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such a fable as this, as from any faisehood imaginable, devoted to the cause of piety and good morals, assuredly that man is next door to madness or dotage, esteeming worth in whatever denomination it was or does enormous violence to the free use of his fa- found; and one who, to simplicity of manners, added culties.
| much sagacity as an observer of human affairs.
By many even of his contemporaries his merits were During the same period, some writers of eminence
amply acknowledged ; and among his friends and appeared among those bodies of Protestant Chris
admirers he had the honour to reckon Dr Barrow, tians who did not conform to the rules of the esta
Bishop Wilkins, and Sir Matthew Hale. Baxter blished church. The most celebrated of these are
engaged in many controversies, chiefly against the Baxter, Owen, Calamy, Flavel, Fox, Barclay, Penn,
principles of the Antinomians;* but his writings on and Bunyan.
other subjects are likewise numerous. The remark
of one of his biographers, that the works of this inRICHARD BAXTER.
dustrious author are sufficient to form a library of RICHARD BAXTER (1615-1691) is generally es themselves, is hardly overcharged, for not fewer than teemed the most eminent of the nonconformist one hundred and sixty-eight publications are named
in the catalogue of his works. Their contents, which include bodies of practical and theoretical divinity, are of course very various; none of them are now much read, except the practical pieces, especially those entitled The Saint's Everlasting Rest, and A Call to the Unconverted. The latter was so popular when published, that 20,000 copies are said to have been sold in a single year. His work entitled The Certainty of the World of Spirits fully evinced by unquestionable Histories of Apparitions and Witchcrafts, Operations, Voices, &c., is interesting to the curious. Baxter wrote a candid, liberal, and rational Narrative of the most Memorable Passages of his Life and Times, which appeared in 1696, a few years after his death. It is highly instructive, and, like Baxter's writings generally, was a favourite book of Dr Johnson. Our character of this production will be fully borne out by the following extracts :
[Fruits of Experience of Human Character.] I now see more good and more evil in all men than heretofore I did. I see that good men are not so good as I once thought they were, but have more imperfections ; and that nearer approach and fuller trial doth
make the best appear more weak and faulty than their Richard Baxter.
admirers at a distance think. And I find that few divines of this period. His first employment was that
are so bad as either malicious enemies or censorious of master of the free school at Dudley, in which town
separating professors do imagine. In some, indeed, I he afterwards became distinguished as a preacher,
find that human nature is corrupted into a greater first in connexion with the established church, and
likeness to devils than I once thought any on earth subsequently as a dissenting minister. His labours
had been. But even in the wicked, usually there is there are said to have been of marked utility in im
more for grace to make advantage of, and more to
testify for God and holiness, than I once believed proving the moral character of the inhabitants, and increasing their respect for religion. Though he
there had been. sided with parliament during the civil war, he was a
I less admire gifts of utterance, and bare profession zealous advocate of order and regular government
of religion, than I once did; and have much more both in church and state. When Cromwell usurped
charity for many who, by the want of gifts, do make
an obscurer profession than they. I once thought that the supreme power, Baxter openly expressed his dis
almost all that could pray movingly and fluently, and approbation, and, in a conference with the Protector,
talk well of religion, had been saints. But experiplainly told him that the people of England considered monarchy a blessing, the loss of which they
ence hath opened to me what odious crimes may condeplored. After the Restoration, he was appointed
sist with high profession; and I have met with divers
obscure persons, not noted for any extraordinary proone of the royal chaplains, but, like Dr Owen, refused
fession, or forwardness in religion, but only to live a a bishopric offered him by Lord Clarendon. During
quiet blameless life, whom I have after found to have the persecution of the nonconformists, he was occa
long lived, as far as I could discern, a truly godly and sionally much molested in the performance of his
sanctified life ; only, their prayers and duties were by ministerial duties; in 1685, he was, on frivolous
accident kept secret from other men's observation. grounds, condemned by the infamous Jeffreys for
Yet he that upon this pretence would confound the sedition, but by the king's favour obtained a release
godly and the ungodly, may as well go about to lay from the heavy fine imposed upon him on this occa
heaven and hell together. sion. Baxter, who was a man of enlarged and liberal views, refrained from joining any of those sects into which the dissenters were split; and he was in con
[Baxter's Judgment of his Writings.] sequence generally regarded with suspicion and dis- Concerning almost all my writings, I must confess like by the more narrow-minded of them. His that my own judgment is, that fewer, well studied and character was of course exposed to much obloquy polished, had been better; but the reader who can in his lifetime, but is now impartially judged of, posterity having agreed to look upon him as ardently
* See note, page 425.
safeiy censure the books, is not fit to censure the au- chief men that overvalue their own opinions have done thor, unless he had been upon the place, and ac- by their controversies in the church; how some have quainted with all the occasions and circumstances. destroyed charity, and some caused schisms by thern, Indeed, for the "Saint's Rest,' I had four months' and most have hindered godliness in themselves and Vacancy to write it, but in the midst of continual lan- others, and used them to divert men from the serious guishing and medicine; but, for the rest, I wrote them prosecuting of a holy life; and, as Sir Francis Bacon in the crowd of all my other employments, which would saith in his Essay of Peace, that it is one great beneallow me no great leisure for polishing and exactness, fit of church peace and concord, that writing contro or any ornament; so that I scarce ever wrote one sheet versies is turned into books of practical devotion for twice over, nor stayed to make any blots or interlinings, increase of piety and virtue. 2. And I find that it but was fain to let it go as it was first conceived ; and is much more for most men's good and edification, to when my own desire was rather to stay upon one thing converse with them only in that way of godliness long than run over many, some sudden occasions or which all are agreed in, and not by touching upon difother extorted almost all my writings from me; and ferences to stir up their corruptions, and to tell them the apprehensions of present usefulness or necessity of little more of your knowledge than what you find prevailed against all other motives; so that the di-them willing to receive from you as mere learners ; vines which were at hand with me still put me on, and therefore to stay till they crave information of and approved of what I did, because they were moved you. We mistake men's diseases when we think by present necessities as well as I ; but those that there needeth nothing to cure their errors, but only to were far off, and felt not those nearer motives, did bring them the evidence of truth. Alas! there are rather wish that I had taken the other way, and pub- many distempers of mind to be removed before men lished a few elaborate writings; and I am ready my- are apt to receive that evidence. And, therefore, that self to be of their mind, when I forgot the case that I church is happy where order is kept up, and the abithen stood in, and have lost the sense of former mo- lities of the ministers command a reverend submission tives. * *
from the hearers, and where all are in Christ's school, And this token of my weakness so accompanied in the distinct ranks of teachers and learners; for in those my younger studies, that I was very apt to a learning way men are ready to receive the truth, start up controversies in the way of my practical but in a disputing way, they come armed against it writings, and also more desirous to acquaint the with prejudice and animosity. world with all that I took to be the truth, and to assault those books by name which I thought did tend
[Desire of Approbation.] to deceive them, and did contain unsound and dan
I am much less regardful of the approbation of man, gerous doctrine; and the reason of all this was, that I was then in the vigour of my youthful apprehen
and set much lighter by contempt or applause, than
I did long ago. I am oft suspicious that this is not sions, and the new appearance of any sacred truth, it
only from the increase of self-denial and humility, was more apt to affect me, and be more highly valued,
but partly from my being glutted and surfeited with than afterwards, when commonness had dulled my
human applause: and all worldly things appear most delight; and I did not sufficiently discern then how
vain and unsatisfactory, when we have tried them much, in most of our controversies, is verbal, and upon
most. But though I feel that this hath soine hand in mutual mistakes. And withal, I knew not how im
the effect, yet, as far as I can perceive, the knowledge patient divines were of being contradicted, nor how it
of man's nothingness, and God's transcendent greatwould stir up all their powers to defend what they have
ness, with whom it is that I have most to do, and the once said, and to rise up against the truth which is thus
sense of the brevity of human things, and the nearness thrust upon them, as the mortal enemy of their honour; and I knew not how hardly men's minds are changed which some have imputed to self-conceitedness and
of eternity, are the principal causes of this effect; from their former apprehensions, be the evidence never 80 plain. And I have perceived that nothing so much
morosity. hinders the reception of the truth as urging it on men
[Change in Baxter's Estimate of his Oren and other Men's with too harsh importunity, and falling too heavily
Knowledge.] on their errors; for hereby you engage their honour in the business, and they defend their errors as them | Heretofore I knew much less than now, and yet selves, and stir up all their wit and ability to oppose | was not half so much acquainted with my ignorance. you. In controversies, it is fierce opposition which is I had a great delight in the daily new discoveries the bellows to kindle a resisting zeal; when, if they be which I made, and of the light which shined in upon neglected, and their opinions lie awhile despised, they me (like a man that cometh into a country where he usually cool, and come again to themselves. Men never was before); but I little knew either how imperare so loath to be drenched with the truth, that I am fectly I understood those very points whose discovery no more for going that way to work; and, to confess so much delighted me, nor how much might be said the truth, I am lately much prone to the contrary ex- | against them, nor how many things I was yet a stranger treme, to be too indifferent what men hold, and to to : but now I find far greater darkness upon all things, keep my judgment to myself, and never to mention and perceive how very little it is that we know, in anything wherein I differ from another on anything comparison of that which we are ignorant of, and have which I think I know more than he; or, at least, if far meaner thoughts of my own understanding, though he receive it not presently, to silence it, and leave him I must needs know that it is better furnished than it to his own opinion; and I find this effect is mixed was then. according to its causes, which are some good and some Accordingly, I had then a far higher opinion of bad. The bad causes are, 1. An impatience of men's learned persons and books than I have now ; for what weakness, and mistaking forwardness, and self-con- | I wanted myself, I thought every reverend divine had ceitedness. 2. An abatement of my sensible esteem attained and was familiarly acquainted with ; and of truths, through the long abode of them on my mind. what books I understood not, by reason of the strangeThough my judgment value them, yet it is hard to be ness of the terms or matter, I the more admired, and equally affected with old and common things, as with thought that others understood their worth. But now new and rare ones. The better causes are, 1. That I experience hath constrained me against my will to am much more sensible than ever of the necessity of know, that reverend learned men are imperfect, and living upon the principles of religion which we are all know but little as well as I, especially those that agreed in, and uniting in these ; and how much mis- | think themselves the wisest ; and the better I am acquainted witi them, the more I perceive that we are seduced ones believe them all, in despite of truth and all yet in the dark : and the more I am acquainted charity; so in this age there have been such things with holy men, that are all for heaven, and pre-written against parties and persons, whom the writers tend not much to subtilties, the more I value and design to make odious, so notoriously false, as you honour them. And when I have studied hard to un- would think, that the sense of their honour, at least, derstand some abstruse admired book (as De Scientia should have made it impossible for such men to write. Dei, De Providentia circa Malum, De Decretis, De Pre- My own eyes have read such words and actions as. determinatione, De Libertate Creaturæ,* &c.), I have but serted with most vehement, iterated, unblushing conattained the knowledge of human imperfection, and to fidence, which abundance of ear-witnesses, even of see that the author is but a man as well as I.
their own parties, must needs know to have been altoAnd at first I took more upon my author's credit gether false : and therefore having myself now written than now I can do ; and when an author was highly this history of myself, notwithstanding my protestacommended to me by others, or pleased me in some tion that I have not in anything wilfully gone against part, I was ready to entertain the whole; whereas now the truth, I expect no more credit from the reader I take and leave in the same author, and dissent in than the self-evidencing light of the matter, with consome things from him that I like best, as well as from current rational advantages from persons, and things, others.
and other witnesses, shall constrain him to, if he be
a person that is unacquainted with the author him[On the Credit due to History.]
self, and the other evidences of his veracity and credi
bility I am much more cautelous in my belief of history than heretofore; not that I run into their extreme,
[Character of Sir Matthew Hale.] that will believe nothing because they cannot believe all things. But I am abundantly satisfied by the ex. He was a man of no quick utterance, but spake with perience of this age, that there is no believing two great reason. He was most precisely just ; insomuch sorts of men, ungodly men and partial men ; though that, I believe, he would have lost all he had in the an honest heathen, of no religion, may be believed, world rather than do an unjust act. Patient in hearwhere enmity against religion biasseth him not; yet ing the most tedious speech which any man had to a debauched Christian, besides his enmity to the make for himself. The pillar of justice, the refuge of power and practice of his own religion, is seldom with the subject who feared oppression, and one of the out some further bias of interest or faction ; especially greatest honours of his majesty's government ; for, when these concur, and a man is both ungodly and with some other upright judges, he upheld the honour ambitious, espousing an interest contrary to a holy of the English nation, that it fell not into the reproach heavenly life, and also factious, embodying himself of arbitrariness, cruelty, and utter confusion. Every with a sect or party suited to his spirit and designs; man that had a just cause, was almost past fear if he there is no believing his word or oath. If you read could but bring it to the court or assize where he was any man partially bitter against others, as differing judge ; for the other judges seldom contradicted him. from him in opinion, or as cross to his greatness, in- He was the great instrument for rebuilding London; terest, or designs, take heed how you believe any more for when an act was made for deciding all controverthan the historical evidence, distinct from his word, sies that hindered it, he was the constant judge, who compelleth you to believe. The prodigious lies which for nothing followed the work, and, by his prudence have been published in this age in matters of fact, and justice, removed a multitude of great impediwith unblushing confidence, even where thousands or ments. multitudes of eye and ear-witnesses knew all to be His great advantage for innocency was, that he was false, doth call men to take heed what history they no lover of riches or of grandeur. His garb was too believe, especially where power and violence affordeth plain; he studiously avoided all unnecessary familithat privilege to the reporter, that no man dare answer arity with great persons, and all that manner of living him, or detect his fraud; or if they do, their writings which signifieth wealth and greatness. He kept no are all supprest. As long as men have liberty to ex- greater a family than myself. I lived in a small amine and contradict one another, one may partly house, which, for a pleasant back opening, he had a conjecture, by comparing their words, on which side mind to; but caused a stranger, that he might not be the truth is like to lie. But when great men write suspected to be the man, to know of me whether I history, or flatterers by their appointment, which no were willing to part with it, before he would meddle man dare contradict, believe it but as you are con- with it. In that house he lived contentedly, without strained. Yet, in these cases, I can freely believe any pomp, and without costly or troublesome retinue history : 1. If the person show that he is acquainted or visitors; but not without charity to the poor. He with what he saith. 2. And if he show you the evi continued the study of physics and mathematics still, dences of honesty and conscience, and the fear of God as his great delight. He hath himself written four (which may be much perceived in the spirit of a writ-volumes in folio, three of which I have read, against ing). 3. If he appear to be impartial and charitable, atheism, Sadduceism, and infidelity, to prove first the and a lover of goodness and of mankind, and not Deity, and then the immortality of man's soul, and possessed of malignity, or personal ill-will and malice, then the truth of Christianity and the Holy Scripnor carried away by faction or personal interest. Con- ture, answering the infidel's objections against Scripscionable men dare not lie: but faction and interest ture. It is strong and masculine, only too tedious for abate men's tenderness of conscience. And a charit- impatient readers. He said he wrote it only at vacant able impartial heathen may speak truth in a love to hours in his circuits, to regulate his meditations, findtruth, and hatred of a lie; but ambitious malice and ing, that while he wrote down what he thought on, his false religion will not stick to serve themselves on any thoughts were the easier kept close to work, and kept thing. * * Sure I am, that as the lies of the Papists, in a method. But I could not persuade him to pubof Luther, Zwinglius, Calvin, and Beza, are visibly lish them. malicious and impudent, by the common plenary con | The conference which I had frequently with him, tradicting evidence, and yet the multitude of their mostly about the immortality of the soul, and other
philosophical and foundation points, was so edifying, * These Latin titles of books signify, of the Knowledge of that his very questions and objections did help me to God, of Providence concerning Evil, of Deorees, Of Predesti- more light than other men's solutions. Those who nation, of the Liberty of the Creature.
take none for religious who frequent not private meet
ings, &c., took him for an excellently righteous moral to call men that are within my hearing to more peaceman; but I, who heard and read his serious expres- able thoughts, affections, and practices. And my ensions of the concernments of eternity, and saw his love deavours have not been in vain, in that the ministers to all good men, and the blamelessness of his life, of the county where I lived were very many of such thought better of his piety than my own. When the a peaceable temper, and a great number more through people crowded in and out of my house to hear, he the land, by God's grace (rather than any endeavours openly showed me so great respect before them at the of mine), are so minded. But the sons of the cowl door, and never spake a word against it, as was no were exasperated the more against me, and accounted small encouragement to the cominon people to go on : him to be against every man that called all men to though the other sort muttered, that a judge should love and peace, and was for no man as in a contrary seem so far to countenance that which they took to be way. against the law. He was a great lamenter of the extremities of the times, and of the violence and foolish
JOHN OWEN. Dess of the predominant clergy, and a great desirer of such abatements as might restore us all to serviceable- DR JOHN OWEN (1616–1683), after studying at ness and unity. He had got but a very small estate, Oxford for the church of England, became a Presbythough he had long the greatest practice, because he terian, but finally joined the Independents. He was would take but little money, and undertake no more highly esteemed by the parliament which executed business than he could well despatch. He often offered
| the king, and was frequently called upon to preach to the lord chancellor to resign his place, when he was before them. Cromwell, in particular, was so highly blamed for doing that which he supposed was justice. pleased with him, that, when going to Ireland, he He had been the learned Selden's intimate friend, and
insisted on Dr Owen accompanying him, for the one of his executors; and because the Hobbians and
| purpose of regulating and superintending the college other infidels would have persuaded the world that of Dublin. After spending six months in that city, Selden was of their mind, I desired him to tell me the
Owen returned to his clerical duties in England, from truth therein. He assured me that Selden was an
which, however, he was again speedily called away by earnest professor of the Christian faith, and so angry Cromwell, who took him in 1650 to Edinburgh, where an adversary to Hobbes, that he hath rated him out
| he spent six months. Subsequently, he was promoted of the room.
to the deanery of Christ-church college in Oxford,
and soon after, to the vice-chancellorship of the uni[Observance of the Sabbath in Baxter's Youth.]
versity, which offices he held till Cromwell's death. I cannot forget, that in my youth, in those late
After the Restoration, he was favoured by Lord
Clarendon, who offered him a preferment in the times, when we lost the labours of some of our con
| church if he would conform ; but this the principles formable godly teachers, for not reading publicly the book of sports and dancing on the Lord's Day, one of
of Dr Owen did not permit him to do. The persemy father's own tenants was the town piper, hired by
cution of the nonconformists repeatedly disposed the year (for many years together), and the place of
him to emigrate to New England, but attachment to the dancing assembly was not an hundred yards from
his native country prevailed. Notwithstanding his our door. We could not, on the Lord's Day, either
decided hostility to the church, the amiable disposi. read a chapter, or pray, or sing a psalm, or catechise,
tions and agreeable manners of Dr Owen procured or instruct a servant, but with the noise of the pipe
him much esteem from many eminent churchmpen, and tabor, and the shoutings in the street, continually
among whom was the king himself, who on one ocin our ears. Even among a tractable people, we were
casion sent for him, and, after a conversation of two the common scorn of all the rabble in the streets, and
hours, gave him a thousand guineas to be distributed called puritans, precisians, and hypocrites, because we among those who had su
wa among those who had suffered most from the recent rather chose to read the Scriptures than to do as they
persecution. He was a man of extensive learning, did: though there was no savour of nonconformity in and most estimable character. As a prcacher, he our family. And when the people by the book were was eloquent and graceful, and displayed a degree of allowed to play and dance out of public service time,
moderation and liberality not very common among they could so hardly break off their sports, that many the sectaries with whom he was associated. His a time the reader was fain to stay till the piper and extreme industry is evinced by the voluminousplayers would give over. Sometimes the morris-dan
ness of his publications, which amount to no fewer cers would come into the church in all their linen,
than seven volumes in folio, twenty in quarto, and and scarfs, and antic-dresses, with morris-bells uing about thirty in octavo. Among these are a collecling at their legs; and as soon as common prayer was tion of Sermons, An Exposition on the Epistle to the read, did haste out presently to their play again.
Hebrews, A Discourse of the Holy Spirit, and The
Divine Original and Authority of the Scriptures.
| The style of Dr Owen merits little praise. He [ Theological Controversies.]
wrote too rapidly and carelessly to produce composiMy mind being these many years immersed in tions either vigorous or beautiful. The graces of studies of this nature, and having also long wearied style, indeed, were confessedly held by him in conmyself in searching what fathers and schoolmen have tempt; for in one of his prefaces we find this plain said of such things before us, and my genius abhorring declaration, ‘Know, reader, that you have to do with confusion and equivocals, I came, by many years' a person who, provided his words but clearly express longer study, to perceive that most of the doctrinal the sentiments of his mind, entertains a fixed and controversies among Protestants are far more about absolute disregard of all elegance and ornaments of equivocal words than matter; and it wounded my speech.' The length of his sentences, and their intrisoul to perceive what work both tyrannical and un cate and parenthetical structure, often render them skilful disputing clergymen had made these thirteen extremely tedious, and he is far from happy in the hundred years in the world! Experience, since the choice of the adjectives with which they are enyear 1643, till this year, 1675, hath loudly called me cumbered. In a word, his diction is, for the most to repent of my own prejudices, sidings, and censur- part, dry, heavy, and pointless, and his ideas are ings of causes and persons not understood, and of all seldom brought out with powerful effect. Robert the iniscarriages of my ministry and life which have | Hall entertained a decided antipathy to the writings been thereby caused ; and to make it my chief work of this celebrated divine. 'I can't think how you
like Dr Owen,' said he to a friend ; 'I can't read the scene of his labours to Hackney, where he conhim with any patience; I never read a page of Drtinued till his death in 1714. Of a variety of theoOwen, sir, without finding some confusion in his logical works published by this excellent divine, the thoughts, either a truism or a contradiction in terms.' largest and hest known is his Commentary on the * Sir, he is a double Dutchman, floundering in a con- | Bible, which he did not live to complete. It was tinent of mud.' For moderation in controversy, Dr originally printed in five volumes folio. The ComOwen was most honourably distinguished among the mentary on the Epistles was added by various theological warriors of his age. As a controversial divines. Considered as an explanation of the sacred writer,' says his excellent biographer, Mr Orme, volume, this popular production is not of great
Owen is generally distinguished for calmness, acute value ; but its practical remarks are peculiarly inness, candour, and gentlemanly treatment of his op- teresting, and have secured for it a place in the very ponents. He lived during a stormy period, and often first class of expository works. Dr Olinthus Greexperienced the bitterest provocation, but he very gory, in his Memoir of the Rev. Robert Hall, menseldom lost his temper.'
tions, respecting that eminent preacher, that for the
last two years of his life he read daily two chapters EDMUND CALAMY.
of Matthew Henry's Commentary, a work which he
had not before read consecutively, though he had EDMUND CALAMY (1600–1666) was originally a long known and valued it. As he proceeded, he clergyman of the church of England, but had become felt increasing interest and pleasure, greatly admiring a nonconformist before settling in London as a the copiousness, variety, and pious ingenuity of the preacher in 1639. A celebrated production against thoughts; the simplicity, strength, and pregnancy Episcopacy, called Smectymnuus, from the initials of the expressions. The following extract from the of the names of the writers, and in which Calamy exposition of Matthew vi. 24, may be taken as a was concerned, appeared in the following year. He specimen of the nervous and pointed remarks with was much in favour with the Presbyterian party; and, which the work abounds. in his sermons, which were among the most popular of the time, occasionally indulged in violent political
Ye Cannot Serve God and Mammon. declamation ; yet he was, on the whole, a moderate man, and disapproved of those forcible measures Mammon is a Syriac word that signifies gain, so which terminated in the death of the king. Having
that whatever is, or is accounted by us to be gain, is exerted himself to promote the restoration of Charles mammon. Whatever is in the world the lust of the II., he subsequently received the offer of a bishopric; flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life’-is but, after much deliberation, it was rejected. The mammon. To some, their belly is their marion, and passing of the act of uniformity in 1662 made him
they serve that ; to others, their ease, their sports and retire from his ministerial duties in the metropolis | pastimes, are their mammon; to others. worldiv several years before his death. The latter event was riches; to others, honours and preferments : the hastened by the impression made on his mind by the
praise and applause of men was the Pharisees' great fire of London, a view of the smoking ruins
mammon : in a word, self—the unity in which the having strongly and injuriously affected him. His
world's trinity centres--sensual secular self, is the sermons were of a plain and practical character; and
mammon which cannot be served in conjunction with five of them, published under the title of The Godly
God; for if it be served, it is in competition with him, Man's Ark, or a City of Refuge in the Day of his Dis.
and in contradiction to him. He does not say we must
not, or we should not, but we cannot serve God and tress, acquired much popularity.
mammon; we cannot love both, or hold to both, or
hold by both, in observance, obedience, attendance, JOHN FLAVEL.
trust, and dependence, for they are contrary the one JOHN FLAVEL (1627-1691) was a zealous preacher
to the other. God says, "My son, give me thine at Dartmouth, where he was greatly molested for
heart ;' Mammon says, 'No-give it me.' God says, his nonconformity during the persecutions. His
'Be content with such things as ye bave ;' Mammon private character was highly respectable, and in the
says, 'Grasp at all that ever thou canst—“Rem, rem, pulpit he was distinguished for the warmth, fluency,
quocunque modo, rem"-money, money, by fair means and variety of his devotional exercises, which, like
or by foul, money.' God says, 'Defraud not ; never his writings, were somewhat tinged with enthusiasm.
lie ; be honest and just in thy dealings ;' Mammon His rorks, occupying two folio volumes, are written
says, ' Cheat thy own father if thou canst gain by it.'
God says, “ Be charitable ;' Mammon says, ' Holá thy in a pain and perspicuous style, and some of them are still highly valued by persons of Calvinistic opi
own ; this giving undoes us all.' God says, 'Be carenions. This remark applies more particularly to his
ful for nothing;' Mammon says, ' Be careful for everyHusbandry Spiritualised, and Navigation Spiritualised,
thing. God says, “ Keep holy the Sabbath day;' in which the author extracts a variety of pious les.
Mammon says, 'Make use of that day, as well as any
other, for the world.' Thus inconsistent are the comsons from natural objects and phenomena, and the
mands of God and Mammon, so that we cannot serre common operations of life. Many of his sermons
both. Let us not, then, halt between God and Baal, have been published.
but 'choose ye this day whom ye will serve,' and abide
by your choice. MATTHEW BENRY. MATTHEW HENRY (1662-1714) was the son of
GEORGE FOX. Philip Henry, a pious and learned nonconformist GEORGE Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, minister in Flintshire. He entered as a student of or, as they are usually termed, Quakers, was one of law in Gray's Inn; but, yielding to a strong desire the most prominent religious enthusiasts in an age for the office of the ministry, he soon abandoned the which produced them in extraordinary abundance. pursuit of the law, and turned his attention to He was the son of a weaver at Drayton, in Leices. theology, which he studied with great diligence and tershire, and was born in 1624. Having been apzeal. In 1635 he was chosen pastor of a noncon-prenticed to a shoemaker who traded in wool and formist congregation at Chester, where he offi- cattle, he spent much of his youth in tending sheep, ciated about twenty-five years. In 1711 he changed l an employment which allowed him to indulge his