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The last argument that we shall mention, (for it is time to bring this discussion to a close,) is contained in the following paragraph:
"Those appearances observed in the southern hemisphere, which are termed Magellanic clouds, by navigators, have not, so far as I know, been accounted for. They are three in number, of an irregular shape, and observed by night in the south Atlantic, and the south-east parts of the Pacific oceans, (reversed from New-Holland and New-Zealand,) but never visible in the eastern parts of the Indian ocean: their colour is like that of far distant mountains, on which the sun is shining. In the one sea they appear due south, and in the other to the left. They are stationary, appearing perpetually fixed at a certain height, and in a particular situation, as viewed from any given place. The stars and the heavens, in their diurnal revolutions, sweep by them, and they remain the same. To the navigator, who proceeds to the east or west, they appear to be more or less to the right or left of the meridian, in proportion as he changes his longitude; and as he sails south, they increase in height, until they reach the zenith, and finally become north, when seen by an observer south of the straits of Magellan, which is in latitude fifty-two degrees south. Captain Symmes accounts for the appearance of these clouds by the great refractive power of the atmosphere about the polar openings; causing the opposite side of the verge to appear pictured in the sky, as navigators inform us objects do sometimes appear, in the arctic regions; and in the manner Scoresby's ship appeared in the sky, with every particular about her so accurately represented, as to be at once identified by the observers, though the vessel, at that time, was at such a distance as to render it rather incredible how she could be seen at all. As proof of this position, captain Symmes alleges, that the relative position, shape, and proportions of these clouds, agree in their general outlines with the southern part of New-Zealand, the south-east part of New-Holland, and the whole of Van-Dieman's land, which are situated on, and near to the verge of the sphere, opposite to where the clouds are visible. These clouds are only seen in the night, when the atmosphere is clear, at which time the sun is shining on the islands in question."
Strange as it may seem, the statements which are here made respecting the Magellanic clouds, are wholly unfounded. These meteors are in fact nebulae, composed of clusters of telescopic stars, like the milky way; have their fixed place in the heavens, like the other constellations; and revolve regularly about the pole in twenty-four hours. All this is so notorious, that it is astonishing how the whole Symmes school could have remained ignorant of it. Even a common celestial globe would have shown them these constellations, near the south pole, under the names of Nebula major, and Nebula minor. Of the many authorities to which we might refer, in proof of our assertions, we shall cite the oldest. The celebrated Robert Boyle describes these appearances as "clouds that some navigators mention as seen towards the south pole, and to move about the pole in twenty-four hours." He also gives a letter from Thomas Mackrith, dated in 1685-6, in which the writer says:
"I likewise did particularly observe those commonly called the Magellanic clouds, which consist of a greater and a lesser, and are to my judgment, composed of a great number of small, invisible stars, much of the nature of the via lactea. They have a due course like other constellations, and constantly the lesser followed the greater in rising and setting."
Our author next gives a chapter, on what the Symmesites call mid-plane spaces, and explains, by their aid, earthquakes, and volcanoes, and sundry other phenomena. Our readers will readily excuse us from entering into a discussion of these matters.
One of the favourite projects of the adherents of Symmes's theory, is the establishment of an expedition to explore the inner earth. Our author devotes a chapter to this subject; and the master of the sect is now travelling, from place to place, and, like a second Peter the Hermit, zealously preaching up a crusade to this Holy Land. We are gravely told, that, to judge by the size of the seals, and bears, [and Esquimaux,] which come from the interior of the globe, it must be better suited for animal life than the portion which has fallen to our lot, so that by emigrating to this land of promise, we may probably be relieved from many of the evils to which mankind are subjected here above. If our old-fashioned philosophy be correct, however, we fear that this desirable change can never be effected, and that we must be content to finish the journey of life, in the less comfortable condition of outside passengers.
The work is concluded by a biographical notice of the founder of the new theory. That posterity may not, as in the case of Homer and other great men, dispute about his birthplace, it is announced that this distinguished honour belongs to our sister state of New-Jersey. It appears that he fought bravely during the late war, and has since sustained an excellent character; and we are certainly not disposed to deny, that a very unsound philosopher, may be a gallant soldier and an estimable man.
Aht. XII.—GREEK CONTROVERSY.
I.—A Vindication of the Conduct and Character of Henry D. Sedgwick, against certain Charges made by the Honourable Jonas Piatt; together with some Statements and Inquiries intended to elicit the reasons of the award in the case of the Greek Frigates. NewYork, printed by J. Seymour. 1826. pp. 24. 2.—A Narrative of the material Facts in relation to the building of the two Greek Frigates. By Alexandre Contostavlos. New-York. 1826. pp. 88. 3.—Report of the Evidence and Reasons of the Award between Johannis Orlandos and Aridreas Luriotfis, Greek Deputies, of the one part, and Le Roy, Bayard, Sf Co. and G. G. and S. Howland, of the other part. By the Arbitrators. New-York, printed by W. E. Dean. 1826. pp. 72. 4.—An Exposition of the Conduct of the two Houses of G. G. 4* S. Howland, and Le Roy, Bayard, 3* Company, in relation to the Frigates Liberator and Hope, in anstoer to a Narrative on that subject by Mr. Alexandre Contostavlos. By William Bayard. NewYork, printed by Clayton & Van Norden. 1826. pp. 47. 5.—Refutation of the Reasons assigned by the Arbitrators for their Award, in the case of the two Greek Frigates. By Henry D. Sedgwick. New-York. 1826. 6.—An Examination of the Controversy between the Greek Deputies and two mercantile Houses of New-York; together with a Review of the Publications on the subject, by the Arbitrators, Messrs. Emmet and Ogden, and Mr. William Bayard. By John Duer and Robert Sedgwick. New-York, printed by J. Seymour. 1826. pp. 179.
**** Wtl It is now but a few years since the general attention of the rest of Europe has been drawn to the condition of the Greeks; and it forms a curious subject of remark, that during this period, the feelings of the people seem ever to have been at variance with the feelings, or at least the conduct, of those who govern them. The former were marked by strong indignation and generous sympathy. The horde of barbarians, who in subjugating and destroying the diminished Eastern empire, had involved the classic and luckless territory of Greece in the same fate, were known to have always exercised over it a