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lences, and whose esteem and friendship is alone and I have hitherto met with, do (for want of skill in worth their being concerned for. In a word, they the original, especially in the Ilebrew) judge of it by prove the happiest as well as they are the wisest the translations, wherein alone they read it. Now, ladies, that, whilst they possess the desirable quali scarce any but a linguist will imagine how much a ties that youth is wont to give, neglect not the acquist book may lose of its elegancy by being read in another [acquisition) of those that age cannot take away. tongue than that it was written in, especially if the

languages from which and into which the version is [Marriage a Lottery.]

made be so very differing, as are those of the eastern Methinks, Lindamor, most of those transitory goods and these western parts of the world. But of this I that we are so fond of, may not unfitly be resembled foresee an occasion of saying something hereafter ; yet to the sensitive plant which you have admired at Sion- at present I must observe to you, that the style of the garden : for as, though we gaze on it with attention / Scripture is much more disadvantaged than that of and wonder, yet when we come to touch it, the coy other books, by being judged of by translations ; for delusive plant immediately shrinks in its displayed the religious and just veneration that the interpreters leaves, and contracts itself into a form and dimensions of the Bible have had for that sacred book, has made disadvantageously differing from the former, which it them, in most places, render the Hebrew and Greek again recovers by degrees when touched no more ; 80 passages so scrupulously word for word, that, for fear these objects that charm us at a distance, and whilst of not keeping close enough to the sense, they usually gazed on with the eyes of expectation and desire, when care not how much they lose of the eloquence of the a more immediate possession hath put them into our passages they translate. So that, whereas in those bands, their former lustre vanishes, and they appear versions of other books that are made by good linguists, quite differing things from what before they seemed ; the interpreters are wont to take the liberty to recede though, after deprivation or absence hath made us from the author's words, and also substitute other forget their emptiness, and we be reduced to look upon phrases instead of his, that they may express his them again at a distance, they recover in most men's meaning without injuring his reputation. In translateyes their former beauty, and are as capable as before ing the Old Testament, interpreters have not put to in veigle and delude us. I must add, Lindamor, Hebrew phrases into Latin or English phrases, but that, when I conipare to the sensitive plant most of only into Latin or English words, and have too often, these transitory things that are flattered with the title besides, by not sufficiently understanding, or at least of goods, I do not out of that number except most considering, the various significations of words, parmistresses. For, though I am no such an enemy to ticles, and tenses, in the holy tongue, made many matrimony as some (for want of understanding the things appear less coherent, or less rational, or less raiilery I have sometimes used in ordinary discourse) considerable, which, by a more free and skilful renare pleased to think me, and would not refuse you my dering of the original, would not be blemished by any advice (though I would not so readily give you my ex- appearance of such imperfection. And though this ample) to turn votary to Hymen ; yet I have observed fault of interpreters be pardonable enough in them, 80 few happy matches, and so many unfortunate ones, as carrying much of its excuse in its cause, yet it and have so rarely seen men love their wives at the cannot but much derogate from the Scripture to aprate they did whilst they were their mistresses, that pear with peculiar disadvantages, besides those many I wonder not that legislators thought it necessary to that are common to almost all books, by being tranmake marriages indissoluble, to make them lasting. | slated. And I cannot fitlier compare marriage than to a For whereas the figures of rhetoric are wont, by lottery; for in both, he that ventures may succeed and orators, to be reduced to two comprehensive sorts, and may miss; and if he draw a prize, he hath a rich re-one of those does so depend upon the sound and placturn of his venture : but in both lotteries there is a | ing of the words (whence the Greek rhetoricians call pretty store of blanks for every prize.

such figures schemata lexeos), that, if they be altered,

though the sense be retained, the figure may vanish; Some Considerations Touching the Style of the

this sort of figures, I say, which comprises those that Holy Scriptures.

orators call epanados antanaclasis, and a multitude of These things, dear Theophilus, being thus des- others, are wont to be lost in such literal translations patched, I suppose we may now seasonably proceed to as are ours of the Bible, as I could easily show by consider the style of the Scripture ; a subject that will many instances, if I thought it requisite. as well require as deserve some time and much atten- Besides, there are in Hebrew, as in other languages, tion, in regard that divers witty men, who freely certain appropriated graces, and a peculiar emphasis acknowledge the authority of the Scripture, take ex- belonging to some expressions, which must necessarily ceptions at its style, and by those and their own repu- be impaired by any translation, and are but too often tation, divert many from studying, or so much as quite lost in those that adhere too scrupulously to perusing, those sacred writings, thereby at once giving the words of the original. And, as in a lovely face, men injurious and irreverent thoughts of it, and though a painter may well enough express the cheeks, diverting them from allowing the Scripture the best and the nose, and lips, yet there is often something of way of justifying itself, and disabusing them. Than splendour and vivacity in the eyes, which no pencil which scarce anything can be more prejudicial to a can reach to equal ; so in some choice composures, book, that needs but to be sufficiently understood to though a skilful interpreter may happily enough be highly venerated ; the writings these men crimi- render into his own language a great part of what nate, and would keep others from reading, being like he translates, yet there may well be some shining pasthat honey which Saul's rash adjuration withheld the sages, some sparkling and emphatical expressions, Israelites from eating, which, being tasted, not only that he cannot possibly represent to the life. And gratified the taste, but enlightened the eyes. * * this consideration is more applicable to the Bible and

Of the considerations, then, that I am to lay before its translations than to other books, for two particular you, there are three or four, which are of a more gene reasons. ral nature; and therefore being such as may each of For, first, it is more difficult to translate the Hebrew them be pertinently employed against several of the of the Old Testament, than if that book were written exceptions taken at the Scripture's style, it will not in Syriac or Arabic, or some such other eastern lanbe inconvenient to mention them before the rest. guage. Not that the holy tongue is much more dif

And, in the first place, it should be considered that ficult to be learned than others; but because in the those cavillers at the style of the Scripture, that you other learned tongues we know there are commonly variety of books extant, whereby we may learn the poems. And therefore it is that the latter critice hare various significations of the words and phrases ; been fain to write comments, or at least notes, upon whereas the pure Hebrew being unhappily lost, ex- every page, and in some pages upon almost every line cert so much of it as remains in the Old Testament, of those books, to enable the reader to discern the out of whose books alone we can but very imperfectly eloquence, and relish the wit of the author. And if frame a dictionary and a language, there are many such dilucidations be necessary to make us value words, especially the hapax legomena, and those that writings that treat of familiar and secular affairs, occur but seldoin, of which we know but that one sig and were written in a European language, and in nification, or those few acceptions, wherein we find it times and countries much nearer to ours, how much used in those texts that we think we clearly under- do you think we must lose of the elegancy of the book stand. Whereas, if we consider the nature of the of Job, the Psalms of David, the Song of Solomon, primitive tongue, whose words, being not numerous, and other sacred composures, which not only treat are most of them equivocal enough, and do many of oftentimes of sublime and supernatural mysteries, but them abound with strangely different meanings; and were written in very remote regions so many ages ago, if we consider, too, how likely it is that the nume- amidst circumstances to most of which we cannot but rous conquests of David, and the wisdom, prosperity, be great strangers. And thus much for my first genefleets, and various commerces of his son Solomon, did ral consideration. both enrich and spread the Hebrew language, it can- My second is this, that we should carefully distinnot but seem very probable, that the same word or guish betwixt what the Scripture itself says, and what phrase may have had divers other significations than is only said in the Scripture. For we must not look interpreters have taken notice of, or we are now aware upon the Bible as an oration of God to men, or as a of: since we find in the Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and body of laws, like our English statute-book, wherein other eastern tongues, that the Hebrew words and it is the legislator that all the way speaks to the phrases (a little varied, according to the nature of people; but as a collection of composures of very difthose dialects) have other, and oftentimes very dif- fering sorts, and written at very distant times; and ferent significations, besides those that the modern of such composures, that though the holy men of God interpreters of the Bible have ascribed to them. I say (as St Peter calls them) were acted by the Holy the modern, because the ancient versions before, or Spirit, who both excited and assisted them in penning not long after, our Saviour's time, and especially that the Scripture, yet there are many others, besides the which we vulgarly call the Septuagint's, do frequently | Author and the penmen, introduced speaking there. favour our conjecture, by rendering Hebrew words for besides the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and phrases to senses very distant from those more Kings, Chronicles, the four evangelists, the Acts of received significations in our texts; when there ap- the Apostles, and other parts of Scripture that are eripears no other so probable reason of their so rendering dently historical, and wont to be so called, there are, them, as their believing them capable of significations in the other books, many passages that deserve the differing enough from those to which our later inter- same name, and many others wherein, though they be preters have thought fit to confine themselves. The not mere narratives of things done, many sayings and use that I would make of this consideration may easily expressions are recorded that either belong not to be conjectured, namely, that it is probable that many the Author of the Scripture, or must be looked upon as of those texts whose expressions, as they are rendered such wherein his secretaries personate others. So that, in our translations, seem flat or improper, or incohe in a considerable part of the Scripture, not only prorent with the context, would appear much otherwise, phets, and kings, and priests being introduced speak. if we were acquainted with all the significations of ing, but soldiers, shepherds, and women, and such words and phrases that were known in the times other sorts of persons, from whom witty or eloquent when the Hebrew language flourished, and the sacred things are not (especially when they speak ex tempore) books were written ; it being very likely, that among to be expected, it would be very injurious to impute those various significations, some one or other would to the Scripture any want of eloquence, that may be afford a better sense, and a more significant and sinewy noted in the expressions of others than its Author. expression, than we meet with in our translations ;For though, not only in romances, but in many of and perhaps would make such passages as seem flat those that pass for true histories, the supposed speakers or uncouth, appear eloquent and emphatical. * *may be observed to talk as well as the historian, yet

But this is not all: for I consider, in the second that is but either because the men so introduced place, that not only we have lost divers of the signifi- were ambassadors, orators, generals, or other eminent cations of many of the Hebrew words and phrases, men for parts as well as employments; or because the but that we have also lost the means of acquainting historian does, as it often happens, give himself the ourselves with a multitude of particulars relating to liberty to make speeches for them, and does not set the topography, history, rites, opinions, fashions, cus-down indeed what they said, but what he thought fit toms, &c., of the ancient Jews and neighbouring na- that such persons on such occasions should have said. tions, without the knowledge of which we cannot, in Whereas the permen of the Scripture, as one of them the perusing of books of such antiquity as those of truly professes, having not followed cunningly-devised the Old Testament, and written by (and principally fables in what they have written, have faithfully set for) Jews, we cannot, I say, but lose very much of that down the sayings, as well as actions, they record, esteem, delight, and relish, with which we should without making them rather congruous to the condiread very many passages, if we discerned the references tions of the speakers than to the laws of truth. and allusions that are made in them to those stories, proverbs, opinions, &c., to which such passages may

SIR ISAAC NEWTON. well be supposed to relate. And this conjecture will not, I presume, appear irrational, if you but consider SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) holds by univer. how many of the handsomest passages in Juvenal, sal consent the highest rank among the natural philoPersius, Martial, and divery other Latin writers (not sophers of ancient and modern times. He was born to mention Hesiod, Musæus, or other ancienter Greeks), at Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire, where his father are lost to such readers as are unacquainted with the cultivated a small paternal estate. From childhood Roman customs, government, and story; nay, or are he manifested a strong inclination to mechanics, and pot sufficiently informed of a great many particular at Trinity college, Cambridge, which he entered in circumstances relating to the condition of those times, 1660, he made so great and rapid progress in his and of divers particular persons pointed at in those mathematical studies, that, in 1669, Dr Isaac Barrow,

whose pupil he was, resigned to him the Lucasian philosophy, was his discovery of the law of gravita. professorship of mathematics. He served repeatedly tion, which he showed to affect the vast orbs that

revolve around the sun, not less than the smallest objects on our own globe. The work in which he explained this system was written in Latin, and appeared in 1687 under the title of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica-[The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). To Newton we owe likewise extensive discoveries in optics, by which the aspect of that science was so entirely changed, that he may justly be termed its founder. He was the first to conceive and demonstrate the divisibility of light into rays of seven different colours, and possessing different degrees of refrangibility. After pursuing his optical investigations during a period of thirty years, he gave to the world, in 1704, a detailed account of his discoveries in an admirable work entitled Optics : or a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections, and Colours of Light. Besides these, he published various profound mathematical works, which it is unnecessary here to enumerate. Like his illustrious contemporaries Boyle, Barrow, and Locke, this eminent man devoted much attention to theology as well as to natural science. The mystical doctrines of religion were those which he chiefly in

vestigated ; and to his great interest in then we owe Sir Isaac Newton.

the composition of his Observations upon the Prophe

cies of Holy Writ, particularly the Prophecies of Daniel in parliament as member for the university ; was and the Apocalypse of St John, published after his appointed warden of the mint in 1695; became pre- | death. Among his manuscripts were found many sident of the Royal Society in 1703 ; and two years other theological pieces, mostly on such subjects as afterwards, received the honour of knighthood from the Prophetic Style, the Host of Heaven, the ReveQueen Anne. To the unrivalled genius and sagacity | lations, the Temple of Solomon, the Sanctuary, the of Newton, the world is indebted for a variety of working of the Mystery of Iniquity, and the Consplendid discoveries in natural philosophy and ma test between the Host of Heaven and the Transgres

sors of the Covenant. The whole manuscripts left by Sir Isaac were perused by Dr Pellet, by agreement with the executors, with the view of publishing such as were thought fit for the press; the report of that gentleman however was, that, of the whole mass, nothing but a work on the Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was fit for publication. That treatise accordingly appeared; and, contrary to Dr Pellet's opinion, the Observations upon the Prophecies,' already mentioned, were likewise sent to press. An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture, also from the pen of Sir Isaac, first appeared in a perfect form in Dr Horsley's edition of his works in 1779. We subjoin a specimen of his remarks on

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[The Prophetic Language.] For understanding the prophecies, we are, in the first place, to acquaint ourselves with the figurative language of the prophets. This language is taken from the analogy between the world natural, and an empire or kingdom considered as a world politic.

Accordingly, the whole world natural, consisting of heaven and earth, signifies the whole world politic, consisting of thrones and people ; or so much of it as is considered in the prophecy. And the things in that world signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens, and the things therein, signify thrones and dignities, and those who enjoy them; and the earth, with the things thereon, the inferior people; and the lowest parts of the earth, called Hades, or Hell, the lowest or most miserable part of them. Whence,

ascending towards heaven, and descending to the Birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton.

earth, are put for rising and falling in power and ho

nour ; rising out of the earth or waters, and falling thematics; among these, his exposition of the laws into them, for the rising up to any dignity or domi. which regulate the movements of the solar system nion, out of the inferior state of the people, or falling may be referred to as the most brilliant. The first down from the same into that inferior state ; descend. step in the formation of the Newtonian system of | ing into the lower parts of the earth, for descending

521

to a very low and unhappy state ; speaking with a politic heaven and earth; a forest, for a kingdom; faint voice out of the dust, for being in a weak and and a wilderness, for a desolate and thin people. low condition ; moving from one place to another, If the world politic, considered in prophecy, confor translation from one office, dignity, or dominionsists of many kingdoms, they are represented by as to another; great earthquakes, and the shaking of many parts of the world natural, as the noblest by heaven and earth, for the shaking of dominions, so the celestial frame, and then the moon and clouds are as to distract or overthrow them; the creating a new put for the comnion people; the less noble, by the heaven and earth, and the passing away of an old one, earth, sea, and rivers, and by the animals or vegeor the beginning and end of the world, for the rise tables, or buildings therein; and then the greater and reigu of the body politic signified thereby. and more powerful animals and taller trees, are put

In the heavens, the sun and moon are, by the in- for kings, princes, and nobles. And because the whole terpreters of dreams, put for the persons of kings and kingdom is the body politic of the king, therefore queens. But in sacred prophecy, which regards not the sun, or a tree, or a beast, or bird, or a man, single persons, the sun is put for the whole species whereby the king is represented, is put in a large and race of kings, in the kingdom or kingdoms of the signification for the whole kingdom; and several world politic, shining with regal power and glory; the animals, as a lion, a bear, a leopard, a goat, according moon for the body of thic common people, considered as to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms and the king's wife; the stars for subordinate princes and bodies politic; and sacrificing of beasts, for slaughtergreat men, or for bishops and rulers of the people of ing and conquering of kingdoms; and friendship beGod, when the sun is Christ: light for the glory, truth, I tween beasts, for peace between kingdoms. Yet someand knowledge, wherewith great and good men shine times vegetables and animals are, by certain epithets and illuminate others; darkness for obscurity of con- or circumstances, extended to other significations; as dition, and for error, blindness, and ignorance ; dark-a tree, when called the tree of life or of know. ening, smiting, or setting of the sun, moon, and stars, ledge;' and a beast, when called 'the old serpent,' or for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the desolation worshipped. thereof, proportional to the darkness ; darkening the sun, turning the moon into blood, and falling of the

There is a question with respect to Sir Isaac Newstars, for the same; new moons, for the return of a ton, which has recently excited so much controversy dispersed people into a body politic or ecclesiastic.

in the literary world, that we cannot avoid taking Fire and meteors refer to both heaven and earth,

some notice of it in this place. It is well known and signify as follows :-Burning anything with fire, I that during the last forty years of his life. the inis put for the consuming thereof by war; a confla

ventive powers of this great philosopher seemed to gration of the earth, or turning a country into a l have lost their activity: he made no farther discolake of fire, for the consumption of a kingdom by

veries, and, in his later scientific publications, imwar; the being in a furnace, for the being in slavery

parted to the world only the views which he had under another nation; the ascending up of the smoke

formed in early life. In the article Newton' in the of any burning thing for ever and ever, for the con

French Biographie Universelle, written by M. Biot, tinuation of a conquered people under the misery of

the statement was for the first time made, that his perpetual subjection and slavery; the scorching heat

mental powers were impaired by an attack of insaof the sun, for vexatious wars, persecutions, and Inity, which occurred in the years 1692 and 1693. troubles inflicted by the king; riding on the clouds, This

This averment was by many received with incredufor reigning over much people; covering the sun with a cloud, or with smoke, for oppression of the king by l of Newton in 1831. maintains that there is no suffi.

lity; and Sir David Brewster, who published a Life

it the armies of an enemy; tempestuous winds, or the motion of clouds, for wars ; thunder, or the voice of a

cient proof of the fact alleged. Undue importance, cloud, for the voice of a multitude ; a storm of thun

we humbly conceive, has been attached to this quesder, lightning, hail, and overflowing rain, for a tem

tion in a religious point of view; for the theological pest of war descending from the heavens and clouds

studies of Newton were by no means confined to the politic on the heads of their enemies ; rain, if not

concluding portion of his life, nor is the testimony immoderate, and dew, and living water, for the graces

of even so great a man in favour of Christianity and doctrines of the Spirit ; and the defect of rain,

of much value in a case where evidence, and not for spiritual barrenness.

authority, must be resorted to as the real ground of In the earth, the dry land and congregated waters,

decision. That Newton's mind was much out of as a sea, a river, a flood, are put for the people of ord

re put for the people of order at the period mentioned, appears to us to be several regions, nations, and dominions; embittering

satisfactorily proved even by documents first made of waters, for great afliction of the people by war and

known to the world in Brewster's work, indepenpersecution ; turning things into blood, for the mys

dently of those published by M. Biot. The latter tical death of bodies politic, that is, for their dissolu- gives a manuscript of the Dutch astronomer Huygens, tion ; the overflowing of a sea or river, for the invasion

which is still preserved at Leyden, and is to the folof the earth politic, by the people of the waters ; dry

| lowing effect. On the 29th of May 1694, a Scotching up of waters for the conquest of their regions by man of the name of Colin informed me that Isaac the earth ; fountains of waters for cities, the perma

Newton, the celebrated mathematician, eighteen nent heads of rivers politic; mountains and islands. months previously, had become deranged in his for the cities of the earth and sea politic, with the mind, either from too great application to his territories and dominions belonging to those cities : studies, or from excessive grief at having lost, dens and rocks of mountains, for the temples of cities: by fire, his chemical laboratory and some papers. the hiding of men in those dens and rocks, for the Having made observations before the chancellor of shutting up of idols in their temples; houses and Cambridge, which indicated the alienation of his ships, for families, assemblies, and towns in the earth intellect, he was taken care of by his friends; and and sea politic; and a navy of ships of war, for an being confined to his house, remedies were applied, army of that kingdom that is signified by the sea. | by means of which he has lately so far recovered

Animals also, and vegetables, are put for the people his health, as to begin to again understand his own of several regions and conditions ; and particularly Principia. This account is confirmed by a diary trees, herbs, and land animals, for the people of the kept by Mr Abraham de la Pryme, a Cambridge earth politic; flags, reeds, and fishes, for those of the student, who, under date the 3d of February 1692 waters politic; birds and insects, for those of the (being what was on the continent called 1693, as

the English year then commenced on 25th March), have all the concern of a friend for you, wish you relates, in a passage which Brewster has published, extremely well, and am, without compliment,' &c. the loss of Newton's papers by fire while he was at chapel; adding, that when the philosopher came

To this Sir Isaac replied on the 5th of October :home, and had seen what was done, every one Sir- The last winter, by sleeping too often by my thought he would have run mad; he was so troubled fire, I got an ill habit of sleeping; and a distemper, thereat, that he was not himself for a month after.' | which this summer has been epidemical, put me This, however, is the smallest part of the evidence. farther out of order, so that when I wrote to you, I Newton himself, writing on the 13th September had not slept an hour a-night for a fortnight to1693 to Mr Pepys, secretary to the admiralty, says, gether, and for five days together not a wink. I

I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am remember I wrote you, but what I said of your in, and have neither ate nor slept well this twelve book I remember not. If you please to send me a month, nor have my former consistency of mind.' transcript of that passage, I will give you an account Again, on the 16th of the same month, he writes to of it if I can. I am your most humble servant-Is. his friend Locke in the following remarkable terms: NEWTON.' Sir-Being of opinion that you endeavoured to

On the 26th September Pepys wrote to a friend of embroil me with women, and by other means, I was his, at Cambridge, a Mr Millington, making inquiry so much affected with it, as when one told me you

about Newton's mental condition, as lie had 'lately were sickly, and would not live, I answered, 'twere

received a letter from him so surprising to me for the better if you were dead. I desire you to forgive me

inconsistency of every part of it, as to be put into this uncharitableness ; for I am now satisfied that

great disorder by it, from the concernment I have what you have done is just, and I beg your pardon

for him, lest it should arise from that which of all for my having hard thoughts of you for it, and for

mankind I should least dread from him, and most representing that you struck at the root of morality,

lament for-I mean a discom posure in head, or mind, in a principle you laid in your book of ideas, and

or both.' Millington answers on the 30th, that two designed to pursue in another book, and that I took

days previously, he had met Newton at Huntingdon ; you for a Hobbist. I beg your pardon, also, for saying where' says he won his own accord, and be or thinking that there was a design to sell me an had time to ask him any question, he told me that office, or to embroil me. I am your most humble

he had writ to you a very odd letter, at which he and unfortunate servant-Is. NEWTON.'

was much concerned ; and added, that it was a disThe answer of Locke is admirable for the gentle temper that much seized his head, and that kept and affeccionate spirit in which it is written : him awake for above five nights together; which

Sir I have been, ever since I first knew you, so upon occasion he desired I would represent to you, entirely and sincerely your friend, and thought you and beg your pardon, he being very much ashamed so much mine, that I could not have believed what he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath you tell me of yourself, had I had it from anybody so great an honour. Ile is now very well, and else. . And though I cannot but be mightily troubled though I fear he is under some small degree of that you should have had so many wrong and unjust melancholy, yet I think there is no reason to suspect thoughts of me, yet, next to the return of good offices, it hath at all touched his understanding, and I hope such as from a sincere good will I have ever done never will.' you, I receive your acknowledgment of the contrary It thus appears that, in consequence of excessive as the kindest thing you could have done me, since study, or the loss of valuable papers, or both causes it gives me hopes that I have not lost a friend I so combined, the understanding of Newton was for much valued. After what your letter expresses, I about twelve months thrown into an intermittent shall not need to say anything to justify myself to disorder, to which the name of insanity ought to be you. I shall always think your own reflection on applied. That his intellect never attained its former my carriage both to you and all mankind will suffi-activity and vigour, is made probable by the followciently do that. Instead of that. give me leave to ing circumstances. In the first place, he published assure you, that I am more ready to forgive you after 1687 no scientific work except what he then than you can be to desire it; and I do it so freely possessed the materials of. Secondly, he tells at the and fully, that I wish for nothing more than the end of the second book of his ‘Optics,' that 'though opportunity to convince you that I truly love and he felt the necessity of his experiments, or rendering esteem you; and that I have still the same good will them more perfect, he was not able to resolve to do for you as if nothing of this had happened. To con- so, these matters being no longer in his way.' And firm this to you more fully, I should be glad to meet | lastly, of the manuscripts found after his death, you anywhere, and the rather, because the conclu- amounting, as we learn from Dr Charles Hutton, to sion of your letter makes me apprehend it would not ‘upwards of four thousand sheets in folio, or eight be wholly useless to you. But whether you think it

reams of foolscap paper, besides the bound books, of fit or not, I leave wholly to you. I shall always be

which the number of sheets is not mentioned,'* ready to serve you to my utmost, in any way you

none was thought worthy of publication except his shall like, and shall only need your commands or

work on the . Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms,' permission to do it.

and · Observations on the Prophecies.'t My book is going to press for a second edition ; The character and most prominent discoveries of and though I can answer for the design with which

Newton are summed up in his epitaph, of which the I writ it, yet since you have so opportunely given

following is a translation. Here lies interred me notice of what you have said of it, I should take Isaac Newton, knight, who, with an energy of mind it as a favour if you would point out to me the places that gave occasion to that censure, that, by explaining

* Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary, article Newton.

+ Should the reader desire to investigate the question more myself better, I may avoid being mistaken by others,

fully, he will find it amply discussed in Biot's Life of Newton, or unawares doing the least prejudice to truth or

of which a translation is published in the Library of Useful virtue. I am sure you are so much a friend to them

Knowledge; Brewster's Life of Newton, pp. 222-245; Biot's both, that were you none to me, I could expect this

reply to Brewster, in the Journal des Sarans for June 1832 ; from you. But I cannot doubt but you would do a Edinburgh Review, vol. lvi. p. 6; Foreign Quarterly Review, great deal more than this for my sake, who, after all, . vol. xii. p. 15; and Phrenological Journal, vol. vii. p. 335.

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