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on from province to province of the North of Spain, the Southern portion of the kingdom is said to be decidedly in favour of the Queen. Don Carlos remains in Portugal,
PORTUGAL. The last weeks have been almost entirely barren of events. The division which landed at Pederneira, under the command of General Bento da França, being too weak to march against Figueira by land, proceeded across the country, and united itself to the army of General Saldanha, of which it now forms the left wing. On the 11th ult. the Miguelites were driven from the heights of Pernes, to the left of Santarem, by a force composed of the 9th Infantry and 12th Caçadores, and several wind-mills which ground wheat for the supply of the town were destroyed. The resistance made by the enemy to this operation caused a loss of about fifty men in killed and wounded. The investment of Santarem is gradually proceeding, and it is said that the garrison suffer many privations; it is not intended to carry the position by assault, but to reduce it by famine; and the floods which cover the plains surrounding the town, during part of the rainy season, will assist the operations of the army.
TURKEY. In consequence of the dearth which prevails in the Crimea, two villages, in the neighbourhood of Odessa, have been entirely deserted by their inhabitants. In one of them a woman was found dying of starvation. In some small towns they have been driven to make a species of pottage with the stalks of maize, and, in others, they have been reduced to make food of the bark of trees. Some peasantry of the district of Elizabethgrad, in the Government of Cherson, have stopped the waggons laden with corn on their way to Odessa, and forced their drivers to deliver up their loads, giving them a receipt signed as representatives of their respective villages.
BIOGRAPHICAL PARTICULARS OF CELEBRATED
PERSONS, LATELY DECEASED.
ADMIRAL SIR HERBERT SAWYER, K.C.B. This gallant officer died at Bath. He was the son of Admiral Herbert Sawyer, and served under his father during the war with our Transatlantic Colonies, at the conclusion of which he was in command of the Porcupine sloop, at Jamaica. He was made Post-Captain in the early part of the year 1789, and in the following year appointed to the Pegasus, 28, on the Newfoundland station. In 1793, when the war with France commenced, he commanded the Amphion frigate, from which he was subsequently removed (1795) to the Nassau, of 64 guns, and cruised with the North Sea Fleet till 1797, when he was appointed to the Saturn, 74, attached to the Western squadron. In 1799 he succeeded Sir Henry Trollope in the Russell, which he continued to command until the spring of 1801, when he joined the Juste, of 80 guns, and accompanied Sir Robert Calder to the West Indies. On his return to this country he was appointed to superintend the payment of ships at Plymouth, which appointment he held until promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral, October 2, 1807. In the early part of 1810 Sir Herbert Sawyer was appointed second in command at Portsmouth, and in the latter part of the same year was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral, and appointed Commander-in-Chief on the Halifax station, which he held until 1813; and when about to leave that station was presented with an address from the Consul, merchants, and inhabitants, thanking him for his gallant and unceasing exertions in the protection of the colonies from the attacks of the Americans. In the same year he hoisted his flag as Commander-in-Chief at Cork ; and on the 2d of January, 1815, he was nominated a K.C.B. At the time of his death Sir H. S. was an Admiral of the White, to which he was promoted in 1825.
LONDON. • A plan is under consideration for the improvement of Holborn-hill, which
removes one great objection to those heretofore submitted, viz. the interference with the trade to the inhabitants. It is proposed to take down the houses from the corner of Bartlett's-buildings, Holborn, to Seacoal-lane, Skinner-street, or on the opposite side from Hatton-garden to the top of Snow-hill, and erect a level terrace on brick arches between those points; the present houses to be taken down and set back about fifty feet, or in a line with St. Andrew's Church, and the arches under the terrace to be fitted up as shops on Holborn-hill, with a handsome balustrade at top. An ornamental arch to be turned over Farringdon-street, on the principle of Highgate Tunnel, thus forming a grand and commodious level thoroughfare without at all interfering with Holborn-hill.
British Museum.-A new room has just been built and finished at the British Museum, on the ground floor, opposite the passage leading from the old galleries of antiquities to the late additional gallery. This room is intended to be appropriated to Egyptian antiquities, a few of which, bought at Sotheby's sale some time ago, are placed in an adjoining apartment. The new room is lofty, and of a moderate length and breadth, lighted from above to show the figures to be deposited there
to greater advantage. Near the statue of Sir Joseph Banks, in the entrance of the Museum, is now a fine one of Shakspeare, similar to that which is in the vesti. bule of Drury-lane Theatre.
Goldsmiths' Company,—The new ball for the use of the Goldsmiths' Company will be a very handsome building when finished. Its exterior has an imposing appear. ance, particularly the front, in the centre of which are the Company's arms admi. rably well executed over the grand entrance, in alto relievo ; and the architect has been profuse in ornamental architecture, both in the front and at the sides, and at the back of the building. The sunken columns and pilasters are surmounted by Corinthian capitals, and other parts of the edifice exhibit corresponding embellisb. ments. The interior of the hall has every convenience, both culinary and otherwise, for giving effect to the science of gastronomy, and preparing luxurious banquets suitable to the appetites and tastes of one of the most wealthy civic companies in the metropolis. The hall, however, is very inconveniently situated at the rear of the General Post-office, in Foster-lane, where a carriage cannot turn. The other avenues leading to it are equally narrow and incommodious.
The Postmaster-General has taken measures for extending the Threepenny Post to a circle of 12 miles from the General Post-office, including the following post towns :-Stanmore, Edgeware, Barnet, Hounslow, Southall, Waltham-cross, Romford, Bromley, Foot's Cray, Croydon, and Kingston, to all wbich places there will be a threepenny post delivery twice a day (except Foot's Cray and Waltham-cross, which will have one delivery only) in addition to the general post delivery.
BEDFORDSHIRE. At the annual meeting of the Beds Agricultural Society, a plough was introduced by Mr. Manning, of Elstow, made by Ransome, of Ipswich, with an improved plan for regulating the hind wheel by means of a lever, which enables the ploughman to alter the depth of the plough as circumstances require it, without stopping the horses—an advantage, we understood, from Mr. Manning, to be in some cases very considerable. The Duke of Bedford's plough was on the Scotch swing principle.
DEVONSHIRE. A large fossil reptile of the antediluvian age has been taken out of the blue lias on Charmouth-beach, Devonshire. It had been previously sold for four sovereigns to a member of the Geological Society, and proved to be of the genus Ichthyosaurus, partaking of the alligator and lizard species. It measured about six feet in length, and was only to be reached at extremely low tides, which may account for its not having been discovered before.
ESSEX. Desertion of Farms in Essex.-At the suggestion of a correspondent we have searched our file to ascertain the quantity of land advertised to be let in this county, from Lady-day to Michaelmas in the present year, and we find tenants wanted for upwards of ten thousand acres, vacated by as many as sixty occupiers. During that period the price of our best wheats fluctuated between 62s. and 67s. per qr., and the price of Consols was steady at 88 to 89. During the like period, in the year 1805, there were not more than two thousand acres announced for letting, including two farms in Steeple, belonging to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, containing upwards of eight hundred acres, which at that time it was the practice to let by tender. The advertisements of farms wanted to hire were, we observe, as numerous as those to be let. The price of our best wheat from Lady-day to Michaelmas, 1805, varied from 86s. to 105s., and Consols from 57 to 59. During that year the lease of a farm in Kochford bundred, let upon such terms that the outgoing tenant became a bankrupt, was sold for 20001.- Chelmsford Chronicle.
HEREFORDSHIRE. Ancient Coin.-As some men were clearing a pool near the Rectory, at Stretton, in this county, of the mud, which had been accumulating for many years, they found a silver groat, of Richard III., in tolerable preservation, though it evidently has been clipped round the edge. On the obverse is the effigy peculiar to the coins of the monarch, with the style nearly obliterated, “Ricard. Di. Gr. Rex. Angl. Z France;" and on the reverse a cross with three pellets, not conjoined in each
centre quarter. On the outer circle is the legend,“ Pos Devm Adivtorem Mevm;" and on the inner circle, “ Civiti London."
HAMPSHIRE. The Allotment System. The good effects resulting from a partial introduction of the Garden Allotment System in the neighbourhood of Romsey, Hants, has fully answered the expectations of its promoters. Lord Palmerston, and John Fleming, Esq., each set apart some acres of good land, conveniently situate near the town), which was let, at a moderate rent, to deserving labourers, in parcels of a quarter of an acre. The cultivation of this land has fully occupied the leisure hours of the renters and their families, who have now a profitable return for their labour, being enabled, after payment of rents and taxes, and keeping back a winter's stock for themselves, to bring a quantity of potatoes and vegetables to market. On Monday last all the allotment tenants of Lord Palmerston attended at Broadlands farm to pay their rent, and, as a reward for their good conduct during the year, they were regaled with a good dinner of roast beef, plum pudding, and strong beer, which was served at the Fox public house, adjoining the ground. The conduct of the poor men was very orderly, and they departed highly pleased and gratified with his Lordship’s liberality.
There has been recently dredged up at Thorpe, by the machine in the employ of the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation Company, an ancient sword, which, from its scimitar-like form and general character, has excited some curiosity and interest. Its entire length is three feet, two inches : its blade, of steel, though much corroded, is still very elastic, and in its broadest part two inches and a quarter. On each side, a few inches above the guard, is a rude inlaying of red gold, to represent a coronet of three points. The guard is slightly curved, and the extremities pierced with a quatrefoil. The grip appears to have been covered with some substance, which was lost on its removal from the bed of the river, as the metal in that part is very perfect. The pommel, of brass, is round, with the sides flattened, upon which is rudely engraved the figure of a monster with human face, and the body of a beast. Around this, on each side, is a similar figure, whose tail is covered with foliage. It appears, from Strutt and Meyrick, that scimitars were introduced as regular military weapons in the reigns of the first and second Edwards. There is no clue, however, in the local histories whereby we might assign a period to its being lost in the river, unless it was in the year 1277, when King Edward, according to Stow, quoted by Gurdon, in his “ History of Norwich Castle," made a military progress through Suffolk and Norfolk, and kept his Easter at Norwich. This ancient weapon has been presented to the Norwich Museum by the Directors of the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation.
SOMERSET. Bath Abbey Church.—The workmen in their excavations on the north side have discovered further remains of the ancient fabric, on whose site the church was erected. Among these relics are some pavements of the basement of the old building in good preservation. A portion of these relics will be kept permanently open to public view, by which some idea may be afforded to antiquaries of the ex. tent of the building and the character of its architecture.
WALES, A cave is said to have been discovered within the Nash Rocks, near Presteign, in Radnorshire, on the estate of the Earl of Oxford, and at an elevation of some hundreds of feet from the plain. The descent from the entrance is 20 feet; the roof, full 30. The dimensions may be 300 feet in circumference, but the immense size and number of pillars render it impossible for the eye to ascertain the exact admeasurements. This natural curiosity consists in the petrified pillars, which appear to have been formed by dripping from the ceiling or roof. From the length of time Nature has been performing her work, many of them at least are six feet round at the top. They reach to the floor, and have become perfect pillars of stone, appearing like inverted cones; others are like icicles, or, in common terms, eaves droppings. The rocks are situated between the Hill Garraway mountains, near the river Enwell, where the remains of the ever-memorable Sir Samuel Romilly are deposited in the family vault of his late relative, Colonel Foley. It was there, in the midst of cataracts and wildest picturesque scenery, that this great lawyer and legislator rested from the fatigues of his profession.
SCOTLAND. Elgin Cathedral.-In consequence of the important discovery of four steps to the grand west entrance, which has been hid for ages past by rubbish, the Exchequer most readily ordered an excavation of the present approach, and a flight of stone steps to bring the visiter at once to the new level. The effect thus produced, by restoring to its original and just proportion this magnificent entrance, which has ever been an object of admiration to architects, artists, and all persons of taste from every part of the island, will be exceedingly striking. The directions of the King's architect for this purpose are now in progress of completion.-Elgin Courier.
IRELAND. Cemetery.-An extensive cemetery is about to be established beyond the limits of the city. The state of the churchyards in Dublin is frightful.' But a few days since, we were informed by a clergyman, that a body was interred, if indeed that can be said, in one of the most populous neighbourhoods, not two feet from the surface. This is an outrage upon common decency, both towards the dead and the living, that calls for correction. A cemetery removed from the crowded dwellings of the living, and the noisy and busy scenes of life, if laid out with taste, and on a proper site, will become an object of interest and fond regard, and we cordially join in the anticipation of the Committee that it will have a moral and useful influence.--Dublin Evening Post
Discovery of a Coal Mine in the Queen's County. We have been informed that a coal mine has lately been discovered on that part of the estate of Sir Edward Walsh, Bart. called the “Rushes,” in the Queen's County. If this mine should turn out to be productive, we understand it is the intention of the worthy Baronet to open several shafts without delay, which will give employment to a great number of the poor of that neighbourhood. Sir Edward Walsh is an excellent landlord, and one of those really patriotic Irish gentlemen who reside at home, and by the extent of the improvements on his estate, diffuses the blessings of comfort and happiness among the poorer classes.-Carlow Sentinel.
The potato crop will this year fall short byat least one-third of the usual ave. rage. This failure of the food of the peasantry of this country may possibly lead to another appeal to the charitable feelings of the British public ; and the anomalous spectacle may be exhibited of a peasantry begging for the means of subsistence with one hand, whilst with the other they are straining to raise a princely income for an individual who would almost seem to feed upon their discontent.
The Board of Education in Dublin, up to the 16th of August, 1833, received 911 applications for aid to schools now existing, and 259 solicitations for aid to establish new schools, making a total of 1,170. They have complied with 573 applications in behalf of existing schools, and 112 for the founding new schools. The books and tracts employed in the schools in separate religious instruction, with the approbation of the members of the Board, who are of the same religious persuasion as the children for whose use they are intended, are thus enumerated :For Protestant children-Bible, authorized version ; New Testament, ditto; Church Catechism, ditto; the Church Liturgy ; Confession of Faith of the Church of Scotland; Larger and Shorter Catechism of the Church of Scotland. For Roman Catholic children-Douay Testament; Reeve's History of the Old and New Testament; Gahan's ditto ; Morality of the Bible; Gother on the Epistles and Gospels; Dr. Doyle's Catechism ; Reilly's ditto ; Henry's Historical ditto ; Butler's General ditto ; Catholic Christian Instructed; Gobbinet's Instruction to Youth; Think Well On't; Chalmer's Meditations ; Imitations of Christ.
Rail Roads.-- The Stockton and Darlington Railway shares, costing 1061, 13s. 4d. are at 2971. 10s. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway shares, costing 1001. are at 2101. The Liverpool and Manchester shares, costing 251. are at 521. The Liver. pool and Birmingham shares, on which 101. have been paid, are selling at 11l. 10s. The London and Birmingham shares, on which 51. have been paid, are selling at 77. 10s. The two latter are only in progress.
Midland Counties Railway.-The provisional committees which had been appointed at the towns of Leicester, Nottingham, and Derby, in furtherance of the