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Black Hungarian Muscat - Muscat Noir de Hongrie.- Similar to early Black Muscat but seems to be later.

Large Early Black Muscat - Muscat Gros Noir Hatif.- Much like Muscat Hamburg but not as good in quality and is somewhat later

Oliver de Serres.- This is a very attractive, large, firm, black grape with a sweet, vinous flavor and very good in quality. Ripens the last of October and is a good table grape.

Quagliano.- Very similar to Poulsard but not as good nor as early.

Refosco.- Of the type of Black Pinot but more productive, larger and one to two weeks later. Of value for wine only.

Savagnin Rose - Gewurztraminer - Red Traminer. — In cluster and berry this looks much like the Delaware. Flavor spicy and pleasing but the skin is too tough. Ripens the last of October.

Semillon.— A small, pale green grape of good quality, but probably too unproductive and too small to be of value.

Servan Blanc Servant.— As a table grape this seems promising for the warmer sections of the State.

Vines productive; clusters above medium to large, shouldered, tapering, medium to compact; berries medium to large, oval, pale yellowish-green; skin tender; flesh translucent, meaty, sprightly. Considerably like Gradiska.

Steinschiller -- Rother Steinschiller.- Like Savagnin Rose this variety looks like Delaware. It is pleasant eating but ripens unevenly and is rather unattractive.

Sultanina.-- One of the important California grapes is the greenishyellow, seedless raisin grape, Thompson Seedless. This is the Sultanina of Greece and the Orient. There is also a light red form called Sultanina Rosea. Both of these can probably be matured in the warmer parts of the state and will make a pleasant addition to the home vineyard because of their good quality and their lack of seeds. The berries are small but the clusters are large.

Valdepenas.- This is a wine grape which may be worth testing as a table grape in the warmer parts of the grape regions.

Clusters large to very large, shouldered, tapering, very compact; berries medium to below in size, roundish-oval, black, firm, meaty, crisp; quality good to very good.

Zinfandel.— Widely grown in California as a wine grape; of no value for the table.

Clusters too compact and the flesh too tender to handle easily. Worth testing as a wine grape because of its productivity and good quality.

VARIETIES OF LITTLE OR NO VALUE IN NEW YORK.

Because of the short growing season in New York as compared with that of most of the Vinifera regions many sorts will probably not mature even under the most favorable conditions. These are mentioned below.

Angelino.-- A large, dark red grape.
Aramon.– Might possibly ripen on Long Island.

Clusters very large and compact; berries large, roundish, probably black when fully ripe.

Black Alicante — Black Saint Peter.— This is an important table grape in England and northern France. The vines at Geneva may not be true to name as here it is very late and the quality is poor.

Clusters long, tapering, medium compact; berries above medium in size, roundish, black; flesh tender, rather tart.

Black Damascus.— A large, oval, black grape with meaty, vinous, sprightly flesh. Would probably mature on Long Island.

Black Morocco — Ribier.— Clusters very large, loose; berries very large, oval, dark purplish-red.

Black Muscat – Jura Muscat.-- As compared with Muscat Hamburg the clusters are more compact, the berries smaller and not as dark, the flavor is much stronger of musk, the quality is poorer and it ripens a week later.

Cornichon Violet.-- A very attractive berry, very large, long, blue-black, meaty. Needs too long a season.

Elbling - Burger.— Widely grown in Germany for wine and might be of some value in the lower Hudson Valley for this use.

Clusters above medium to very large, long, compact; berries medium to above in size, roundish-oval, yellowish-green, flesh tender, stringy, sprightly.

Ferrara.- A large, purplish, table grape.

Flame Tokay.- Grown in California for shipping. A large, red grape. Would probably ripen on Long Island.

Fintendo.— Supposed to be a Spanish table grape but of no value here except for wine.

Clusters large co very large, tapering, very compact; berries medium, oval, black, tender, vinous, sweet; brush tinged red.

Green Hungarian.- Productive. Might make a good wine grape.

Clusters large, tapering, compact; berries above medium in size, round, clear green; flesh tender, mild to sprightly.

Grenache.- A late wine grape, of no value for the table.

Clusters large, shouldered, tapering, compact; berries below medium in size, oval, purplish-black; flesh melting, juicy, tart.

Malvasia.-- In Europe this name is applied to a number of grapes. The variety growing at Geneva under this name is somewhat like Early Frankenthal, but is later, not as firm and more sprightly.

Malvasia Rosario.- Similar to the Malvasia discussed above but much firmer.

Millennium.- Productive and may be worth testing further. Clusters of medium size, compact; berries medium in size, oval, yellowish-green; flesh medium tender, sweet; quality not high and skin thick and tough. Ripens the latter part of October.

Pedro Ximines — Pedro Jimenes.- Altho a wine grape this would be desirable for the table if fully ripe.

Clusters large, loose, tapering; berries large, oval, yellowish-green, medium meaty, sweet, vinous.

Schiradzouli.— A table grape with large, long, firm, purplish-red berries.

White Muscat -- Muscat Blanc - Muscat Frontignan.— Similar to Muscat Saint Laurent already described, but later and with a much stronger muscat flavor and poorer quality.

WINTER INJURY OF GRAPES.*

F. E. GLADWIN.

SUMMARY

The data show that approximately half the fruit buds in Concord vineyards about Fredonia and in particular on the Experiment Grounds were killed during the winter of 1909-1910.

The injury can be traced to a lack of maturity of the tissues as a result of the sudden termination of the maturing period on October 12, 1909, by unseasonably low temperature.

Maturity is indicated by small amounts of water in the tissues and by thickening of the cell walls. Immaturity is therefore favored by high temperatures and abundant rainfall during late summer and early fall.

The embryo flower clusters may succumb to low temperatures if they enter the dormant period immature and yet the foliage of the bud expand normally.

Light crops in years following heavy yields are probably due in part to injury to the floral parts by cold; but unless the extent of the injury be considerable, winter killing is overlooked in explaining the light yield.

Each year some buds fail to reach complete maturity and their failure at foliation is generally ascribed to some other agency.

The most completely matured buds on a cane begin with the fifth or sixth from the base of it and extend to within six or eight buds from the tip. The basal buds are usually small and poorly ripened, likewise those near the apex.

The low temperatures of December, 1909, probably killed the buds that were to bear the crop of 1910; but freezing temperatures after April 6, 1910, may also have caused injury or increased it.

Leafing with some native varieties occurs after ten or twelve days having a daily mean temperature of 52 to 53 degrees F.; and

* Reprint of Bulletin No. 433, April, 1917.

3

from March 18 to April 6, 1910, nineteen days, a daily mean temperature of 53.2 degrees was recorded. Following this period came freezing temperatures, and injury may have resulted therefrom to the prematurely stimulated buds.

Immaturity of grape buds and canes has been noted after temperatures of 10 to 12 degrees below the freezing point in the fall, notably in 1912.

Winter bud-injury during 1915-1916 ranged from 10 to 100 per ct. among the varieties growing on the Station grounds at Fredonia. Injury to Concord varied from 19 to 45 per ct. at the same place. The killing was general thruout the

"Grape Belt."

Unfavorable climatic conditions existed during the maturing months of August, September and October, 1915, as indicated by the poor ripening of the fruit of 1915. The lack of ripeness is shown by the sugar and acid content.

During the week of January 22–29, 1916, the average hourly temperature for 96 consecutive hours was 52.6 degrees, which no doubt awakened growth activity at this time; while the minimum temperature of the winter,-10 degrees, occurred in March. The winter killing of 1915-1916 may have occurred, therefore, either shortly after the high temperatures of January, or not until the low ones of March.

Considering the immaturity of the tissues at the beginning of the dormant period, it is probable that the injury would have occurred regardless of the unseasonable temperatures of January.

The fertilizer elements, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, did not influence maturity and hence their effect was not apparent as influencing the degree of killing.

Extensive injury is closely correlated with poorly drained soils, altho bud killing occurred where the drainage conditions were satisfactory

Severe pruning after late frost injury of spring has apparently indirectly favored bud killing thru inducing rank wood growth.

Maturity of bud and wood is probably correlated with the ripeness of the fruit, as determined from sugar analyses of the fresh juice.

Resistance to low temperatures is probably a species character and is possibly correlated with the hardness of wood.

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