rank of the certificate to any extent, if the state of the their names.
That evening schools be held on board her Majesty's school at the time of inspection appear to him to That the instruments of foundation, and other in- ships. require it; and that he also have the right of raising struinents regulating charities, be registered in the That the Admiralty do turn its spicial attention to the rank of the certificate by one division if the state office of the Privy Council.
the dockyard schools, and institute an inquiry into of the school appear to him to warrant it.
That in order to facilitate the foundation and endow. their condition. " That the certificates wben issued, be subject to ment of schools for the poor, a very simple form of in. That the Royal Marine Schools be placed upon the revision at the expiration of every period of five years strument for those purposes be prepared by the Privy same footing as the Army schools. from their original date, spent in any inspected school Council, and that conveyances made in this form be! We may meanwhile state, for the information of or schools, and that the Inspector may then alter the valid when registered in the Privy Council-office. I those interested in the subject, that the bulky certificate according to the state of the school; and That the vestry of any parish be empowered to accept that in each of the five years an endorsement as to the a school site and buildings for the use of the parish,
P report and tables of the Education Commission state of the school be made by the Inspector on the and to bind themselves and their successors to keep the
"I bave been carefully condensed and put into a certificate. buildings in repair.
popular form, in the small compass of an octavo “Certificates bear no pecuniary but only an honorary Education of Children Employed in Factories,
volume of 150 pages, by Mr. H. S. Skeats, which value."
Print Works, Mines and Collieries.
has just been published by Messrs. Bradbury and Evening Schools.
That with a view to prevent the present evasions of Evans. That, inasmuch as Evening Schools appear to be a the education ciauses of the Factory Acts, no certi. most effective and popular means of education, the at. ficate of school attendance be considered valid unless tention of the Committee of Council be directed to the the school from which it is issued shall have been PUBLIC EDUCATION ON THE importance of organizing them more perfectly, and ex. declared by an Jospector “ to be excellent," " good,"
CONTINENT. tending them more widely, than at present.
or “tair," for that purpose : that this declaration be That for this purpose a special grant be made in valid for one year, and that lists of the schools so
(Continued from page 7.) schools where an organizing master is employed. declared fit to grant certificates be published in the - Belter Application of Educational and other local papers.
When the Prussian Government, in 1809, Charities.
That the education clauses in Act 8 and 9 Vict. c. 28, undertook systematically the work of improrThat steps be taken to turn the educational charities with respect to printworks, being ineffectual, attention ing the elementary schools, as a means of to better account, and to apply to the purpose of edu- be drawn to the joint report of all the inspectors of creating and diffusing a patriotic spirit among cation some of the other charities which are not at factories on the subject (in October, 1855), and to the loh
the people, the fame of Pestalozzi was at its present applicable to that purpose. following methods for remedying the defects com
height. To him and to his school, to his That with a view to both the above objects, and to plained of, namely, the extending the half-time system placing all the educational functions of Government to printworks; or restricting the children to alternate method and to his disciples, the attention of under the same control, the Charity Commission be days of work, the intermediate days being devoted to the best teachers in the kingdom was turned converted into a department of the Privy Council ; that school.
for guidance and aid. Several enthusiastic the Committee of Council on Education become the That, the legal provisions with regard to the edu.
young teachers were sent to his institution at Committee of Council on Education and Charities : cation of boys employed in mines and collieries being i and that the Privy Council be invested with the power, inadequate, inasmuch as they allow the certificates of
| Yverdun, to study his methods, and imbibe his to be exercised through the Committee, of making or. incompetent masters and provide no tests of com-spirit of devotion to the children of the poor. dinances for the improvement of educational charities, petency, the children be compelled to attend at One of his favourite pupils, C. B. Zeller, of and for the conversion to the purposes of education,
school during the full time specified in the Act (23 Wirtemberg, and who shared with him in cerwholly or in part, of charities which are mischievous and 24 Vict. c. 161); and that (as in the case of stain weaknesses of character, which prevented or useless as at present applied. These ordinances to factories) po certificate of school attendance be valid,
This attaining the highest success as a practical be laid before the trustees of the respective charities, unless the school from which it issued has been de. who may appeal to a Committee of the Privy Council clared by the inspector to be excelleut, good, or fair educator in carrying out the details of an exdistinct froin the Educational Committee, and after- for that purpose.
tensive plan, was invited to organize a Normal wards to be laid before Parliament, in the schedule of
Education of Pauper Children.
School at Königsberg, in the orphan-house a bill similar in form to the Inclosure Acts. The That the influences of workhouses on the children (orphanotrophy) established by Frederick III., power not to extend to any foundation during the life-educated within their walls being pernicious, these se-l on the 13th of January, 1701, the day on which time of the founder, nor (except with the unanimous paration of children from adult paupers be enforced. The declared his dukedon a kingdom, and caused consent of his trustees) within twenty-one years after That as the best means of effecting this, the Poor-li his decease.
law Board be empowered to order the hiring or build.
:himself to be crowned king, under the name of That the Privy Council, in the exercise of this powering of district schools. But that in case of any union | Frederick the first. To this seminary, during as regards educational charities, shall direct its atten. I undertaking to provide a separate school, at a distance the first year of its existence, upwards of one tion to the adaptation of the instruction given in en- of not less than three miles from the workhouse, the hundred clergymen, and eighty teachers, redowed schools to--The requirements of the class to order be suspended, and be revoked ; if the separate surted, at the expense of the government, to which it ought to be given. An improved distribution school be established and certified by the inspector of acquire the principles and methods of the Pesof the income of endowed schools between the several pauper schools to be sufficient. objects of the foundation. The employment of a part. That the Poor-Law Board be empowered to order
to order talozzian system.
Through them, and the to the capital fund, where necessary, in the improve the establishment of a separate school by any union teachers who went directly to i estalozzi, these ment of the school premises. The extension, where it which they do not think fit to incorpcrate in a district. principles and methods were transplanted not may seem just and desirable, of the benefits conferred | That in the case of out-door paupers, the guardians only into various parts of Prussia, but also on popular education by free boarding or clothing be obliged to make the education of the child a con- l into the schools and seminaries of other states schools, either by opening the places in them to in- dition of the out-door relief of the parent, and to pay lin dustry and merit, or by converting them into ordinary the necessary school fees out of the rates.
pay in Germany. day schools, furnishing an education partly gratuitous
Education of Vagrants and Criminals.
Not even in Switzerland is the name of this to a larger number of children. Extending the benefits That the ragged schools be regarded, as at present, I philanthropist and educator so warmly cherishof Christ's Hospital. The abolition or relaxation of "as provisional institutions constantly tending to be-led as in Prussia. His centennial birthday was injurious restrictions, and the extension of the benefits come elementary schools ;' and that public assistance of educational endowments to adjoining districts : pro. be continued to those which are also industrial sohools. celebrated throughout Germany, and particuvided that this power shall not affect any restrictions That the English Act for jodustrial schools beinglarly in Prussia, on the 12th of January, 1090,