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view, to tell in general how the parts lie, and may be move or keep them at rest, as we think fit; and also, able to give some loose description of here a mountain by the motion of them, to inove ourselres and contiand there a plain, here a morass and there a river; guous bodies, in which consists all the actions of our woodland in one part and sarannahs in another. Such body; having also given a power to our mind, in seresuperficial ideas and observations as these he may ral instances, to choose amongst its ideas which it will collect in galloping over it ; but the more useful ob- think on, and to pursue the inquiry of this or that servations of the soil, plants, animals, and inhabi subject with consideration and attention ; to excite tants, with their several sorts and properties, must us to these actions of thinking and motion that we necessarily escape him; and it is seldom men ever | are capable of, has been pleased to join to sereral discover the rich mines without some digging. Nature thoughts, and several sensations, a perception of decommonly lodges her treasures and jewels in rocky light. If this were wholly separated from all our outground. If the matter be knotty, and the sense lies ward sensations and inward thoughts, we should have deep, the mind must stop and buckle to it, and stick no reason to prefer one thought or action to another, upon it with labour and thought, and close contem- negligence to attention, or motion to rest. And so plation, and not leave it until it has mastered the dif- we should neither stir our bodies, nor employ our ficulty and got possession of truth. But here care must minds; but let our thoughts (if I may so call it) run be taken to avoid the other extreme: a man must not adrift, without any direction or design; and suffer the stick at every useless nicety, and expect mysteries of ideas of our minds, like unregarded shadows, to make science in every trivial question or scruple that he their appearances there, as it happened, without atmay raise. He that will stand to pick up and exa-tending to them. In which state, man, however furmine every pebble that comes in his way, is as un nished with the faculties of understanding and will, likely to return enriched and laden with jewels, as would be a very idle inactive creature, and pass his the other that travelled full speed. Truths are not time only in a lazy lethargic dream. It has, therethe better nor the worse for their obviousness or diffi- fore, pleas
fore, pleased our wise Creator to annex to several obbut their value
be measured by their liects, and the ideas which we receive from them. as usefulness and tendency. Insignificant observations also to several of our thoughts, a concomitant pleashould not take up any of our minutes ; and those sure, and that in several objects to several degrees, that enlarge our view, and give light towards further that those faculties which he had endowed us with and useful discoveries, should not be neglected, though might not remain wholly idle and unemployed by us. they stop our course, and spend some of our time in Pain has the same efficacy and use to set us on a fixed attention.
work that pleasure has, we being as ready to employ There is another haste that does often, and will, our faculties to avoid that, as to pursue this; only mislead the mind, if it be left to itself and its own this is worth our consideration, that pain is often conduct. The understanding is naturally forward, produced by the same objects and ideas that produce not only to learn its knowledge by variety (which pleasure in us. This, their near conjuuction, which makes it skip over one to get speedily to another part makes us often feel pain in the sensations where we of knowledge), but also eager to enlarge its views by expected pleasure, gires us new occasion of admiring running too fast into general observations and con- the wisdom and goodness of our Maker, who, designclusions, without a due examination of particulars ing the preservation of our being, has annexed pain enough whereon to found those general axioms. This to the application of many things to our bodies, to seems to enlarge their stock, but it is of fancies, not warn us of the harm that they will do, and as advices realities; such theories, built upon narrow founda to withdraw from them. But He, not designing our tions, stand but weakly, and if they fall not them- preservation barely, but the preservation of every part selves, are at least very hardly to be supported against and organ in its perfection, hath, in many cases, anthe assaults of opposition. And thus men, being too nexed pain to those very ideas which delight us. hasty to erect to themselves general notions and ill-Thus heat, that is very agreeable to us in one degree, grounded theories, find themselves deceived in their by a little greater increase of it, proves no ordinary stock of knowledge, when they come to examine their torment; and the most pleasant of all sensible objects, hastily assumed maxims themselves, or to have them light itself, if there be too much of it, if increased beattacked by others. General observations, drawn from yond a due proportion to our eyes, causes a very pain. particulars, are the jewels of knowledge, comprehend. ful sensation ; which is wisely and favourably so oring great store in a little room ; but they are there- dered by nature, that when any object does, by the fore to be made with the greater care and caution, vehemency of its operation, disorder the instruments lest. if we take counterfeit for true, our loss and shame l of sensation, whose structures cannot b
ry nice will be the greater, when our stock comes to a severe and delicate, we might by the pain be warned to withscrutiny. One or two particulars may suggest hints draw, before the organ be quite put out of order, and of inquiry, and they do well who take those hints ; so be unfitted for its proper function for the future. but if they turn them into conclusions, and make The consideration of those objects that produce it inay them presently general rules, they are forward indeed; well persuade us, that this is the end or use of pain. but it is only to impose on themselves by propositions For, though great light be insufferable to our eyes, yet assumed for truths without sufficient warrant. To the highest degree of darkness does not at all disease make such observations, is, as has been already re-them; because that causing no disorderly motion in marked, to make the head a magazine of materials, it, leaves that curious organ unharmed in its natural which can hardly be called knowledge, or at least it state. But yet excess of cold, as well as heat, paing is but like a collection of lumber not reduced to use us, because it is equally destructive to that temper or order; and he that makes everything an observa- which is necessary to the preservation of life, and the tion, has the same useless plenty, and much more exercise of the several functions of the body, and which falsehood mixed with it. The extremes on both sides consists in a moderate degree of warmth, or, if you are to be avoided ; and he will be able to give the please, a motion of the insensible parts of our bodies, best account of his studies, who keeps his understand confined within certain bounds. ing in the right mean between them.
Beyond all this, we may find another reason why
God hath scattered up and down several degrees of [Pleasure and Puin.]
pleasure and pain in all the things that environ and
affect us, and blended them together in almost all The infinitely wise Author of our being, having that our thoughts and senses have to do with ; that we, giren us the power over several parts of our bodies, to finding imperfection, dissatisfaction, and want of com
plete happiness in all the enjoyments which the crea- caused the death of several hundred thousand men, tures can afford us, might be led to seek it in the en- and the ruin of a much greater number, overran a joyment of Him with whom there is fulness of joy, great part of the earth, and killed the inhabitants and at whose right hand are pleasures for evermore.' to possess theinselves of their countries- we are apt
to make butchery and rapine the chief marks and [Importance of Moral Education.]
very essence of human greatness. And if civil history Under whose care soerer a child is put to be taught
be a great dealer of it, and to many readers thus useduring the tender and flexible years of his life. this less, curious and difficult inquiringe in antiquity are is certain, it should be one who thinks Latin and lan- much more so; and the exact dimensions of the guages the least part of education ; one who, knowing
Colossus, or figure of the Capitol, the ceremonies of how much virtue and a well-tempered soul is to be
| the Greek and Roman marriages, or who it was that preferred to any sort of learning or language, makes
first coined money ; these, I confess, set a man well it his chief business to form the mind of his scholars,
off in the world, especially amongst the learned, but and give that a right disposition; which, if once got,
set him very little on in his way. + though all the rest should be neglected, would in
| I shall only add one word, and then conclude: and due time produce all the rest ; and which, if it be not
that is, that whereas in the beginning I cut off history got, and settled so as to keep out ill and vicious
from our study as a useless part, as certainly it is habits-languages, and sciences, and all the other
where it is read only as a tale that is told; here, on
the other side. I recommend it to one who hath well accomplishments of education, will be to no purpose but to make the worse or more dangerous man.
settled in his mind the principles of morality, and
knows how to make a judgment on the actions of [Fading of Ideas from the Mind.]
men, as one of the most useful studies he can apply
himself to. There he shall see a picture of the world Ideas quickly fade, and often vanish quite out of the and the nature of mankind, and so learn to think of understanding, leaving no more footsteps or remain-men as they are. There he shall see the rise of opiing characters of themselves than shadows do flying nions, and find from what slight and sometimes shameover a field of corn. * * The memory of some men ful occasions some of them have taken their rise, is very tenacious, even to a miracle; but yet there which yet afterwards have had great authority, and seems to be a constant decay of all our ideas, even of passed almost for sacred in the world, and borne down those which are struck deepest, and in minds the all before them. There also one may learn great and most retentive; so that if they be not sometimes re- useful instructions of prudence, and be warned against newed by repeated exercise of the senses, or reflection the cheats and rogueries of the world, with many on those kind of objects which at first occasioned more advantages which I shall not here enumerate. them, the print wears out, and at last there remains nothing to be seen. Thus the ideas, as well as children of our youth, often die before us; and our minds
[Orthodoxy and Ileresy.] represent to us those tombs to which we are approach- The great division among Christians is about opi. ing, where, though the brass and marble remain, yet nions. Every sect has its set of them, and that is the inscriptions are effaced by time, and the imagery called Orthodoxy; and he that professes his assent to moulders away. Pictures drawn in our minds are them, though with an implicit faith, and without exlaid in fading colours, and, unless sometimes refreshed, amining, is orthodox, and in the way to salvation. vanish and disappear. How much the constitution | But if he examines, and thereupon questions any one of our bodies and the make of our animal spirits are of them, he is presently suspected of heresy; and if concerned in this, and whether the temper of the he oppose them or hold the contrary, he is presently brain make this difference, that in some it retains the condemned as in a damnable error, and in the sure characters drawn on it like marble, in others like free-way to perdition. Of this one may say, that there is stone, and in others little better than sand, I shall nor can be nothing more wrong. For he that examines, not here inquire : though it may seem probable that and upon a fair examination embraces an error for a the constitution of the body does sometimes influence truth, has done his duty more than he who embraces the memory ; since we oftentimes find a disease quite the profession (for the truths themselves he does not strip the mind of all its ideas, and the flames of a embrace) of the truth without having examined fever in a few days calcine all those images to dust whether it be true or no. And he that has done his and confusion, which seemed to be as lasting as if duty according to the best of his ability, is certainly graved in marble.
more in the way to heaven than he who has done
nothing of it. For if it be our duty to search after [History.]
truth, he certainly that has searched after it, though The stories of Alexander and Cæsar, farther than he has not found it, in some points has paid a more they instruct us in the art of living well, and furnish acceptable obedience t
lience to the will of his Maker than he us with observations of wisdom and prudence, are not that has not searched at all, but professes to have one jot to be preferred to the history of Robin Hood, found truth, when he has neither searched nor found or the Seven Wise Masters. I do not deny but his-it. For he that takes up the opinions of any church tory is very useful, and very instructive of human in the lump, without examining them, has truly life; but if it be studied only for the reputation of neither searched after nor found truth, but has only being a historian, it is a very empty thing; and he found those that he thinks have found truth, and so that can tell all the particulars of Herodotus and receives what they say with an implicit faith, and Plutarch, Curtius and Livy, without making any so pays them the homage that is due only to God, other use of them, may be an ignorant man with a who cannot be deceived, nor deceive. In this way the good memory, and with all his pains hath only filled several churches in which, as one may observe, opihis head with Christmas tales. “And, which is worse, nions are preferred to life, and orthodoxy is that the greatest part of history being made up of wars and which they are concerned for, and not morals) put the conquests, and their style, especially the Romans, terms of salvation on that which the Author of our speaking of valour as the chief if not the only virtue, salvation does not put them in. The believing of a we are in danger to be misled by the general current collection of certain propositions, which are called and business of history; and, looking on Alexander and esteemed fundamental articles, because it has and Cæsar, and such-like heroes, as the highest in- pleased the compilers to put them into their confesstances of human greatness, because they each of them sion of faith, is made the condition of salvation..
settled in his mind, that he thinks them self-evident, [Disputation.]
and of an unquestionable certainty; or which he takes One should not dispute with a man who, either to be impressions he has received from God himself, through stupidity or shamelessness, denies plain and
or from men sent by him? How can we expect, I say, visible truths.
that opinions thus settled should be given up to the
arguments or authority of a stranger or adversary, [Liberty.)
especially if there be any suspicion of interest or deLet your will lead whither necessity would drive,
sign, as there never fails to be where men find them
selves ill treated? We should do well to commiserate and you will always preserve your liberty,
our mutual ignorance, and endeavour to remove it
in all the gentle and fair ways of information : and [Opposition to New Doctrines.]
not instantly treat others ill, as obstinate and per. The imputation of novelty is a terrible charge
verse, because they will not renounce their own and amongst those who judge of men's heads, as they do reccive our opinions, or at least those we would force !! of their perukes, by the fashion, and can allow none
upon them, when it is more than probable that we to be right but the received doctrines. Truth scarce
are no less obstinate in not embracing some of theirs. ever yet carried it by vote anywhere at its first For where is the man that has incontestable evidence appearance: new opinions are always suspected, and of the truth of all that he holds, or of the falsehood usually opposed, without any other reason but be
of all he condemns; or can say that he bas examined cause they are not already common. But truth, like
to the bottom all his own, or other men's opinions ? gold, is not the less so for being newly brought out of
The necessity of believing without knowledge, nay, the mine. It is trial and examination must give it
often upon very slight grounds, in this fleeting state price, and not any antique fashion : and though it be
of action and blindness we are in, should make us not yet current by the public stamp, yet it may, for
more busy and careful to inform ourselves than conall that, be as old as nature, and is certainly not the
strain others. At least those who have not thoroughly less genuine.
examined to the bottom all their own tenets, must
confess they are unfit to prescribe to others; and are [Duty of Preserving Ilealth.]
unreasonable in imposing that as truth on other men's
belief which they themselves have not searched into, If by gaining knowledge we destroy our health, we nor weighed the arguments of probability on which labour for a thing that will be useless in our hands; they should receive or reject it. Those who have and if, by harassing our bodies (though with a design fairly and truly examined, and are thereby got past to render ourselves more useful), we deprive ourselves doubt in all the doctrines they profess and govern of the abilities and opportunities of doing that good themselves by, would have a juster pretence to require we might have done with a meaner talent, which God others to follow them: but these are so few in number, thought sufficient for us, by having denied us the and find so little reason to be magisterial in their strength to improve it to that pitch which men of opinions, that nothing insolent and imperious is to be stronger constitutions can attain to, we rob God of expected from them : and there is reason to think, so much service, and our neighbour of all that help that if men were better instructed themselves, they which, in a state of health, with moderate knowledge, would be less imposing on others. we might have been able to perform. He that sinks his vessel by overloading it, though it be with gold,
THE HONOURABLE ROBERT BOYLE. and silver, and precious stones, will give his owner but an ill account of his voyage.
THE HONOURABLE ROBERT BOYLE was the most
distinguished of those experimental philosophers who [Toleration of Other Men's Opinions.] Since, therefore, it is unavoidable to the greatest part of men, if not all, to have several opinions, without certain and indubitable proofs of their truth; and it carries too great an imputation of ignorance, lightness, or folly, for men to quit and renounce their former tenets presently upon the offer of an argument, which they cannot immediately answer, and show the insufficiency of: it would, methinks, become all men to maintain peace, and the common offices of humanity and friendship, in the diversity of opinions : since we cannot reasonably expect that any one should readily and obsequiously quit his own opinion, and embrace ours with a blind resignation to an authority, which the understanding of man acknowledges not. For however it may often mistake, it can own no other guide but reason, nor blindly submit to the will and dictates of another. If he you would bring over to your sentiments be one that examines before he assents, you must give him leave at his leisure to go over the account again, and, recalling what is out of his mind, examine all the particulars, to see on which side the advantage lies : and if he will not think our arguments of weight enough to engage him anew in so inuch pains, it is but what we often do ourselves in the like cases, and we should take it amiss if others should prescribe to us what points we should study. And if he be one who takes his opi
Honourable Robert Boyle. nions upon trust, how can we imagine that he should sprang up in England immediately after the death renounce those tencts which time and custoin have so l of Bacon, and who showed, by the successful applica
tion of his principles, how truly he had pointed out and persecution on account of religious belief was the means of enlarging human knowledge. The very strong ;' and I have seldom,' says Burnet, 'obeminent man of whom we speak was the son of served him to speak with more heat and indignation Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, at whose mansion of than when that came in his way.' Lismore he was born in the year 1627. After study The titles of those works of Boyle which are most ing at Eton college and Geneva, and travelling likely to attract the general reader, are Considerathrough Italy, he returned to England in 1644. tions on the Usefulness of Experimental Philosophy; Being in easy circumstances, and endowed with Considerations on the Style of the Iloly Scriptures ; A uncommon activity of mind, he furthwith applied Free Discourse against Customary Swearing; Considehimself to those studies and experiments in che- rations about the Reconcilableness of Reason and Relimistry and natural philosophy which continued to gion, and the Possibility of a Resurrection ; A Disengage his attention throughout the remainder of course of Things above Reason ; A Discourse of the his life. During the civil war, some ingenious men High Veneration Man's Intellect owes to God, particubegan to hold weekly meetings at Oxford, for the larly for his Wisdom and Power ; A Disquisition into cultivation of what was then termed the new the Final Causes of Natural Things; The Christian philosophy,' first at the lodgings of Dr Wilkins (as Virtuoso, showing that, by being addicted to Experialready stated in our account of that divine), and mental Philosophy, a man is rather assisted than indissubsequently, for the most part, at the residence of posed to be a good Christian; and A Treatise of SeraBoyle. These scientific persons, with others who phic Love. He published, in 1665, Occasional Reflecafterwards joined them, were incorporated by Charles lions on Several Subjects, mostly written in early life, II., in 1662, under the title of the Royal Society. and which Swift has ridiculed in his · Pious MeditaBoyle, after settling in London in 16€8, was one of tion on a Broomstick.' The comparative want of taste the most active members, and many of his treatises and of sound judgment displayed in this portion of originally appeared in the Society's • Philosophical Boyle's writings, is doubtless to be ascribed to the Transactions. The works of this industrious man immature age at which it was composed, and the (who died in 1691), are so numerous, that they circumstance that it was not originally intended for occupy six thick quarto volumes. They consist the public eye. The occasions of these devout Rechiefly of accounts of his experimental researches in flections' are such as the following :-Upon his horse chemistry and natural philosophy, particularly with stumbling in a very fair way;' * Upon his distilling respect to the mechanical and chemical properties of spirit of roses in a limbick;'. Upon two very miserthe air. The latter subject was one in which he felt able beggars begging together by the highway;' much interest; and by means of the air-pump, the Upon the sight of a windmill standing still ;'. Upon construction of which he materially improved, he his paring of a rare summer apple ; • Upon his succeeded in making many valuable pneumatic dis- coach's being stopped in a narrow lane;' Upon my coveries. Theology likewise being a favourite sub spaniel's fetching me my glove ;' Upon the taking ject, he published various works, both in defence of up his horses from grass, and giving then oats beChristianity, and in explanation of the benefits ac- fore they were to be ridden a journey.' cruing to religion from the study of the divine The works of Boyle upon natural theology take attributes as displayed in the material world. So the lead among the excellent treatises on that subearnest was he in the cause of Christianity, that | ject by which the literature of our country is he not only devoted much time and money in con- adorned. tributing to its propagation in foreign parts, but, His style is clear and precise, but he is apt to proby a codicil to his will, made provision for the deli- | long his sentences until they become insufferably very of eight sermons yearly in London by some tedious. Owing to the haste with which many of learned divine, “for proving the Christian religion his pieces were sent to the press, their deficiency of against notorious infidels, Daniely, atheists, theists, method is such, as, in conjunction with the prolixity pagans, Jews, and Mahometans; not descending of their style, to render the perusal of them a somelower to any controversies that are among Chris what disagreeable task. The following specimens, tians themselves. We learn from his biographers, gathered from different treatises, are the most intethat in 1660 he was solicited by Lord Clarendon | resting we have been able to find :to adopt the clerical profession, in order that the church might have the support of those eminent [The Study of Natural Philosophy favourable to abilities and virtues by which he was distinguished.
Religion.] Two considerations, however, induced him to with
The first advantage that our experimental philosohold compliance. In the first place, he regarded where
a pher, as such, hath towards being a Christian, is, that himself as more likely to advance religion by his his
his course of studies conduceth much to settle in his writings in the character of a layman, than if he mind a firm belief of the existence, and divers of the were in the more interested position of one of the chief attributes, of God; which belief is, in the order clergy-whose preaching there was a general ten- l of things, the first principle of that natural religion dency to look upon as the remunerated exercise of a which itself is pre-required to revealed religion in profession. And secondly, he felt the obligations, im
general, and consequently to that in particular which portance, and difficulties of the pastoral care to be so is embraced by Christians. great, that he wanted the confidence to undertake it ; That the consideration of the vastness, beauty, and
especially,' says Bishop Burnet, ‘not having felt regular motions of the heavenly bodies, the excellent within himself an inward motion to it by the Holy structure of animals and plants, besides a multitude of Ghost; and the first question that is put to those other phenomena of nature, and the subserviency of who come to be initiated into the service of the most of these to man, may justly induce him, as a church, relating to that motion, he, who had not felt rational creature, to conclude that this vast, beautiful, it, thought he durst not make the step, lest other-orderly, and in a word) many ways admirable system wise he should have lied to the Iloly Ghost, so of things, that we call the world, was framed by an solemnly and seriously did he judge of sacred mat. author supremely powerful, wise, and good, can scarce ters.' He valued religion chiefiy for its practical in- be denied by an intelligent and unprejudiced confluence in improving the moral chararter of men, and siderer. And this is strongly confirmed by experience, had a decided aversion to controversy on abstract which witnesseth, that in almost all ages and coundoctrinal points. His disapprobation of severities | tries the generality of philosophers and contempla-,
tive men were persuaded of the existence of a Deity, | Reflection upon a Lanthorn and Candle, carried by by the consideration of the phenomena of the universe,
on a Windy Night. whose fabric and conduct, they rationally concluded, could not be deservedly ascribed either to blind chance,
As there are few controversies more important, so or to any other cause than a divine Being.
there are not many that have been more curiously But though it be true that God hath not left him
and warmly disputed, than the question, whether à self without witness,' even to perfunctory considerers, public or a private life be preferable! But perhaps by stamping upon divers of the more obvious parts of thi
this may be much of the nature of the other question, his workmanship such conspicuous impressions of his
of his whether a married life or single ought rather to be attributes, that a moderate degree of understanding chosen ? that being best determinable by the circumand attention may suffice to make men acknowledge stan
stances of particular cases. For though, indefinitely his being, yet I scruple not to think that assent very speaking, one of the two may have advantages above much inferior to the belief that the same objects are the other, yet they are not so great but that special fitted to produce in a heedful and intelligent con- circumstances may make either of them the more templator of them. For the works of God are so eligible to particular persons. They that find themworthy of their author, that, besides the impresses of
selves furnished with abilities to serve their generahis wisdom and goodness that are left, as it were, upon
tion in a public capacity, and virtue great enough to their surfaces, there are a great many more curious and
resist the temptations to which such a condition is excellent tokens and effects of divine artifice in the
usually exposed, may not only be allowed to embrace hidden and innermost recesses of them; and these are
such an employment, but obliged to seek it. But he not to be discovered by the perfunctory looks of osci
whose parts are too mean to qualify him to govern tant and unskilful beholders : but reovire. as well as others, and perhaps to enable him to govern himself. deserve, the most attentive and prying inspection of
nenection of or manage his own private concerns, or whose graces inquisitive and well-instructed considerers. And are so weak, that it is less to his virtues, or to his sometimes in one creature there may be I know not
| ability of resisting, than to his care of shunning the how many admirable things, that escape a vulgar eye. | occasions of sin, that he owes his escaping the guilt of and yet may be clearly discerned by that of a true it, had better deny himself some opportunities of good, naturalist, who brings with him, besides a more than
than expose himself to probable temptations. For common curiosity and attention, a competent know
there is such a kind of difference betwixt virtue shaded ledge of anatomy, optics, cosmography, mechanics,
by a private and shining forth in a public life, as there and chemistry. But treating elsewhere purposely of
is betwixt a candle carried aloft in the open air, and this subject, it may here suffice to say, that God has
inclosed in a lanthorn ; in the former place it gives couched so many things in his visible works, that the more light, but in the latter it is in less danger to be clearer light a man has, the more he may discover of b
blown out. their unobvious exquisiteness, and the more clearly and distinctly he may discern those qualities that lie
Upon the sight of Roses and Tulips growing ncar one more obvious. And the more wonderful things he
another. discovers in the works of nature, the more auxiliary It is so uncommon a thing to see tulips last till proofs he meets with to establish and enforce the ar- roses come to be blown, that the seeing them in this gument, drawn from the universe and its parts, to garden grow together, as it deserves my notice, so evince that there is a God ; which is a proposition of methinks it should suggest to me some reflection or that vast weight and importance, that it ought to en- other on it. And perhaps it may not be an improper dear everything to us that is able to confirm it, and one to compare the difference betwixt these two kinds afford us new motives to acknowledge and adore the of flowers to the disparity which I have often obdivine Author of things.
served betwixt the fates of those young ladies that To be told that an eye is the organ of sight, and are only very handsome, and those that have a less that this is performed by that faculty of the mind degree of beauty, recompensed by the accession of wit, which, from its function, is called visive, will give a discretion, and virtue: for tulips, whilst they are man but a sorry account of the instruments and man fresh, do indeed, by the lustre and vividness of their ner of vision itself, or of the knowledge of that Opi-colours, more delight the eye than roses ; but ficer who, as the Scripture speaks, 'formed the eye.' then they do not alone quickly fade, but, as soon And he that can take up with this easy theory of as they have lost that freshness and gaudiness that vision, will not think it necessary to take the pains to solely endeared them, they degenerate into things dissect the eyes of animals, nor study the books of not only undesirable, but distasteful; whereas roses, mathematicians, to understand vision; and accord | besides the moderate beauty they disclose to the ingly will have but mean thoughts of the contrivance eye (which is sufficient to please, though not to of the organ, and the skill of the artificer, in compari- | charm it), do not only keep their colour longer than son of the ideas that will be suggested of both of them tulips, but, when that decays, retain a perfumed to him that, being profoundly skilled in anatomy and odour, and divers useful qualities and virtues that optics, by their help takes asunder the several coats, survive the spring, and recommend them all the year. humours, and muscles, of which that exquisite diop- | Thus those unadvised young ladies, that, because trical instrument consists; and having separately con- | nature has given them beauty enough, despise all sidered the figure, size, consistence, texture, diapha- | other qualities, and even that regular diet which is neity or opacity, situation, and connection of each of ordinarily requisite to make beauty itself lasting, not them, and their coaptation in the whole eye, shall | only are wont to decay betimes, but, as soon as they discover, by the help of the laws of optics, how admir- | have lost that youthful freshness that alone endeared ably this little organ is fitted to receive the incident | them, quickly pass from being objects of wonder and beams of light, and dispose them in the best manner | love, to be so of pity, if not of scorn; whereas those possible for completing the lively representation of that were as solicitous to enrich their minds as to the almost infinitely various objects of sight. * * adorn their faces, may not only with a mediocrity of It is not by a slight survey, but by a diligent and beauty be very desirable whilst that lasts, but, notskilful scrutiny of the works of God, that a man must withstanding the recess of that and youth, may, by be, by a rational and affective conviction, engaged to the fragrancy of their reputation, and those virtues acknowledge with the prophet, that the Author of and ornaments of the mind that time does but imnature is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in prove, be always sufficiently endeared to those that working.'
have merit enough to discern and value such excel.