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ENGLISI LITERATURE.

ADDISON.

plative natures. David himself fell into it in that contemplates, until our reason comes again to our reflection : “When I consider the heavens the work of succour, and throws down all those little prejudices thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast which rise in us unawares, and are natural to the ordained, what is man that thou art mindful of him, mind of man. and the son of man that thou regardest him? In the We shall, therefore, utterly extinguish this melansame manner, when I considered that infinite host of choly thought of our being overlooked by our Maker, stars, or, to speak more philosophically, of suns, which in the multiplicity of his works and the infinity of were then shining upon me, with those innumerable those objects among which he seems to be incessantly sets of planets or worlds which were moving round employed if we consider, in the first place, that he is their respective suns—when I still enlarged the idea, omnipresent; and, in the second, that he is omniand supposed another heaven of suns and worlds scient. rising still above this which we discovered, and these If we consider him in his omnipresence, his being still enlightened by a superior firmament of lumi- passes through, actuates, and supports the whole Daries, which are planted at so great a distance, that frame of nature. His creation, and every part of it, they may appear to the inhabitants of the former as is full of him. There is nothing he has made that is the stars do to us-in short, while I pursued this either so distant, so little, or so inconsiderable, which thought, I could not but reflect on that little insig. he does not essentially inhabit. His substance is nificant figure which I myself bore amidst the im- within the substance of every being, whether material mensity of God's works.

or immaterial, and as intimately present to it as that Were the sun which enlightens this part of the being is to itself. It would be an imperfection in creation, with all the host of planetary worlds that him were he able to remove out of one place into anmore about him, utterly extinguished and annihi- other, or to withdraw himself from anything he has lated, they would not be missed more than a grain of created, or from any part of that space which is difsaud upon the sea-sbore. The space they possess is fused and spread abroad to infinity. In short, to so exceedingly little in comparison of the whole, that speak of him in the language of the old philosopher, it would scarce make a blank in the creation. The he is a being whose centre is everywhere, and his cir. chasm would be imperceptible to an eye that could cumference nowhere. take in the whole compass of nature, and pass from In the second place, he is omniscient as well as one end of the creation to the other; as it is possible omnipresent. His omniscience, indeed, necessarily there may be such a sense in ourselves hereafter, or in and naturally flows from his omnipresence : he cancreatures which are at present more exalted than our- not but be conscious of every motion that arises in selves. We see many stars by the help of glasses the whole material world, which he thus essentially which we do not discover with our naked eyes; and pervades; and of every thought that is stirring in the the finer our telescopes are, the more still are our intellectual world, to every part of which he is thus discoveries. Huygenius carries this thought so far, intimately united. Several moralists have considered that he does not think it impossible there may be the creation as the temple of God, which he has built stars whose light has not yet travelled down to us since with his own hands, and which is filled with his pretheir first creation. There is no question but the sence. Others have considered infinite space as the universe has certain bounds set to it; but when we receptacle, or rather the habitation, of the Almighty. consider that it is the work of infinite power prompted But the noblest and most exalted way of considering by infinite goodness, with an infinite space to exert this infinite space is that of Sir Isaac Newton, who itself in, how can our imagination set any bounds to calls it the sensorium of the Godhead. Brutes and it?

men have their sensoriola, or little sensoriums, by To return, therefore, to my first thought ; I could which they apprehend the presence and perceive the not but look upon myself with secret horror as a being actions of a few objects that lie contiguous to them. that was not worth the smallest regard of one who Their knowledge and observation turn within a very had so great a work under his care and superinten-narrow circle. But as God Almighty cannot but dency. I was afraid of being overlooked amidst the perceive and know everything in which he resides, immensity of nature, and lost among that infinite infinite space gives room to infinite knowledge, and 18, variety of creatures which in all probability swarm as it were, an organ to omniscience. through all these immeasurable regions of matter. Were the soul separate from the body, and with

In order to recover myself from this mortifying one glance of thought should start beyond the bounds thought, I considered that it took its rise from those of the creation-should it for millions of years connarrow conceptions which we are apt to entertain of tinue its progress through infinite space with the same the divine nature. We ourselves cannot attend to activity--it would still find itself within the embrace many different objects at the same time. If we are of its Creator, and encompassed round with the imcareful to inspect some things, we must of course mensity of the Godhead. While we are in the body, neglect others. This imperfection which we observe he is not less present with us because he is concealed in ourselves is an imperfection that cleaves in some from us. Oh that I knew where I might find him ! degree to creatures of the highest capacities, as they saya Job. “Behold I go forward, but he is not there ; are creatures; that is, beings of finite and limited and backward, but I cannot perceive him : on the left natures. The presence of every created being is con- | hand where he does work, but I cannot behold him : fined to a certain measure of space, and consequently he hideth himself on the right hand that I cannot see his observation is stinted to a certain number of him. In short, reason as well as revelation assures objects. The sphere in which we move, and act, and us that he cannot be absent from us, notwithstanding understand, is of a wider circumference to one crea- he is undiscovered by us. ture than another, according as we rise one above! In this consideration of God Almighty's omnipre. another in the scale of existence. But the widest of sence and omniscience, every uncomfortable thought these our spheres has its circumference. When, there- vanishes. He cannot but regard everything that has fore, we reflect on the divine nature, we are so used being, especially such of his creatures who fear the and accustomed to this imperfection in ourselves, that are not regarded by him. He is privy to all the we cannot forbear in some measure ascribing it to Him thoughts, and to that anxiety of heart in particula in whom there is no shadow of imperfection. Our which is apt to trouble them on this occasion: for reason indeed assures us that his attributes are in- it is impossible he should overlook any of his finite; but the poorness of our conceptions is such, tures, so we may be confident that ho regards that it cannot forbear setting bounds to everything it | eye of mercy those who endeavour to reco

recommend

cok any of his creathe regards with an themselves to his notice, and in an unfeigned humi- sent as to deny that there are very great advantages lity of heart think themselres unworthy that he in the enjoyment of a plentiful fortune. Indeed the should be mindful of them.

best and wisest of men, though they may possibly despise a good part of those things which the world

calls pleasures, can, I think, hardly be insensible of EUSTACE BUDGELL.

that weight and dignity which a moderate share of EUSTACE BUDGELL has already been mentioned as wealth adds to their characters, counsels, and actions. one of the contributors to the Spectator.' He was We find it is a general complaint in professions and a relation of Addison, who patronised him with trades, that the richest meinbers of them are chiefly much kindness, and procured for him several lucra- encouraged, and this is falsely imputed to the illtive offices in Ireland. Thirty-seven numbers of nature of mankind, who are ever bestowing their the Spectator' are ascribed to Budgell; and though | favours on such as least want them ; whereas, if we Dr Johnson says that these were either written by fairly consider their proceedings in this case, we shall Addison, or so much improved by him that they find then founded on undoubted reason; since, supwere made in a manner his own," there seems to be posing both equal in their natural integrity, I ought, no sufficient authority for the assertion, which, in in common prudence, to fear foul play from an indiitself, appears somewhat improbable, as Addison gent person, rather than from one whose circumstances was not likely to allow another to obtain the credit

seem to have placed him a re the bare temptation due to himself. It is true that the style and humour of money. resemble those of Addison; but as the two writers

This reason also makes the commonwealth regard were much together, a successful attempt on Bud- her richest subjects as those who are most concerned gell's part to imitate the productions of his friend, for her quiet and interest, and consequently fitted to was probable enough. In 1717, Budgell, who, not

be intrusted with her highest employments. On the withstanding the good sense and sound morality of

contrary, Catiline's saying to those men of desperate his writings in the Spectator,' was a man of ex

fortunes who applied themselres to him, and of whom treme vanity and revengeful feeling, had the impru. he afterwards composed his army, that 'they had nodence to lampoon the Irish viceroy, by whom he

thing to hope for but a civil war,' was too true not to had been deeply offended; the result of which was

make the impressions he desired. his dismissal from office, and return to England.

I believe I need not fear but that what I have said During the prevalence of the South-Sea scheme, he

in praise of money will be more than sufficient with lost a fortune of £20,000, and subsequently figured

most of my readers to excuse the subject of my preprincipally as a virulent party writer, and an advo

sent paper, which I intend as an essay on "The ways cate of free-thinking. At length his declining repu

to raise a man's fortune, or the art of growing rich. tation suffered a mortal blow by the establishment

The first and most infallible method towards the against him of the charge of having forged a testa

attaining of this end is thrift: all men are not equally ment in his own favour. It is to this circumstance

qualified for getting moncy, but it is in the power of that Pope alludes in the couplet

every one alike to practise this virtue ; and I believe

there are few persons who, if they please to reflect on Let Budgell charge low Grub Street on my quill,

their past lives, will not find, that had thcy saved all And write whate'er he please_except my will.

those little sums which they have spent unnecessarily,

they might at present have been masters of a compeSome years afterwards, this wretched man, finding

tent fortune. Diligence justly claims the next place life unsupportable, deliberately committed suicide, to thrift ; I find both these excellently well recomby leaping from a boat while shooting London mended to common use in the three following Italian Bridge. This took place in 1737. There was found

proverbs :in his bureau a slip of paper, on which he had written

• Never do that by proxy which you can do yourself.

Never defer that until to-morrow which you can do What Cato did, and Addison approved,

to-day. Cannot be wrong.

• Never neglect small matters and expenses.' But in this he certainly misrepresented the opinion A third instrument in growing rich is method in of Addison, who has put the following words into

business, which, as well as the two former, is also atthe mouth of the dying Cato :

tainable by persons of the meanest capacities.

The famous De Witt, one of the greatest statesmen - Yet methinks a beam of light breaks in of the age in which he lived, being asked by a friend On my departing soul. Alas! I fear

how he was able to despatch that multitude of affairs I've been too hasty. ( ye powers that search

in which he was engaged ? replied, That his whole art The heart of man, and weigh his inmost thoughts,

consisted in doing one thing at once. If, says he, I If I have done ainiss, impute it not.

bave any necessary despatches to make, I think of The best may err, but you are good.

nothing else until those are finished ; if any domestic The contributions of Budgell to the Spectator'

affairs require my attention, I give myself up wholly

to them until they are set in order. are distinguished by the letter X. We select one of them, on

In short, we often see men of dull and phlegmatic tempers arriving to great estates, by making a regular

I and orderly disposition of their business ; and that, [The Art of Growing Rich.]

without it, the greatest parts and moet lively imagiLucian rallies the philosophers in his time, who nations rather puzzle their affairs, than bring them to could not agree whether they should admit riches into a happy issue. the number of real goods; the professors of the severer

| From what has been said, I think I may lay it sects threw then quite out, while others as resolutely down as a maxim, that every man of good common inserted them.

sense may, if he pleases, in his particular station of I am apt to believe, that as the world grew more life, most certainly be rich. The reason why we somepolite, the rigid doctrines of the first were wholly dis times see that men of the greatest capacities are not carded ; and I do not find any one so hardy at pre so, is either because they despise wealth in compari.

son of something else, or, at least, are not content to * Soo Boswell's Life of Johnson, vol. lil | be getting an estate, unless they may do it their wn

way, and at the same time enjoy all the pleasures and Whitehall or St James's. I believe I may also add, gratifications of life.

that the first acquisitions are generally attended with But besides these ordinary forms of growing rich, it more satisfaction, and as good a conscience. must be allowed that there is room for genius as well I must not, however, close this essay without obseryin this as in all other circumstances of life.

ing, that what has been said is only intended for perThough the ways of getting money were long since sons in the common ways of thriving, and is not devery numerous, and though so many new ones have signed for those men who, from low beginnings, push been found out of late years, there is certainly still themselves up to the top of states and the most conremaining so large a field for invention, that a man siderable figures in life. My maxim of saving is not of an indifferent head might easily sit down and draw designed for such as these, since nothing is more usual up such a plan for the conduct and support of his life, than for thrift to disappoint the ends of ambition; it as was never yet once thought of.

being almost impossible that the mind should be inWe daily see methods put in practice by hungry tent upon trifles, while it is, at the same time, formand ingenious men, which demonstrate the power of ing some great design. invention in this particular.

I may therefore compare these men to a great poet, It is reported of Scaramouche, the first famous who, as Longinus says, while he is full of the most Italian comedian, that being in Paris, and in great magnificent ideas, is not always at leisur

Iways at leisure to mind want, he bethought himself of constantly plying near the little beauties and niceties of his art. the door of a noted perfumer in that city, and when I would, however, have all my readers take great any one came out who had been buying snuff, never care how they mistake themselves for uncommon failed to desire a taste of them : when he had by this geniuses and men above rule, since it is very easy for means got together a quantity made up of several them to be deceived in this particular. different sorts, he sold it again at a lower rate to the same perfumer, who, finding out the trick, called it Tubac de mille fleurs, or 'Snuff of a thousand flowers.'

JOHN HUGHES. The story farther tells us, that by this means he got

Very different from Budgell's character was that a very comfortable subsistence, until, making too much haste to grow rich, he one day took such an unreason- the

of John Hughes, the other principal contributor to able pinch out of the box of a Swiss officer, as engaged

the “Spectator.' To this individual, who was dishim in a quarrel, and obliged him to quit this inge

tinguished by a mild, amiable, contented, and pious nious way of life.

disposition, and considerable abilities as a pleasing Nor can I in this place omit doing justice to a

writer, are attributed two papers and several letters youth of my own country, who, though he is scarce

in the • Tatler,' eleven papers and thirteen letters in yet twelve years old, has, with great industry and ap

the Spectator,' and two papers in the Guardian.' plication, attained to the art of beating the grenadiers'

The high reputation which he at one time enjoyed inarch on his chin. I am credibly informed, that by

as a writer of poetry, has now justly declined. In this means he does not only maintain himself and his

translation, however, both in poetry and prose, he mother, but that he is laying up money every day,

made some highly successful efforts. Of several with a design, if the war continues, to purchase a

dramatic pieces which he produced, The Siege of drum at least, if not a pair of colours.

Damascus alone has escaped from oblivion. In this I shall conclude these instances with the device of play, the morality, diction, and imagery, claim much the fainous Rabelais, when he was at a great distance

admiration; but it is too little fitted to move the from Paris, and without money to bear his expenses

passions to be a favourite on the stage. Though thither. This ingenious author being thus sharp set,

still occasionally acted, it affords greater pleasure in got together a convenient quantity of brick-dust, and

the closet. So highly did Addison esteem the talent having disposed of it into several papers, writ upon

of Hughes, that he requested him to furnish the one, poison for nonsieur,' upon a second, 'poison

fifth act of Cato;' and it was not till some profor the Jauphin,' and on a third, poison for the king'gress had been made in the labour, that a change Having made this provision for the royal family of of purpose on Addison's part interfered. In the France, he laid his papers so that his landlord, who opinion of Dr Joseph Warton, Hughes was very was an inquisitive man, and a good subject, might get capable of writing this fifth act. “ The Siege of a sight of them.

Damascus" is a better tragedy than “ Cato," though The plot succeeded as he desired; the host gare Pope affected to speak slightingly of its author.'* immediate intelligence to the secretary of state. The The reputation of Hughes was well sustained by the secretary presently sent down a special messenger, manner in which he edited the works of Spenser. who brought up the traitor to court, and provided him The virtues of this estimable person (who died in at the kiny's expense with proper accommodations on 1720, at the age of forty-three) were affectionately the road. As soon as he appeared, he was known to be commemorated by Sir Richard Steele, in a publicathe celebrated Rabelais ; and his powder upon exami tion called The Theutre. •All the periodical essays nation being found very innocent, the jest was only of Hughes,' says Dr Drake, are written in a style laughed at; for which a less eminent droll would which is, in general, easy, correct, and elegant: they have been sent to the galleys.

occasionally exhibit wit and humour; and they uni. Trade and commerce might doubtless be still formly tend to inculcate the best precepts, moral, varied a thousand ways, out of which would arise such prudential, and religious.'t One of his best is on branches as have not yet been touched. The famous Doily is still fresh in every one's memory, who raised

[Ambition.] a fortune by finding out materials for such stuffs as might at once be cheap and genteel. I have heard it If we look abroad upon the great multitude of affirmed, that, had not he discovered this frugal me- mankind, and endeavour to trace out the principles thod of gratifying our pride, we should hardly have of action in every individual, it will, I think, seem been so well able to carry on the last war.

highly probable that ambition runs through the whole I regard traile not only as highly advantageous to species, and that every man, in proportion to the the commonwealth in general, but as the most natu- | vigour of his complexion, is more or less actuated by ral and likely method of making a man's fortune, having observed, since my being & Spectator in the

* Note to Pope's prologuie to Cato. world, greater estates got about 'Change than at

Drake's Essays, lii. 50.

it. It is, indeed, no uncominon thing to meet with Thus nature furnishes a man with a general apne. men who, by the natural bent of their inclinations, tite of glory ; education determines it to this or that and without the discipline of philosophy, aspire not particular object. The desire of distinction is not, I to the heights of power and grandeur; who never set think, in any instance more observable than in the their hearts upon a numerous train of clients and variety of outsides and new appearances which the dependencies, nor other gay appendages of greatness ; | modish part of the world are obliged to provide, in who are contented with a competency, and will not order to make themselves remarkable; for anything molest their tranquillity to gain an abundance; but glaring or particular, either in behaviour or apparel, it is not therefore to be concluded that such a man is is known to have this good effect, that it catches the not ambitious: his desires may have cut out another eye, and will not suffer you to pass over the person so channel, and determined him to other pursuits; the adorned without due notice and observation. It has motive, however, may be still the same ; and in these likewise, upon this account, been frequently resented cases likewise the man may be equally pushed on as a very great slight, to leave any gentleman out of with the desire of distinction.

a lampoon or satire, who has as much right to be Though the pure consciousness of worthy actions, there as his neighbour, because it supposes the person abstracted from the views of popular applause, be to not eminent enough to be taken Dotice of. To this a generous mind an ample reward, yet the desire of passionate fondness for distinction, are owing various distinction was doubtless implanted in our natures as frolicsome and irregular practices, as sallying out into an additional incentive to exert ourselves in virtuous nocturnal exploits, breaking of windows, singing of excellence.

catches, beating the watch, getting drunk twice a day, This passion, indeed, like all others, is frequently killing a great number of horses, with many other enperverted to evil and ignoble purposes, so that we may terprises of the like fiery nature; for certainly many account for many of the excellencies and follies of life a man is more rakish and extravagant than he would upon the same innate principle, to wit, the desire of willingly be, were there not others to look on and give being remarkable: for this, as it has been differently I their approbation. cultivated by education, study, and converse, will bring One very common, and at the same time the most forth suitable effects, as it falls in with an ingenuous absurd ambition that ever showed itself in human disposition or a corrupt mind; it does accordingly nature, is that which comes upon a man with expeexpress itself in acts of magnanimity or selfish cun-rience and old age, the season when it might be ning, as it meets with a good or weak understanding. expected he should be wisest; and therefore it canAs it has been employed in embellishing the mind, not receive any of those lessening circumstances which or adorning the outside, it renders the man eminently do, in some measure, excuse the disorderly ferments praiseworthy or ridiculous. Ambition, therefore, is of youthful blood : I mean the passion for getting not to be confined only to one passion or pursuit ; for money, exclusive of the character of the provident as the same humours, in constitutions otherwise diffe- father, the affectionate husband, or the generous rent, affect the body after different manners, so the friend. It may be remarked, for the comfort of honest same aspiring principle within us sometimes breaks poverty, that this desire reigns most in those who forth upon one object, sometimes upon another. have but few good qualities to recommend them. This

It cannot be doubted but that there is as great a de- is a weed that will grow in a barren soil, Humanity, sire of glory in a ring of wrestlers or cudgel-players, as good nature, and the advantages of a liberal educain any other more refined competition for superiority. tion, are incompatible with avarice. It is strange to No man that could avoid it would ever suffer his see how suddenly this abject passion kills all the noble head to be broken but out of a principle of honour. sentiments and generous ambitions that adorn human This is the secret spring that pushes them forward ; nature; it renders the man who is orer-run with it a and the superiority which they gain above the undis-peevish and cruel master, a severe parent, an unsotinguished many, does more than repair those wounds ciable husband, a distant and mistrustful friend. But they have received in the combat. It is Mr Waller's it is more to the present purpose to consider it as an opinion, that Julius Cæsar, had he not been master of absurd passion of the heart, rather than as a vicious the Roman empire, would in all probability have affection of the mind. As there are frequent instances made an excellent wrestler.

to be met with of a proud humility, so this passion, • Great Julius, on the mountains bred,

contrary to most others, affects applause, by aroiding A flock perhaps or herd had led :

all show and appearance ; for this reason, it will not

sometimes endure even the common decencies of He that the world subdued, had been

apparel. "A covetous man will call himself poor, But the best wrestler on the green.'

that you may soothe his vanity by contradicting him.' That he subdued the world, was owing to the acci- Love, and the desire of glory, as they are the most dents of art and knowledge : had he not met with natural, so they are capable of being refined into the those advantages, the same sparks of emulation would most delicate and rational passions. It is true, the have kindled within him, and prompted him to dis- wise man who strikes out of the secret paths of a tinguish himself in some enterprise of a lower nature. private life, for honour and dignity, allured by the Since, therefore, no man's lot is so unalterably fixed splendour of a court, and the unfelt weight of public in this life, but that a thousand accidents may either employment, whether he succeeds in his attempts or forward or disappoint his advancement, it is, me-not, usually comes near enough to this painted greatthinks, a pleasant and inoffensive speculation, to ness to discern the daubing; he is then desirous of consider a great man as divested of all the adventi- extricating himself out of the hurry of life, that he tious circumstances of fortune, and to bring him down may pass away the remainder of his days in tranquil. in one's imagination to that low station of life, the lity and retirement. nature of which bears some distant resemblance to It may be thought, then, but common prudence in that high one he is at present possessed of. Thus one a man not to change a better state for a worse, nor may view him exercising in miniature those talents ever to quit that which he knows he shall take up of nature which, being drawn out by education to again with pleasure ; and yet if human life be not a their full length, enable him for the discharge of little moved with the gentle gales of hope and fears, some important employment. On the other hand, there may be some danger of its stagnating in an unone may raise uneducated merit to such a pitch of manly indolence and security. It is a known story greatness, as may seem equal to the possible extent of Domitian, that after he had possessed himself of of his improved capacity.

| the Roman empire, his desires turned upon catching

IIIIII

flies. Active and masculine spirits in the vigour of on the foreigners, and a defence of King William youth neither can nor ought to remain at rest ; if and the Dutch, had an almost unexampled sale. they debar themselves from aiming at a noble object, Defoe was in reality no poet, but he could reason their desires will move downwards, and they will feel themselves actuated by some low and abject passion. Thus, if you cut off the top branches of a tree, and will not suffer it to grow any higher, it will not therefore cease to grow, but will quickly shoot out at the bottom. The man, indeed, who goes into the world only with the narrow views of self-interest, who catches at the applause of an idle multitude, as he can find no solid contentment at the end of his journey, so he deserves to meet with disappointments in his way ; but he who is actuated by a nobler principle, whose mind is so far enlarged as to take in the prospect of his country's good, who is enamoured with that praise which is one of the fair attendants of virtue, and values not those acclamations which are not seconded by the impartial testimony of his own mind; who repines not at the low station which Providence has at present allotted him, but yet would willingly advance himself by justifiable means to a more rising and advantageous ground ; such a man is warmed with a generous emulation; it is a virtuous movement in him to wish and to endeavour that his power of doing good may be equal to his will. The man who is fitted out by nature, and sent into

Daniel Defoe. the world with great abilities, is capable of doing great good or mischief in it. It ought, therefore, to in verse, and had an unlimited command of homely be the care of education to infuse into the untainted and forcible language. The opening lines of this youth early notices of justice and honour, that so the satire have often been quotedpossible advantages of good parts may not take an Wherever God erects a house of prayer, evil turn, nor be perverted to base and unworthy The devil always builds a chapes there; purposes. It is the business of religion and philo

And 'twill be found upon examination, sophy not so much to extinguish our passions, as to The latter has the largest congregation. regulate and direct them to valuable well-chosen objects; when these have pointed out to us which Various political tracts followed from the active course we may lawfully steer, it is no harm to set out pen of our author. In 1702 he wrote an ironical all our sail ; if the storms and tempests of adversity treatise against the High Church party, entitled should rise upon us, and not suffer us to make the The Shortest Way with the Dissenters, which was haven where we would be, it will, however, prove no voted a libel by the House of Commons; and the small consolation to us in these circumstances, that author being apprehended, was fined, pilloried, and we have neither mistaken our course, nor fallen into imprisoned. He wrote a hymn to the pillory, which calamities of our own procuring.

he wittily styled Religion, therefore, were we to consider it no farther

A hieroglyphic state-machine, than as it interposes in the affairs of this life, is

Condemned to punish fancy in; highly valuable, and worthy of great veneration; as it settles the various pretensions, and otherwise inter- and Pope alluded to the circumstance with the fering interests of mortal men, and thereby consults spirit of a political partisan, not that of a friend to the harmony and order of the great community; as it literature or liberty, in bis 'Dunciad'gives a man room to play his part and exert his

Earless on high stood unabashed Defoe. abilities; as it animates to actions truly laudable in themselves, in their effects beneficial to society; as it

The political victim lay nearly two years in New. inspires rational ambition, corrects love, and elevates

gate, during which he carried on a periodical work,

The Review, published twice a week. The character desire.

of Defoe, notwithstandiwoce a week. The character of Defoe, notwithstanding his political persecution,

must have stood high ; for he was employed by the MISCELLANEOUS WRITER &

cabinet of Queen Anne on a mission to Scotland to DANIEL DEFOE.

advance the great measure of the Union, of which

he afterwards wrote a history. He again tried his The political contests of this period engaged a hand at political irony, and was again thrown into host of miscellaneous writers. The most powerful prison, and fined £800. Neither Whig nor Tory and effective belonged to the Tory or Jacobite could understand Defoe's ironical writings. His party; but the Whigs possessed one unflinching and confinement this time lasted, however, only a few prolific champion-DANIEL DEFOE -- the father or months. Admonished by dear-bought experience, founder of the English novel. This excellent writer our author now abandoned politics, and in 1719 was a native of London, the son of a St Giles butcher, appeared his Robinson Crusoe. The extraordinary and Dissenter. Daniel was born in 1661, and was success of this work prompted him to write a variety intended to be a Presbyterian minister, but entered of other fictitious narratives, as Moll Flanders, Capinto trade. He joined the insurrection of the Duke tain Singleton, Duncan Campbell, Colonel Jack, The of Monmouth, but escaped punishment; and when History of the Great Plague in London in 1665, &c. the Revolution came, was one of its steadiest friends When he had exhausted this vein, he applied himand warmest admirers. He was successively a hosier, self to a Political History of the Devil, A System of a tile-maker, and a woollen-merchant; but without Magic, The Complete Ěnglish Tradesman, A Tour success. As an author, he made, in 1699, a lucky Through Great Britain, and other works. The life of venture. His True-born Englishman, a poetical satire this active and voluminous writer was closed in

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