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he hath brought me into the snare and left me. Then follows into the holy places after you. There, also, said Hopeful, My brother, you have quite forgot the you shall be clothed with glory and majesty, and put text, where it is said of the wicked, "There are no into an equipage fit to ride out with the King of bands in their death, but their strength is firm ; they Glory. When he shall come with sound of trumpet are not troubled as other men, neither are they in the clouds, as upon the wings of the wind, you plagued like other men.' These troubles and distresses shall coine with him; and when he shall sit upon the that you go through in these waters are no sign that throne of judgment, you shall sit by him; yen, and God hath forsaken you; but are sent to try you, / when he shall pass sentence upon all the workers of whether you will call to mind that which heretofore iniquity, let them be angels or men, you also shall you have received of his goodness, and live upon him have a voice in that judgment, because they were his in your distresses.
and your enemies. Also, when he shall again return Then I saw in my dream that Christian was in a to the city, you shall go too, with sound of trumpet, muse awhile. To whom, also, Hopeful added these and be ever with him. words, Be of good cheer, Jesus Christ maketh thee Now, while they were thus drawing towards the whole: and with that Christian brake out with a loud gate, behold a company of the heavenly host came out voice, Oh! I see him again ; and he tells me,' When to meet them : to whom it was said by the other two thou passent through the waters, I will be with thee; shining ones, These are the men who loved our Lord and through the rivers, they shall not orerflow thee.' when they were in the world, and have left all for his Then they both took courage, and the enemy was holy name; and he hath sent us to fetch them, and after that as still as a stone, until they were gone we have brought them thus far on their desired jour. over. Christian, therefore, presently found ground to ney, that they may go in and look their Redeemer in stand upon, and so it followed that the rest of the the face with joy. Then the heavenly host gave a river was but shallow; but thus they got over. Now, great shout, saying, "Blessed are they that are called upon the bank of the river on the other side, they saw to the marriage-supper of the Lamb.' There came the two shining men again, who there waited for also out at this time to meet them several of the them ; wherefore, being come out of the river, they | king's trumpeters, clothed in white and shining raisaluted them, saying, We are ministering spirits, sentment, who, with melodious and loud noises, made forth to minister to those that shall be heirs of salva- even the heavens to echo with their sound. These tion.' Thus they went along toward the gate. Now, I trumpeters saluted Christian and his fellow with ten you must note that the city stood upon a mighty hill; thousand welcomes from the world ; and this they did but the pilgrims went up that hill with ease, because with shouting and sound of trumpet. they had these two men to lead them up by the arms; This done, they compassed them round about on they had likewise left their mortal garments behind every side; some went before, some behind, and some them in the river; for though they went in with them, on the right hand, soine on the left (as it were to guard they came out without them. They therefore went up them through the upper regions), continually soundhere with much agility and speed, though the founda ing as they went, with melodious noise, in notes on tion upon which the city was framed was higher than high ; so that the very sight was to them that could the clouds ; they therefore went up through the region behold it as if Heaven itself was come down to meet of the air, sweetly talking as they went, being com- them. Thus, therefore, they walked on together; and, forted because they got safely over the river, and had as they walked, ever and anon these trumpeters, even such glorious companions to attend them.
with joyful sound, would, by mixing their music with The talk that they had with the shining ones was looks and gestures, still signify to Christian and his about the glory of the place; who told them, that the brother how welcome they were into their company, beauty and glory of it was inexpressible. There, said and with what gladness they came to meet them: and they, is Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the now were these two men, as it were, in Heaven, before innumerable company of angels, and the spirits of they came at it, being swallowed up with the sight of just men made perfect. You are going now, said:
and with hea
melodious notes. Here, they, to the Paradise of God, wherein you shall see also, they had the city itself in view, and thought the tree of life, and eat of the never-fading fruits they heard all the bells therein to ring, to welcome thereof; and when you come there, you shall have them thereto. But, above all, the warm and joyful white robes given you, and your walk and talk shall thoughts that they had about their own dwelling be every day with the King, even all the days of eter- there with such company, and that for ever and ever. nity. There you shall not see again such things as you | Oh! by what tongue or pen can their glorious joy be saw when you were in the lower region upon the earth, expressed! Thus they came up to the gate. to wit, sorrow, sickness, affliction, and death, 'for the Now, when they were come up to the rate, there former things are passed away.' You are now going to was written over in letters of gold, Blessed are they Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to the prophets, men that do his commandments, that they may have a that God hath taken away from the evil to come, and right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the that are now resting upon their beds, each one walking gates into the city' in his righteousness. The men then asked, What must Then I saw in my dream that the shining men bid we do in this holy place? To whom it was answered, them call at the gate ; the which, when they did, some You must there receive the comforts of all your toil, from above looked over the gate, to wit, Enoch, Moses, and have joy for all your sorrow; you must reap what | Elijah, &c., to whom it was said, These pilgrims are you have sown
he fruit of all your prayers and come from the City of Destruction, for the love that tears, and sufferings for the king by the way. In that they bear to the King of this place; and then the pilplace you must wear crowns of gold, and enjoy the grims gave in unto them each man his certificate, perpetual sight and vision of the Holy One, for 'there which they had received in the beginning: those you shall see him as he is.' There, also, you shall | therefore, were carried in to the King, who, when he gerve him continually with praise, with shouting, and had read them, said, Where are the men? To whom thanksgiving, whom you desired to serve in the world, it was answered, They are standing without the gate. though with much difficulty, because of the infirinity The King then commanded to open the gate, That of your flesh. There your eyes shall be delighted with the righteous nation,' said he, 'that keepeth truth, seeing, and your ears with hearing, the pleasant voice may enter in.' of the Mighty One. There you shall enjoy your Now, I saw in my dream that these two men went friends again, that are gone thither before you ; and in at the gate; and lo, as they entered, they were there you shall with joy receive even every one that | transfigured, and they had raiment put on that shone
like gold. There were also that met them with harps sketched in his works), he considered himself to have
Now, just as the gates were opened to let in the men, I looked in after thein, and behold the city shone like the sun; the streets, also, were paved with gold, and in them walked many men with crowns on their heads, palms in their hands, and golden harps, to sing praises withal.
There were also of them that had wings, and they answered one another without intermission, saying, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord.' And after that they shut up the gates; which when I had seen, I wished myself among them.
Now, while I was gazing upon all these things, I turned my head to look back, and saw Ignorance coming up to the river side ; but he soon got over, and that without half the difficulty which the other two men met with. For it happened that there was then in that place one Vain-Hope, a ferryman, that with
Lord Clarendon his boat helped him over; so he, as the other, I saw, declares that he never was so proud, or thought did ascend the hill, to come up to the gate, only he himself so good a man, as when he was the worst came alone; neither did any man meet him with the man, in the company.' In the practice of the law least encouragement. When he was coming up to the he made so creditable a figure, as to attract the fagate, he looked up to the writing that was above, and vourable notice of Archbishop Laud; but being in then began to knock, supposing that entrance should easy circumstances, and having entered parliament have been quickly administered to him: but he was
in 1640, he soon afterwards quitted the bar, and deasked by the men that looked over the top of the gate, voted himself to public affairs. At first he abstained Whence come you, and what would you have? He from connecting himself with any political party ; answered, 'I have eat and drank in the presence of but eventually he joined the royalists, to whose the King, and he has taught in our streets.' Then principles he was inclined by nature, though not in they asked for his certificate, that they might go in a violent degree. In the struggles between Charles I. and show it to the King; so he fumbled in his bosom and the people, he was much consulted by the for one, and found none. Then said they, You have king, who, however, sometimes gave him great none ! but the man answered never a word. So they offence by disregarding his advice. Many of the told the King, but he would not come down to see him, but commanded the two shining ones that con
papers issued in the royal cause during the civil ducted Christian and Hopeful to the city to go out war were the productions of Hyde. Charles, while and take Ignorance, and bind him hand and foot, and holding his court at Oxford, noninated him chanhave him away. Then they took him up, and carried cellor of the exchequer, and conferred upon him him through the air to the door that I saw on the side the honour of knighthood. Leaving the king in of the hill, and put him in there. Then I saw that 1644, he accompanied Prince Charles to the west, there was a way to hell, even from the gates of heaven, and subsequently to Jersey, where he remained for as well as from the City of Destruction. “So I awoke, island, engaged in tranquil literary occupations, and
two years after the prince's departure from that and behold it was a dream.'
especially in writing a history of the stormy events
in which he had lately been an actor. In 1648 he The period under review and the reign which joined the prince in Holland, and next year went as immediately preceded it were fortunate in a group one of his ambassadors to Madrid, having first estaof historical writers who described their own times blished his own wife and children at Antwerp. In with extraordinary felicity. At their head stands Spain the ambassadors were coldly received: after sufthe Earl of Clarendon, who gives the royalist view fering much from neglect and poverty, they were at of public affairs.
length ordered to quit the kingdom, which they did in 1651; Hyde retiring to his family at Antwerp, but afterwards, in the autumn of the same year,
joining the exiled Charles at Paris. Thenceforth, EDWARD HYDE, EARL OF CLARENDON (1608-1674), Hyde continued to be of great service in managing the son of a private gentleman of good fortune in the embarrassed pecuniary affairs of the court, in Wiltshire, studied for several years at Oxford with giving counsel to the king, and in preserving hara view to the church, but, in consequence of the mony among his adherents. At this time his own death of two elder brothers, was removed at the age poverty was such, that he writes in 1652, ‘I have of sixteen to London, where he diligently pursued neither clothes nor fire to preserve me from the the study of the law. While thus employed, he sharpness of the season ;' and in the following year, associated much with some of the most eminent of I have not had a livre of my own for three months.' his contemporaries, among whom may be mentioned He was greatly annoyed by the indolence and extraLord Falkland, Selden, Carew, Waller, Morley, vagance of Charles, who, however, valued him highly, Hales of Eton, and Chillingworth. From the con- and manifested his approbation by raising him to versation of these and other distinguished individuals the dignity of lord chancellor. This appointment (the characters of some of whom he has admirably | by a king without a kingdom, besides serving to tes
tify the royal favour, enabled the easy and indolent Other. The last is peculiarly valuable, as the pro-
mode of life he, however, justly thinks ought to be
be resolved by the same medium. That a man of Dunkirk House, the London residence of Lord Clarendon.
a vigorous and active spirit, of perspicacity of judghis majesty's command, and was soon afterwards ment, and high thoughts, cannot enter too soon into compelled to withdraw from the kingdom. He re the field of action ; and to confine him to retirement, tired to France, and occupied himself in completing and to spend his life in contemplation, were to take his History of the Rebellion (for such was the epithet his life from him. On the other hand, a dull disbestowed by the royalists upon the civil war), spirited fellow, who hath no faculties of soul to which, however, was not published till the reign of exercise and improve, or such as no exercise or conQueen Anne. This great work, which usually occu- versation can improve, may withdraw himself as far pies six volumes, is not written in the studied manner as he can from the world, and spend his life in sleep, of modern historical compositions, but in an easy that was never awake; but what kind of fruit this flowing conversational style; and it is generally dry trunk will yield by his speculation or contemesteemed for the lively descriptions which the author plation, can no more be comprehended than that he gives, from his own knowledge and observation, of will have a better and more useful understanding his most eminent contemporaries. The events are after he is dead and buried.' Lord Clarendon omits narrated with that freshness and minuteness which to add, that dispositions as well as talents ought only one concerned in them could have attained ; but always to be considered ; since, however great a some allowance must be made, in judging of the cha- man's abilities may be, the want of boldness, selfracters and the transactions described, for the political confidence, and decision of character, must operate prejudices of the author, which, as already seen, were as an insurmountable bar to success in the struggles those of a moderate and virtuous royalist. The chief of active life.* faults with which his style is chargeable are prolixity In the year 1811, a work of Lord Clarendon's, and involution, which render some portions of the which had till then remained in manuscript, was work unreadable, except with a great effort of atten- published under the title of Religion and Policy, and tion. And from having been written before notes the Countenance and Assistance they should give the came into use, the narrative is too frequently in each other ; with a Survey of the Power and Juristerrupted by the introduction of minute discussions diction of the Pope in the Dominions of other Princes. of accessory matters. Lord Clarendon wrote also a variety of shorter works, among which are a life of Vindication of Himself from the Charge of High Treasen ;
* Lord Clarendon's other miscellaneous works consist of a himself, : reply to the 'Leviathan' of Hobbes, and contemplations on the Psalms of David ; Dialogues on the an admirable Essay on an Active and Contemplative Want of Respect due to Age, and on Education ; and essays en Life, ană why the One should be preferred before the various subjects.
e principal object of the work is to show the little curiosity either in the court or in the country injury which religion has sustained by the pope's to know anything of Scotland, or what was done there, assumption of temporal authority, and that it is that when the whole nation was solicitous to know incumbent on Cathwlics living under Protestant what passed weekly in Germany, and Poland, and all governments to pay no regard to the papal autho
other parts of Europe, no man ever inquired what rity, in opposition to their own sovereign.
was doing in Scotland. Nor had that kingdom a place Lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion' was or mention in one page of any gazette ; and even after not intended for publication till the numerous public
| the advertisement of this preamble to rebellion, no individuals of whom it spoke were no more ; and ac- mention was made of it at the council-board, but such cordingly, it did not make its appearance till the year a despatch made into Scotland upon it, as expressed 1707. It was edited by Lord Rochester, Bishop Sprat,
the king's dislike and displeasure, and obliged the and Dean Aldrich, who made numerous alterations
lords of the council there to appear more vigorously on the text, which, however, has now been correctly
in the vindication of his authority, and suppression given in an edition printed at Oxford in 1826.
of those tumults. But all was too little. That people,
after they had once begun, pursued the business vigour(Reception of the Liturgy at Edinburgh in 1637.) ously, and with all imaginable contempt of the govern
ment; and though in the hubbub of the first day On the Sunday morning appointed for the work, the there appeared nobody of name or reckoning, but the Chancellor of Scotland, and others of the council, actors were really of the dregs of the people, yet they being present in the cathedral church, the dean began discovered by the countenance of that day, that few to read the Liturgy, which he had no sooner entered men of rank were forward to engage themselves in the upon, but a noise and clamour was raised throughout
quarrel on the behalf of the bishops; whereupon more the church, that no words could be heard distinctly ; l considerable persons every day ar peared against them, and then a shower of stones, and sticks, and cudgels, and (as heretofore in the case of St Paul, Acts xiii. were thrown at the dean's head. The bishop went up 50, The Jews stirred up the devout and honourable into the pulpit, and from thence put them in mind of women') the women and ladies of the best quality the sacredness of the place, of their duty to God and declared themselves of the party, and, with all the *he king ; but he found no more reverence, nor was reproaches imaginable, made war upon the bishops, the clamour and disorder less than before. The chan- as introducers of popery and superstition, against which cellor, from his seat, commanded the provost and they avowed themselves to be irreconcilable enemies; magistrates of the city to descend from the gallery in and their husbands did not long defer the owning which they sat, and by their authority to suppress the the same spirit; insomuch as within few days the riot; which at last with great difficulty they did, by bishops durst not appear in the streets, nor in any driving the rudest of those who made the disturbance courts, or houses, but were in danger of their lives; out of the church, and shutting the doors, which gave and such of the lords as durst be in their company, the dean opportunity to proceed in the reading of or seemed to desire to rescue them from violence, had the Liturgy, that was not at all attended or heark their coaches torn in pieces, and their persons assaulted, ened to by those who remained within the church; | insomuch as they were glad to send for some of those and if it had, they who were turned out continued great men, who did indeed govern the rabble, though their barbarous noise, broke the windows, and endea
they appeared not in it, who readily came and revoured to break down the doors, so that it was not deemed them out of their hands; so that, by the time possible for any to follow their devotions.
new orders came from England, there was scarce a When all was done that at that time could be bishop left in Edinburgh, and not a minister who durst done there, and the council and magistrates went out read the Liturgy in any church. of the church to their houses, the rabble followed the bishops with all the opprobrious language they could
[Character of Hampden.] invent, of bringing in superstition and popery into the kingdom, and making the people slaves; and were Mr Hampden was a man of much greater cunning, pot content to use their tongues, but employed their and, it may be, of the most discerning spirit, and of hands too in throwing dirt and stones at them; and the greatest address and insinuation to bring anything treated the bishop of Edinburgh, whom they looked to pass which he desired, of any man of that time, and upon as most active that way, so rudely, that with who laid the design deepest. He was a gentleman of difficulty he got into a house, after they had torn his a good extraction, and a fair fortune; who, from a life habit, and was from thence removed to his own, with of great pleasure and license, had on a sudden retired great hazard of his life. As this was the reception to extraordinary sobriety and strictness, and yet rewhich it had in the cathedral, so it fared not better tained his usual cheerfulness and affability; which, in the other churches of the city, but was entertained together with the opinion of his wisdom and justice, with the same noise and outcries, and threatening and the courage he had showed in orposing the shipthe men, whose office it was to read it, with the same money, raised his reputation to a very great height, bitter execrations against bishops and popery.
not only in Buckinghamshire, where he lived, but Hitherto no person of condition or dame appeared generally throughout the kingdom. He was not a or seemed to countenance this seditious confusion; it man of many words, and rarely begun the discourse, was the rabble, of which nobody was named, and, or made the first entrance upon any business that was which is more strange, not one apprehended : and it assumed; but a very weighty speaker, and after he seems the bishops thought it not of moment enough had heard a full debate, and observed how the house to desire or require any help or protection from the was like to be inclined, took up the argument, and council ; but without conferring with them, or apply. shortly, and clearly, and craftily so stated it, that he ing themselves to them, they despatched away an commonly conducted it to the conclusion he desired ; express to the king, with a full and particular infor- and if he found he could not do that, he was never mation of all that had passed, and a desire that he without the dexterity to divert the debate to another would take that course he thought best for the carry- time, and to prevent the determining anything in the ing on his service.
negative, which might prove inconvenient in the future. Until this advertisement arrived from Scotland, He made so great a show of civility, and modesty, and there were very few in England who had heard of any humility, and always of mistrusting his own judgment, disorders there, or of anything done there which might and esteeming his with whom he conferred for the preproduce any. * * And the truth is, there was so sent, that he seemed to have no opinions or resolutions,
but such as he contracted from the information and which laziness and consent made current in vulgar instruction he received upon the discourses of others, I conversation. whom he had a wonderful art of governing, and lead. He was superior to all those passions and affections ing into his principles and inclinations, whilst they | which attend vulgar minds, and was guilty of no believed that he wholly depended upon their counsel other ambition than of knowledge, and to be reputed and advice. No man had ever a greater power over a lover of all good men ; and that made him too inuch himself, or was less the man that he seemed to be; a contemner of those arts which must be indulged in which shortly after appeared to everybody, when he the transactions of human affairs. In the last short cared less to keep on the mask.
parliament he was a burgess in the House of Commons; and from the debates, which were there
managed with all imaginable gravity and sobriety, he [Character of Lord Falkland.)
contracted such a reverence to parliaments, that he thought it really impossible the
ever produce In this unhappy battle [of Newbury] was slain the mischief or inconvenience to the kingdom; or that the Lord Viscount Falkland, a person of such prodigious kingdom could be tolerably happy in the intermission parts of learning and knowledge, of that inimitable of them. sweetness and delight in conversation, of so flowing The great opinion he had of the uprightness and inand obliging a humanity and goodness to mankind, tegrity of those persons who appeared most active, and of that primitive simplicity and integrity of life, especially of Mr Hampden, kept him longer from susthat if there were no other brand upon this odious and pecting any design against the peace of the kingdom; accursed civil war than that single loss, it must be and though he differed from them commonly in conmost infamous and execrable to all posterity : clusions, he believed long their purposes were honest.
When he grew better informed what was law, and disTurpe mori, post te, solo non posse dolore.
cerned in them a desire to control that law by a vote Before this parliament, his condition of life was so of one or both houses, no man more opposed those happy, that it was hardly capable of improvement. attempts, and gave the adverse party more trouble by Before he came to be twenty years of age, he was
reason and argumentation; insomuch as he was by demaster of a noble fortune, which descended to him by grees looked upon as an advocate for the court; to the gift of a grandfather, without passing through his which he contributed so little, that he declined those father or mother, who were then both alive, and not addresses, and even those invitations which he was well enough contented to find themselves passed by in obliged almost by civility to entertain. And he was the descent. His education for some years had been so jealous of the least imagination that he should inin Ireland, where his father was lord deputy; so that, cline to preferment, that he affected eren a moroseness when he returned into England to the possession of to the court and to the courtiers, and left nothing his fortune, he was unentangled with any acquaintance undone which might prevent and divert the king's or or friends, which usually grow up by the custom of queen's favour towards him but the deserving it. For conversation, and therefore was to make a pure elec- when the king sent for him once or twice to speak tion of his company, which he chose by other rules with him, and to give him thanks for his excellent than were prescribed to the young nobility of that comportment in those councils, which his majesty time. And it cannot be denied, though he admitted graciously termed doing him service,' his answers some few to his friendship for the agreeableness of were more negligent, and less satisfactory, than might their natures, and their undoubted affection to him, be expected ; as if he cared only that his actions should that his familiarity and friendship for the most part be just, not that they should be acceptable; and that was with men of the most eminent and sublime parts, his majesty should think that they proceeded only and of untouched reputation in point of integrity; and from the impulsion of conscience, without any symsuch men had a title to his bosom.
| pathy in his affections. He was a great cherisher of wit, and fancy, and good. He had a courage of the most clear and keen parts in any man; and if he found them clouded with temper, and so far from fear, that he seemed not withpoverty or want, a most liberal and bountiful patron out some appetite of danger; and therefore, upon any towards them, even above his fortune; of which, in occasion of action, he always engaged his person in those administrations, he was such a dispenser, as, if those troops which he thought by the forwardness of the he had been trusted with it to such uses, and if there commanders to be most like to be farthest engaged; had been the least of vice in his expense, he might and in all such encounters, he had about him an exhave been thought too prodigal. He was constant and traordinary cheerfulness, without at all affecting the pertinacious in whatsoever he resolved to do, and not execution that usually attended them ; in which he to be wearied by any pains that were necessary to took no delight, but took pains to prevent it, where it that end. And, therefore, having once resolved not to was not by resistance made necessary; insomuch see London, which he loved above all places, till he that at Edge-hill, when the enemy was routed, he was had perfectly learned the Greek tongue, he went to like to have incurred great peril, by interposing to his own house in the country, and pursued it with save those who had thrown away their armas, and that indefatigable industry, that it will not be be- against whom, it inay be, others were more fierce for liered in how short a time he was master of it, and their having thrown them away; so that a man might accurately read all the Greek historians.
think he came into the field chiefly out of curiosity to in thai tim, his house being within little more than see the face of danger, and charity to prevent the ten miles of Oxford, he contractel familiarity and shedding of blood. Yet in his natural inclination, he friendship with the most polite and accurate men of acknowledged he was addicted to the profession of a that university, who found such an immenseness of soldier ; and shortly after he came to his fortune, bewit, and such a solidity of judgment in him, so infinite fore he was of age, he went into the Low Countries, a fancy, bound in by a most logical ratiocination, such with a resolution of procuring command, and to give a vast knowledge, that he was not ignorant in any- himself up to it; from which he was diverted by the thing, yet such an excessive humility, as if he had complete inactivity of that summer; so he returned known nothing, that they frequently resorted and into England, and shortly after entered upon that dwelt with him, as in a college situated in a purer vehement course of study we mentioned before, till the air; so that his house was a university in a less volume, first alarm from the north ; then again he made ready whither they came not so much for repose as study, for the field, and though he received some repulse in and to examine and refine those grosser propositions the command of a troop of horse, of which he had