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and Pyrmont (father-in-law of Prince Leopold); vetera of the Romans. It has a population of 3,800; and at Berg und Thal, on the road to Xanthen, in a and tradition renders it memorable as being the grove, is Prince Maurice's iron tomb (1625). spot where the Emperor Maximilian had beheaded Frederick the Great lived at Schloss Moyland. St. Gereon, and the Theban Legion.

The confluence of the Waal and the Lower Rhine, Wesel (Station)--Inn: Dornbusch-is situated or Leck, the two branches of the Rhine, takes place at the confluence of the Lippe and the Rhine, at a distance of eight or nine miles above Nymegen, diagonally opposite an artificial island, formed in on the former, and Arnhem on the latter. Here are

1785, by a cut of the river, and is the chief strongdams, dykes, and jetties regulating the waters, so hold of the north-west frontier of Prussia. It that no more than two-thirds of the tributaries

contains 18,400 inhabitants, and is the emporium should enter into the Waal, and only one-third into

of a very active trade. A ecting rail with the Leck. On these hydraulic works depend the

Haltern (Station) was opened 1874; and another physical existence of Holland. The vigilance used

link finished 1875, to Venlo opens up a direct line by the engineers in strengthening them, saved the

from Paris to Hamburg, viâ Münster and Bremen. country from being inundated in the floods of 1784.

The direct line from Flushing is also open, via At Aart a safety-valve is formed by a dam Breda, Tilburg, Boxtel, Goch, and Xanten. thrown across an old arm of the Rhine. In the

At Boxtel, lines come in from Eindhoven and event of its waters at Arnheim attaining a certain Hasselt; and from Eindhoven, Helmond, and height, a new passage to the sea would be formed

Venlo (from Düsseldorf). for the Rhine in less than five minutes, which

At Wesel the Rhine is crossed by a bridge of boats, would suffice to sweep away the dam.

and is divided in two arms by the island of Büderich. Lobith is seen to the right, and marks the The Rathhaus is the only building worth seeing. frontiers of Holland and Prussia. It is also the

Close to Wesel there is a monument to the station of the Dutch custom-house, and the

memory of the Prussian officers shot here, in 1809, steamer, in descending, is delayed an hour or more

by the French. To the left, facing Wesel, is in the examination of baggage, &c., by the officers.

Fort Blücher. At Wesel, also, Rapin wrote his Opposite Lobith is the now decayed fortress of history of England. Passing Orsoy to the left, we Schenkensschanz, once a formidable and much

see on the right, prized stronghold, rendered important by its

Ruhrort (Station)-Hotel: Ville de Cleves— position on the tongue of land stretching into the

a coal depôt, situated at the mouth of the Ruhr, Rhine and formed by the forking of that river.

where it discharges itself into the Rhine. Nearly From close to this spot can be seen the towers and

3,000,000 tons of coal, the produce of the fields on steeples of Cleves, towards which a railway runs.

the banks of the Ruhr, are deposited here annually. The next important station reached is Emmerich (Station)-Hôtel: De Hollande-is

Duisburg (Station)-Inn: Europaischer Hof situated on the right, and is the first Prussian

on the Lys.

A town of considerable manugarrisoned town we meet, with a population of facturing importance, with a population of 43,000. 6,700. It is the seat of considerable industry, and

It has Reiss's monument to Gerhardt Kremer, who has a very clean and neat appearance. The church

is claimed as the inventor of Mercator's Chart, of St. Aldegund and the Minster, the oldest, on the

German-Krämer, Latin - Mercator (see Rupelright bank of the Rhine, are the only objects of

monde, page 31). Duisburg is connected with attractive interest. Here an examination of Cologne by the Minden and Cologne railway, baggage takes place by the custom-house officers, and persons wishing to go on to Cologne or Baden and the passports are asked for and visé by the

will do well to leave the steamer here, and take the police. Starting from Emmerich, we see the small

train. town of Rees, on the right arm.

The Valley of the Ruhr deserves to be explored if Xanthen, or Xunten on the left, remarkable for time permit. The following will be found its most its double spired church, and as being the Castra interesting spots: Hohen Syburi; Blankenstein,


Werden, Ketling, and Mühlheim, from which aline to modern date. Part of the collection was burnt in Kettwig is open -one of several in this busy valley. the fire of March, 1872; but one good picture,

Uerdingen (Station) is on the left bank, Rubens's Aseension of the Virgin, was saved, and seated in a fertile plain, and encircled by poplar | is now in the Kunstakademie. trees. It has about 2,000 inhabitants, principally There is also an interesting collection of drawemployed in navigation and sheep and cattlo ings and engravings, amounting to 14,250 specifeeding Not far from this place is mens, among which

many by Raphael, Eichelskamp, where the French in 1795, first M. Angelo, Titian, and other celebrities. There crossed the Rhine, with 25,000 men under the are also copies of 300 water-colour drawings from command of Lefébre. On the right we see Calcum, the works of the different Italian schools, from a railway station, about 1} mile from which is

the fourth century. Kaiserswerth, for a long period the residence of

The Düsseldorf School of Painting, founded in the German emperors. It was formerly an island, 1828, by Cornelius, has an exhibition each summer and still contains the ruins of a Castle, built by of the paintings by water-colour artists. It opens Pepin d'Heristal, from which the Archbishop of in July, and continues open until September. At Cologne, Hanno, carried off the emperor Henry II., Dondorf there is a fine statue of Cornelius (born when only a child of two years, from his mother. here, 1787), on a double pedestal. The Malkasten Its Church is a remarkable building of the thir- (Paint-box) Club meets at Jacobi's House. teenth century, and contains the shrine of St. Mr. Schulte's Gallery of Modern Paintings, at Suibert, an English monk, who preached here in 482, Alleestrasse, and Bismeyer and Kraus's, at No. the eighth century. In this place also, there is 5, Elberfelderstrasse, are always worthy a visit, a Deaconess Institution, founded by Fleidner, a from their constantly containing the new pictures protestant clergyman. Population, 1,750.

which are exhibited there as they are finished. DÜSSELDORF (Station).—Hotels:

The Hofkirche, or church of St. Andrew, has Hotel de l'Europe, near the railway station, some good paintings by Dusseldorf artists of the post office, and landing places of the Rhine existing school. The church of St. Lambert, in steamers.

which there are several interesting monuments; Breidenbach, or Hotel Disch.

and the Jesuits church, containing a painting by Resident English Consul-General.

Deger, representing the Virgin as she stands on English Church Service at the German Protestant clouds, holding the Saviour, are the only other temple, Berger Strasse, at 11 a.m. and 4 30 p.m. on objects of public interest. Sundays.

The Hofgarten, one of the most beautiful gardens Düsseldorf is one of the prettiest and neatest in Germany, will repay a visit; it is lined with towns on the Rhine, containing 101,200 inhabitants. good walks, and commands a good view of the It is seated on the right bank of the Rhine, which Rhine. The Exhibition of 1880 was held near the here attains a breadth of 400 yards. It was once a Köln-Minden Station. fortified town, but its fortifications, since the peace Düsseldorf is the seat of the provincial parliaof Luneville, have disappeared, and their place is ment of the Rhenish provinces, and is the residence occupied by gardens and agreeable walks. Its of Prince Frederick of Prussia. Its situation on objects of attraction are few-indeed it may be the Rhine contributes considerably to its prossaid that the Kunsthalle and the Royal Kunstakade- perous and thriving condition. It is the emporium mie are the only ones. The celebrated gallery of of the merchandise sent from the duchy of Berg, pictures was removed to Munich in 1805; the and the cutlery and iron ware from Sohlingen, as present collection in the Kunsthalle is much well as of the cloths and cottons of Elberfeld. inferior. The artists principally represented are:- Of the throe quarters into which it is divided, Cornelius, Knaus, Hasenclever, A. and 0. Achen- Karlstadt and Neustadt are the best and cleanest, bach, and J. W. Schirmer. Tasso and the two contrasting strongly with the close and filthy Leonoras, by Carl Sohn, are brilliant executions of streets of Altstadt.


PEMPELFORT, situated on the east of the town, an interest, not only as being the resting place of is romarkable as being the residence of the philo- the bones and ashes of emperors who wore sopher Jacobi, and the resort of Goethe, Wieland, the imperial purple, and swayed the mighty sceptre Stolberg, and other literary celebrities. H. Heine within its territorial boundaries, but as being was born at No. 3, Bolker Str.

adorned with some of the noblest gothic HELLDORF-Twelve miles from Düsseldorf, near monuments of the middle ages, whilst every variety Calcum Station, on the line to Duisburg, will repay of rugged rock, and forests thick in stately elea visit. Here is the house of Count Spec, which gance and sylvan grandeur; plains rich in fruitful contains some excellent frescoes.

vineyards, now perched like an eagle's eyry among DISSELTHAL-Three miles from Düsseldorf, is lofty crags, and anon gently sloping to the water's also worth a visit. It is an asylum for destitute edge, are scattered along as so many triumphs children, 140 of whom receive a useful education, won by industry and energy in this rugged and are taught trades.

stronghold of nature. The Rhine, which is now Railways - Düsseldorf to Cologne-time, one entirely in German territory, is regarded by hour; to Elberfield, Minden, Hanover, Magdeburg, every German with a kind of reverence and affecand Berlin, in 9 hours.

tionate interest, their poetry calling it “ King The steamer occupies, between Düsseldorf and Rhine;" and their resolve to guard it is attested in Cologne, 5 hours in ascending, and 24 hours in the popular song, “ Die Wacht am Rhein." oid descending.

castles having a thousand legends connected with Leaving Düsseldorf, we see on our left the the traditional reminiscences of their history aro steeple of Neuss (Station), where a connection met with as we are borne along its course. is open via Schiefbahn, with München-Glad- "And there they stand as stands a lofty mind,

Worn, but unstooping to the baser crowd, bach and Rheydt, 16 miles.

All tenantless save to the crannying wind, Benrath (Station).-From here we see a hand- Or holding dark communion with the crowd

There was a day when they were young and proud, some château, built by the electors of Cleves, and Banners on high and battles passed below,

But they who fought are in a bloody shroud, occupied by Murat when Grand Duke.

And those which waved are shredless dust ere now, Passing Zons, with its numerous towers, we And the bleak battlements shall bear no future blow." cross the Kuppe, and arrive at

Populous cities, flourishing towns and villages, Mulheim-on-the-Rhine (Station), on our

beautiful roads and healthy mineral springs are not right, a fine prosperous town, 3 miles from Cologne. wanting to add more attraction and beauty to that Population, 20,430. Not far removed is Stamm- river whose waters supply choice fish, as the vineheim, remarkable for its Gothic chapel, and as the yards on its banks produce the choicest wine; "a residence of Count Fürstenberg.

river which," according to Dr. Lieber, “in its

course of 800 miles, aftords 630 miles of uninterROUTE 21.

rupted navigation from Basle to the sea, and enables

the inhabitants of its banks to exchange the rich THE RHINE (C).

and various products of its shores for the choice Cologne to Coblenz and Ems; the Moselle

articles indigenous to other lands; whose cities, to Trèves.

illustrious for commerce, for the encouragement of This famous river, the entire aspect and character science, and fortifications, furnish protection to of which the Supreme Architect seems to have Germany, and are also famous as the seats of embellished with glorious scenery and pictu- Roman colonies and of ecclesiastical councils, and rosque grandeur, is no less remarkable for the

are associated with many of the most important combination of naturalloveliness that characterises

events recorded in the history of mankind." Its scenery, than for the historical traditions inter

The source of the Rhine, which, in its course woven with every phase of its history, represent- to the ocean of over 320 leagues, is swelled by ing Roman conquests and defeats; feudal events

more than twelve thousand brooks and streamlets, full of chivalry and daring; and the wars and rises, in the centre of the Alps, on the frontiers negotiations of modern days. Its banks possess of Italy. Three brooks, uniting at the village of Rheinau, in the Grisons, form this stream. , voyage; as much as 46,000 lbs. of bread, 31,000 The Fore Rhine rises on the eastern declivity of lbs. of meat, 600 tuns of beer, 8 or 10 butts of wine, Mount St. Gothard, where from the lake Toma, 1,500 lbs. of butter, 10,000 lbs. of cheese, being the which is enclosed by a wall of rocks of 9,000 feet, average quantity. The timber is sold at the end this rivulet breaks forth, and, being increased by of the voyage, and often produces as much as the waters of some other brooks, near the village £25,000, and oftentimes £30,000. The duration of of Dissentis, joins the Middle Rhine, another torrent the

voyage varies from eight days to six issuing from a similar lake near Mount Lukmanier. weeks. Fifteen leagues lower down, swelled by near sixty

Steamers on the Rhine.-There are (or were) sevother brooks, both rivulets unite with the Hind

eral Companies' steamers navigating the Rhine, Rhine, and thus united, form the river Rhine. The

now practically amalgamated into one, viz., the Hind Rhine, the most considerable of these three

Düsseldorf, distinguished by having the funnels brooks, springs likewise in a ravine, which is some

of their vessels marked with black and white miles long, from among masses of rocks rising to

stripes; the Cologne, by their black funnels; the the height of 9,000 feet, out of an ice mountain. Netherlands, by having the funnels painted half which is five thousand feet above the level of the

black and half white. Some boats do not go lower sea.

down the stream than Arnhem, passengers proRafts on the Rhine. Every traveller on the Rhine ceeding further are taken by the old Netherland is sure to meet vast floating islands of timber going Company's boats. down the stream. It will doubtless be to him an

The Steamers are divided into three cabinsobject of interest to learn what this novel spectacle the Pavilion, the Chief Cabin, and the Fore Cabin. moans, its composition, object, and destination.

Refreshments are provided on board at a moderate They are called rafts, and are the produce of the rate, fixed by a printed tariff. In going up or forests covering the hills and mountains watered down the Rhine in the river boats, if a person by the Rhine and its tributaries--the Neckar, the

wishes, or is obliged, to travel with economy, Murg, Main, and Moselle. After being felled,

he may take a second class ticket, and dine at the the trees are thrown down from their lofty heights, table d'hôte in the main cabin by paying the and cast into some stream sufficient to float them.

difference of fare between the two places for such Trunk after trunk is bound together, and con

time he is at dinner; or, in other words, he will veyed from stream to stream, until floating islands

pay 3s. instead of 2s. for his dinner; are formed, which are navigated to Dordrecht, for mitted when not too crowded. The quickest boats sale at Neundorf.

go in one day down the Rhine, from Mannheim to As the mass swims along, it presents the Cologne and Düsseldorf; Mayence to Düsseldorf ; appearance of a floating village, composed of Düsseldorf to Rotterdam. Up the stream in one eight or ten wooden houses on a large timber day from Cologne to Mayence, in summer, and to platform. Four or five hundred rowers and as- Coblenz in winter; Coblenz to Mannheim. sistants are required to navigate the raft. These The following will be found the average time are directed by pilots and the proprietor, who occupied on the voyage between lives on board the raft, in a house built expressly


Rotterdam and Emmerich ......87 ...8 hrs...12 hrs for him, superior in size to the others.

Emmerich and Düsseldorf ......66 ...8 captain occupies an elevated position, which Düsseldorf and Cologne.........34 ...3 enables him to see and order all the steering and Cologne and Mayence .........116 ...9 1 ...134,5 movements. The massive structure is directed by Mayence and Mannheim .........51 ... 53, means of anchors and the immense oars placed In addition to the above stations, there are 38 fore and aft. The workpeople are accompanied by small towns and 21 landing places at which the their wives and children, and knitting, sewing, steamers touch, some of them being the most &c., is carried on during the day. A very large picturesque points of the Rhine. At any of the quantity of provisions is consumed during the without exception, the tourist may land, and

this is per




continue lis journey when he pleases, up or down Cologne to Bonn by rail; or by Steamer, the river, by any of the Company's steamers ; he

18 English miles. has only to take care to have his ticket marked by

Cologne terminus close to the St. Pantaleon's the conductor of the boat before leaving it. For

Gate. Distance by water, 22 English miles. landing or embarking at any of these points the

Steamers occupy 3 hours up, and it down. Tracharge is 13d.

vellers not desirous of visiting Bonn usually take Scenery of the Rhine. The picturesque grandeur the train as far as Remagen, and meet the steamer and beauties of the Rhine are first seen on arriving

coming from Cologne. A railway runs near both at the cluster of hills called Siebengebirge banks of the river, all the way from Cologne to (Seven Mountains); and from this place, along

Mayence. the banks of the river as far as Mayence, scenes

Cologne (Station). (See Route 18.)-The railof surpassing loveliness and romantic beauty are

way, quitting Cologne, passes, at a short distance constantly met with.

Tourists hurriedly pas- from the Rhine, through a flat country, rich in sing up and down the river in a steam-boat cannot

corn fields, and in proximity to the Vorgebirge properly enjoy the scenery of the Rhine. A mere

chain of hills, &c. The first station met with trip up or down the Rhine, such as English travellers

is at generally take, gives only an imperfect idea of

Kalscheuren, a place of no importance, to the beauties of the river and its banks. If the

the left. Leaving here we are quickly borne on tourist wishes to appreciate the Rhine, he must

to Brühl, a small town, containing a population not hurry on but halt at the following places,

of 3,000 souls. which perhaps are the most appropriate ones

Brühl (Station).-Remarkable as being the that can be pointed out: Bonn, Coblenz, St. Goar, refuge of the Archbishop Engelbert, of Falkenberg, and Bingen, or Rüdesheim.

Below Bonn, in the expelled from Cologne in 1824, and of the Cardinal direction of Cologne, or above Mayence, there Mazarin, when expelled from France. The elector, is scarcely any object which merits admiration.

Clement Augustus, laid, in 1725, the foundation We trace in the elevated Alps, in Switzer- stone of the magnificent Castle of Augustenberg, land, and near Mount St. Gothard, the sources finished by Maximilian Frederick, and now the of the Rhône, the Tessin, and the Rhine

property of the Prussian government. This castle the king of the German-nay, of the West lies on a beautiful promontory, which near Bonn, European rivers. The visitor, on ascending the recedes from the Rhine, and ranges along in a Rhine, or on his arrival at Strassburg, calls to his picturesque manner, two miles from it. The King recollection that this stream has hastened its of Prussia, in 1845, received Queen Victoria in this course through the lake of Constance; has pre- castle during the Beethoven festival. The site is cipitated itself over the rocky ramparts at Schaff- excellent, and the country around very picturesque hausen; then, strengthened by the collected and grand; over the stairs are beautiful platforms waters of Switzerland—the influx of 370 glaciers, | painted by Anducci and Carnioli. In the interior and upwards of 2,700 brooks and streams cultivated taste is combined with domestic comcommenced its majestic course near the ancient fort. Large fish ponds, shady groves, and a park Roman city of Bâle; expanding between the which was formerly stocked with game encircle Upper Black Forest, amidst ranges of mountains the castle; a linden walk takes us into a small encircling a valley of nearly 30 miles in breadth, wood to the beautiful hunting seat of Falkenlust. through which it rapidly wound, receiving, besides Leaving the last station we pass other streams, the important Neckar and Main, Seechtem (Station) and Waldorf, where are until a rocky gate at Bingen seems to arrest its the remains of a Roman aqueduct, and arrive at further career, through which it swiftly rushes, Roisdorf (Station). Here there is an excellent and strengthened by the Nahe and Moselle, over- mineral spring, whose water is preferable to that comes a similar obstacle at Andernach, when it of Godesberg, because it retains its carbonic acid continues its victorious course towards the sea.

for a longer time, and therefore may be sent to a


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