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suffered greatly by the revolution in 1830, as Holland has since retained and monopolised the trade with all the colonies which belong to the kingdom of the United Netherlands. Its mercantile marine, in 1880, numbered 64 sailing and steam vessels, and 280 fishing boats.

RELIGION.—Leopold I., when chosen, was a Protestant; the present King is a Roman Catholic, and that faith is the religion of the State. Every other form of faith has free exercise.

RAILWAYS.—Belgium is the first State in Europe in which a system of railways has been planned and executed partly at the public cost; and certainly it is an honourable distinction to have given the first example of such a national and systematic provision of the means of rapid communication. The undertaking was first projected in 1833, and the object proposed was to unite the principal commercial towns on one side with the sea, and on the other with the frontier of France and Prussia. In this respect Belgium is most favourably situated for the experiment of a general system of railroads. It is compact in form, moderate in size, and is surrounded on three of its sides by active commercial nations, and on the fourth by the sea, by which it is separated only a few hours' voyage from England. On the west are the two large and commodious ports of Antwerp and Ostend, and its east frontier is distant only a few leagues from the Rhine, which affords a connection with the nations of central and southern Europe. It is therefore in possession of convenient markets for its productions, and of great facilities for an extensive transit trade. The surface of the country is also most favourable, being for the most part very flat, and requiring but . few of those costly works of railway tunnelling, and embanking, which serve to increase so enormously the expense of similar undertakings in England.

In 1883, there were about 2,634 miles of Railway in Belgium, forming a complete network between all the towns, large and small; of which four-sevenths belonged to the State, producing £4,874,000. Half of the whole system is steel. The average cost is £14,000 a mile. There were 3,250 miles of TELEGRAPH line open in 1884, with 772 Stations; and there were 765 Post-OFFICES in 1880. Telegraph messages to England (not the Continent) are 5d. for 10 words (exclusive of the address), and id. for every five words over. From England, 2d. per word.

BRADSH AW'S HAND-BOOK TO BELGIUM AND THE RHINE.

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TRAINS leave by the London, Chatham, and Dover | improved and lengthened, is defended by several Line, from Victoria, about 7 40 mrn.(1 & 2 class) and small forts, and consists of a large quay, terminated 8 0 aft. (1 & 2 class), and Ludgate Hill at 7 36 mrn. by two long wooden piers, stretching into the sea. (1 & 2 class) and 7 56 aft. (1 & 2 class); and by the Its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the herring South Eastern Line, from Charing Cross, at 7 40 and cod-fishery trade, and carry on a considerable mrn. (1 & 2 class) and 8 5 aft. (1st class), and traffic in Dutch spirits. Calais has several large from Cannon Street at 7 45 mrn. and 8 10 aft.; and flourishing manufacturing establishments arriving at Dover at 9 30 mrn. and 10 0 aft. the bobbinet (tulle) lace, flaxspinning, and shipSteamers start from Dover at 9 35 mrn. and 10 0 building trades are carried on there with great aft.; arriving at Calais about 11 30 mrn. and 12 0 vigour. Several mills have been established, night. A Special Express Mail leaves London steam-engines have also been introduced in about 10 a.m. for Brussels, in 9 hours. There is increased numbers, and factories have been erected also a Special Fixed Night Service (3rd class). within the inner rampart. It is stated that See Bradshaw's Continental Guide.

55,000,000 of eggs are annually exported from this Calais (Station).-Hotels :

place to England. Hotel Dessin, formerly Hotel Quillac; open for

The pier of Calais is three-quarters of a mile in night trains and boats.

length, and is used as an agreeable promenade.

On a spot of it is seen the pillar erected to comHotel Meurice, Rue de Guise, near the Station

memorate the return of Louis XVIII. to France. and Quay.

It originally bore the following inscription : "Le Paris Hotel.

24 Avril, 1814, S. M. Louis XVIII. debarqua vis-àDe Flandre; Du Sauvage; De Londres, &c.

vis de cette Colonne et fut enfin rendu a l'amour Buffet at the railway station.

des Francais; pour en perpétuer le souvenir la ville Calais is a second-class fortress, and contains de Calais a élevé ce monument," i.e., His Majesty about 12,600 inhabitants. It is surrounded by Louis XVIII. disembarked opposite this column on sand-hills on one side and by morasses on the the 24th April, 1814, and was at last restored to the other, which, though detracting from its beauty, love of the French people, &c. The town of Calais yet add much to its military strength. The town erected this monument to commemorate the event. is situated in a very barren and non-picturesque A brazen plate was fixed on the exact spot where district. It has latterly been re-fortified, and its the monarch's foot stepped, in order to further works strengthened considerably, particularly to commemorate the act; but at the revolution of the sea coast. Its harbour, which bas bort much 1830 both plate and inscription were effaced,

B

leaving the pillar to stand as a monument of the be duly marked for transit, and they will avoid the capriciousness of French enthusiasm. Calais has annoyance of a custom-house search in France. very little to interest; and though one or two Steamers ply thrice each day between Calais incidents in its history are fraught with deep and Dover, making the voyage in about one and interest, particularly the embarkation of French a half to two hours. Steamboats sail direct to troops on board of English ships for the Baltic, London twice a week, performing the voyage in during the Crimean war, yet its objects of from 10 to 12 hours. attraction are few, and may be visited in about Calais to Lille, 65 English miles. two hours. Its principal Gate, built in 1635 by Leaving the station at the end of the pier, near Cardinal Richelieu, and figured by Hogarth in

to the gate, his celebrated picture, is worth a short inspection.

St. Pierre (Station), in the suburbs, is passed, The Hôtel de Guise will also interest the Eng

and lish traveller, as having been the place where

Ardres (Station) arrived at. It is a small Henry VIII. lodged, 1520, and as the original fortress, situated on a canal. A little to the west building where was established the Guildhall of

of the road, between the town and Guisnes, is the the mayor and aldermen of the “staple of wool," spot called by historians the "Field of the Cloth of founded in 1363 by Edward III. The Hôtel de Gold," where Henry VIII. of England and Francis Ville, or Town Hall, situate in the market place,

I. of France met in 1520. It is so called from the will repay à visit.

Within it are all the public cloth of gold covering the tents and pavilions offices, and the front of it is ornamented with

occupied by the two monarchs and their suites, busts of St. Pierre, of the Duke of Guise, and of

comprising 5,696 persons, with 4,325 horses. Cardinal de Richelieu. It is surmounted by a

Audruicq (Station). Watten Station. belfry containing a chime of bells. The tower and

St. Omer (Station).-Hotels : steeple of the principal Church, built when Calais

Hotel de la Porte d'Or, Rue St. Bertin. Appertained to England, deserve attention. Im

Du Commerce. mediately to the rear of the choir is a modern

Population, 21,850. cireular chapel, and the church itself is a fine

A third-rate fortress, situated in a marshy disstructure, built in the early Gothic style.

trict on the Aa, well built and strongly fortified English Service at Trinity Church and in St.

streets wide and well made. A plentiful supply Pierre.

of refreshing water is afforded from 12 fountains in The ramparts around the town and Pier form

different quarters. The Hôtel de Ville is situated admirable promenades. The Basse-Ville, or lower in the Place d'Armes. Beyond the walls are two town, is a pleasant walk on a fête day. The new

considerable suburbs, between which and Clairlighthouse should be visited. It is one of the most

marais are situated, amid extensive marshes, beautiful examples of mechanism in the world. several floating islands, covered with trees and The view from the summit of the tower presents a excellent pasture. The proprietors row them like panoramic scene of great beauty, comprising, on a a boat to land their cattle or take them up. The clear day, the distant cliffs of England and the town is on the line of railway from Calais to Lille. outlines of Dover Castle. The public cemetery Living is said to be cheap. It possesses two outside the town contains the ashes of Lady ecclesiastical buildings well worthy of noticeHamilton (Nelson's Emma), who expired here, the Cathedral, and Abbey Church of St. Bertin, destitute and impoverished.

The magnificent Cathedral, situated in the The railway from hence to Lille enables pas- Rue St. Bertin, exhibits a transition from the sengers 10 proceed direct by rail to Brussels and round to the pointed style of architecture. all parts of Begium; also to Douai and Paris. Its east end is of a polygonal termination, Travellers proceeding to Belgium or Germany will with projecting chapels. The interior of the aroid much trouble by informing the authorities church is in good preservation, and the small of their place of destination, and by what train Chapel of the Virgin has been lately redecorated they intend to proceed; their luggage should then At the extreme end of the street in which this church is situated are to be seen the remains of it is the seat of thriving industry and of busy the once famous Abbey of St. Bertin, formerly the manufacture, ranking as the seventh industrial noblest Gothic building in French Flanders. The and commercial city of the country. The town only fragment now remaining is a stately tower, is traversed by the waters of the Haute and noble even in its ruins, the mutilated panelling of Basse Deule, which fill its moats, and work the its walls bespeaking the chaste and superior ele- mill machinery about. They are connected by a gance of its florid Gothic style of ornament. From canal, so arranged as to be able to inundate the the tower, which is propped by a rude buttress

country for one and a half mile around the walls, of masonry, a fine panoramic view of the town

if necessary. Though the city is spacious and its may be had.

wealth very great, yet its monuments and buildings Thomas à Becket sought refuge in this are few and unimportant. once-famous abbey, when a fugitive from

The Citadel is looked upon as a master specimen England, and within its cloister were passed the

of the skill of Vauban, who held the position of last four years of his life. The monastery was

governor for many years. The Hotel de Ville is an suppressed in 1792, but was spared by the Conven

erection of the 13th century, built by Jean Sanstion. The Directory was less considerate, and under Peur, inhabited by Charles V., and was anciently it the roof was taken off, and the building stripped

the palace of the Dukes of Burgundy. The buildof its fixtures and wood work, which were sold.

ing is in the early Gothic style, and has in one of The work of destruction was completed a few

its tourelles an exquisitely groined staircase and a years since by the local authorities, who had the

chapel. The Musée Wicar, containing an interesting walls taken down, in order to find work for some and rich collection of drawings by the old masters, unemployed labourers.

occupies one division of the building. This It was here existed the celebrated Jesuits' Col

collection consists of 68 paintings by Raphael, lege; founded in 1596 by an English Jesuit, named 13 by Masaccio, 10 by Fra Bartolommeo, and 197 Parsons. In it were educated many of the con- architectural designs by Michael Angelo. An spirators mixed up in the Gunpowder Plot, and inspection of them will interest and gratify all some of the wild spirits who intrigued against lovers of the fine arts. Wicar, a native, bequeathed Elizabeth. This college was succeeded by a

them to the city. The Musée Moillet, an ethnoseminary, for British Roman Catholics, and in it

graphical collection, an Archeological museum, was educated the famous agitator, the late Daniel and an Industrial Museum also form part of the O'Connell,

Hôtel de Ville, which also includes the Musée de Considerable trade is done in linens and pipes, Peinture, which will scarcely repay a visit; it, and eggs and fruit are exported to England.

however, contains many curious old portraits of French Reformed Church, in the Rue Tayiel;

the Dukes of Burgundy and of the Counts of service every Sunday at 10-45 a.m.

Flanders, besides a painting by Rubens, and two Eblinghem (Station).

by Arnold de Vuez, a native artist, born in 1642, Hazebrouck (Station). From here a branch and considerably eminent in his profession. The line leads to Dunkirk. Refreshments may be had. former painting represents St. Catherine rescued

The following unimportant stations are next from the wheel of martyrdom, and the two latter passed :-Strazeele, Bailleul, Steenwerck, are portraits of Saints Francis and Cecilia. Armentières, and Perenchies.

The chief church in Lille is that of St. Maurice, Lille (Station).-Hotels :

a Gothic building of the 16th century, resting on Hotel de Lille; du Grand Café Jean.

delicately light pillars, but presenting no appearHotel de l'Europe; Paris ; Nouveau Monde; ance of general interest. The church of Ste. Flandre; France; Chemin de fer du Nord.

Catherine, in which is an image which has been English Church Service, on Sundays.

venerated for eight centuries, should be visited, as This city is strongly fortified, and forms, on the also the fine houses of the Rue Esqnermoise. The northern frontiers of France, the central point of | Bibliothèque communale, open 10 a.m., possesses defence. With a population of 163,000 inhabitants, 1 55,600 books and MSS.

The suburbs of Lille for miles around, as well , takes place called Géant Gayant; a large osier as the entire Department du Nord, will strike giant, 30 feet high, attired in armour, and accomthe traveller as strongly resembling the districts panied by a family of proportionate size, perthrough Lancashire and the West Riding. On ambulate the streets, accompanied by the populace. all sides is heard the busy hum of industry, whilst The Musée, always open to strangers, contains a tall chimneys and numerous mills proclaim the fair collection of pictures by Van Dyck, Van der active and vigorous trade being carried on, form- Meulen, &c., and ancient furniture. Douai has ing the rather novel combination of a fortress been famed for its College, founded by Cardinal and a manufacturing town. Flax forms the sta- Allen in 1569. In it Roman Catholic priests for ple manufacture, which is grown in and about England and Ireland have been educated. Daniel the adjacent country. It is spun into ordinary O'Connell also studied here. A good trade in thread, and twisted into Ligle thread. Cotton flax is carried on. spinning and manufacture are also carried on

Here the Northern of France Railway divides to a considerable extent, and lace, ribbons, and into two branches, the one proceeding to join tulle are extensively made. Its other branches

the Belgian Railways by Valenciennes; the other of trade are the manufacture of sugar from beet

by Arras and Amiens to Paris. root, the extraction of oils from colza and the

Montigny, Somain, Wallers, and Raismes seeds of rape, poppies, linseed, &c. Its other

Stations are passed previous to our arrival at objects of attraction are the Hospital, founded in

Valenciennes (Station). 1739, the Bridge, the Concert Hall, the Gaol, the Botanical Gardens, the Triumphal Arch, erected

Hotels : Du Commerce; des Princes; du Nord;

Hotel Vauban. in 1782, in honour of Louis XIV., and the Column raised in memory of the siege sustained by the Conveyances at the station, a quarter of a milc city in 1792.

distant from the town; there is a good Buffet here. Railway to Douai and Paris; to Valenciennes,

Population, 26,100. A place of considerable Mons, and Brussels; to Courtray, Ghent, and

trade and wealth, situated on the French Northern Brussels.

Railway; also strongly fortified by its position

on the Scheldt, at its confluence with the RhonFor continuation of direct route to Brussels,

elle, by which it may be surrounded for threesee page 16.

fourths of its circumference, the water being Lille to Douai and Valenciennes.

retained by means of sluices in the fortifications. Seclin, Carvin, and Leforest Stations, The town is well built; the houses are generally supplying places of no interest or importance, are of brick and white stone. The Hôtel de Ville, in passed before arriving at

which the Gothic style is mingled with several Douai (Station).

orders of architecture, will claim attention; it is Hotels : Hotel de Flandre ; de l'Europe.

highly decorated; the handsome façade is surPopulation, 26,250. The town is conveniently mounted by an attic, adorned with caryatid situated on the

river Scarpe, which com- figures, representing the four seasons. The Hosmunicates with the canal of Sense, and is pital and the Theatre are also remarkable. The surrounded by fortifications, which, originally by Musée, open from 10 a.m. to strangers, has Quentin Vauban, have lately been partially reconstructed. Matsys’ “Misers," and paintings by Van Dyck, The detached fort of Scarpe serves as a defence Teniers, Rubens, Jordaens, &c. The Valanciennes for the town, which belongs to Department du lace, formerly so famous, is now only made in Nord. I has a very picturesque belfry in the coarse and inferior qualities. From the Citadel market-place, surmounting the Hôtel de Ville, a the valley of the Scheldt is seen to advantage. Gothic building of the 15th century, in which is Froissart, the historian of the 14th century, was the library, containing 50,000 vols. A rather

born here. There is a railway connection with curious spectacle greets the traveller's eye here Anzin (Station), &c. in the early part of each July, when a procession VALENCIENNES TO BRUSSELS, see koute 7,

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