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more stuff, but not better our understanding ; we shall ever, considered to surpass its deserts. As a specifind still the same correspondencies to hold in the men, we extract the account given of actions of men ; virtues and vices the same, though rising and falling, according to the worth or weakness of governors; the causes of the ruins and mutations

The Taking of Constantinople by the Turks. of states to be alike, and the train of affairs carried

A little before day, the Turks approached the walls by precedent, in a course of succession, under like

and begun the assault, where shot and stones were colours.

delivered upon them from the walls as thick as hail,

whereof little fell in vain, by reason of the multitude THOMAS MAY---SIR JOHN HAYWARD

of the Turks, who, pressing fast unto the walls, could RICHARD KNOLLES.

not see in the dark how to defend themselves, but Thomas MAY (1595-1650), who, like Daniel, was

were without number wounded or slain ; but these both a poet and a historian, published, in 1647, The L)

were of the common and worst soldiers, of whom the History of the Parliament of England which began

Turkish king made no more reckoning than to abate November 3, 1640. This is, in reality, a history

the first force of the defendants. l'pon the first appearance of the day, Mahomet gave the sign appointed for the general assault, whereupon the city was in a moment, and at one instant, on every side most furiously assaulted by the Turks; for Mahomet, the more to distress the <- cendants, and the better to see the forwardness of the soldiers, had before appointed which part of the city every colonel with his regiment should assail : which they valiantly performed, delivering their arrows and shot upon the defendants so thick, that the light of the day was therewith darkened ; others in the meantime courageously mounting the scaling-ladders, and coming even to handy-strokes with the defendants upon the wall, where the foremost were for the most part violently borne forward by them which followed after. On the other side, the Christians with no less courage withstood the Turkish fury, beating them down again with great stones and weighty pieces of timber, and so overwhelmed them with shot, darts, and arrows, and other hurtful devices from above, that the Turks, dismayed with the terror thereot, were ready to retire.

Mahomet, seeing the great slaughter and discom.

fiture of his men, sent in fresh supplies of his jani. Thomas May.

zaries and best men of war, whom he had for that

purpose reserved as his last hope and refuge ; by whose rather of the civil war which arose while that

coming on his fainting soldiers were again encouraged, parliament was sitting, than of the proceedings of

and the terrible assault begun afresh. At which the parliament itself. The work was imposed upon time the barbarous king ceased not to use all possible him in his capacity of secretary for the parliament,

means to maintain the assault ; by name calling upon and was reluctantly undertaken. It gave great thies

| this and that captain, promising unto some whom he offence to the royalists, by whom both the author

saw forward golden mountains, and unto others in and his performance were loudly abused. Its com

whom he saw any sign of cowardice, threatening most position is inelegant, but the candour displayed in it

terrible death ; by which means the assault became has been pronounced much greater than the royalists

most dreadful, death there raging in the midst of were willing to allow.

many thousands. And albeit that the Turks lay dead Among the minor historians of the time of Eliza

ns of the time of Eliza by heare upon the ground, yet other fresh men pressed beth appears Sir JOHN HAYWARD, who, in 1599, on still in their places over their dead bodies, and published The First Part of the Life and Reign of with divers event either slew or were slain by their Henry IV., which he dedicated to the Earl of

enemies. Essex. Some passages in it gave such offence to In this so terrible a conflict, it chanced Justinianus the queen, that she caused the anthor to be in the general to be wounded in the arm, who, losing prisoned. He was patronised by James I., however, much blood, cowardly withdrew himself from the and at the desire of Prince Henry composed Lives of place of his charge, not leaving any to supply his the Three Norman Kings of England (1613). After room, and so got into the city by the gate called his death, which happened in 1627, was published Romana, which he had caused to be opened in the his Life and Reign of King Eduard II., with the inner wall ; pretending the cause of his departure to Beginning of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1630). be for the binding up of his wound, but being, indeed, He writes with considerable smoothness, but too a man now altogether discouraged. dramatically, imitating Livy and other ancient his. The soldiers there present, dismayed with the de. torians in the practice of putting speeches into the parture of their general, and sore charged by the mouths of the characters. RICHARD KNOLLES, janizaries, forsook their stations, and in haste fled to master of a free school at Sandwich, in Kent, where the same gate whereby Justinianus was entered ; with he died in 1910, wrote a History of the Turks, which I the sight whereof the other soldiers, dismayed, i is praised by Dr Johnson in the 122d number of the thither by heaps also. But whilst they violently "Rambler' as exhibiting all the excellences that nar- strive all together to get in at once, they so wedged ration can admit. His style,' says Johnson, 'though one another in the entrance of the gate, that few of somewhat obscured by time, and sometimes vitiated so great a multitude got in ; in which so great & by false wit, is pure, nervous, elevated, and clear. press and confusion of minds, eight hundred persons Nothing could have sunk this author into obscurity were there by them that followed trodden under but the remoteness and barbarity of the people whose foot, or thrust to death. The emperor himself, for story he relates.' This account of the work is, how - I safeguard of his life, flying with the rest in that press as a pian not regarded, miserably ended his days, the author complacently declares to be collected together with the Greek empire. His dead body was with so great care and diligence, that if all other of shortly after found by the Turks among the slain, and our chronicles were lost, this only would be sufficient known by his rich apparel, whose head being cut off, to inform posterity of all passages memorable or was forth with presented to the Turkish tyrant, by worthy to be known.' Notwithstanding such high whose commandment it was afterward thrust upon the pretensions, the • Chronicle' was afterwards proved point of a lance, and in great derision carried about by Thomas Blount, in 'Animadversions' published as a troplıy of his victory, first in the cainp, and in 1672, to contain many gross errors ; and although afterwards up and down the city.

an edition printed in 1730 is said to be purged of The Turks, encouraged with the flight of the Chris- these to a considerable extent, yet the work must tians, presently advanced their ensigns upon the top continue to be regarded as an injudicious performof the uttermost wall, crying Victory; and by the ance, unworthy of much reliance. The style of breach entered as if it had been a great tlood, which, Baker, which is superior to his matter, is described, having once found a breach in the bank, orerfloweth, in a letter written to him by his former college and beareth down all before it ; so the Turks, when friend Sir Henry Wotton, as full of sweet raptures they had won the utter wall, entered the city by the and of researching conceits ; nothing borrowed, nosame gate that was opened for Justinianus, and by a thing vulgar, and yet all flowing from you, I know breach which they had before inade with their great not how, with a certain equal facility.' artillery, and without mercy cutting in pieces all that came in their way, without further resistance became

SIR HENRY WOTTON, lords of that inost famous and imperial city. ... In this fury of the barbarians perished many thousands Sir HENRY WOTTON, of whom some account has of men, women, and children, without respect of age, already been given, was himself one of the conspisex, or condition. Many, for safeguard of their lives, cuous characters of this period, both as a writer and fled into the temple of Sophia, where they were alla politician. While resident abroad, he embodied without pity slain, except some few reserved by the the result of his inquiries into political affairs in a barbarous victory to purposes more grievous than death work called The State of Christenlom : or a most Eract itself. The rich and beautiful ornaments and jewels and Curious Discovery of many Secret Passages and of that most sumptuous and magnificent church (the Nidden Mysteries of the Times. This, however, was stately building of Justinianus the emperor) were, in not printed till after his death. In 1624, while the turning of a hand, plucked down and carried away | provost of Eton college, he published Elements of

he Turks ; and the church itself, built for God to Architecture, then the best work on that subject, and be honoured in, for the present converted into a stable

the materials of which were no doubt collected chiefly for their horses, or a place for the execution of their in Italy. His latter years were spent in planning abominable and unspeakable filthiness; the image of several works, which, from the pecuniary difficulties the crucifix was also by thein taken down, and a in which he found himself involved, were never Turk's cap put upon the head thereof, and so set up executed. The Reliquiæ Wottoniana, a posthumous and shot at with their arrow's, and afterwards, in great publication, is a collection of his miscellaneous pieces, derision, carried about in their camp, as it had been including lives, letters, poems, and characters. These in procession, with drums playing before it, railing

at, railing display considerable liveliness of fancy and intellecand spitting at it, and calling it the God of the Chris

tual acuteness, though tainted with the pedantry of tians, which I note not so much done in contempt of the times

the times. Several of them are here extracted :

Several of them the image, as in despite of Christ and the Christian religion.

[What Education Embraces.] ARTHUR WILSON-SIR RICHARD BAKER.

First, there must proceed a way how to discern ARTHUR Wusoy. another historian. flourished the natural inclinations and capacities of children. somewhat later, having been born in 1596. He was Secondly, next must ensue the culture and furnishsecretary to Robert, Earl of Essex, the parliamentary

ment of the mind. Thirdly, the moulding of behageneral in the civil wars; and afterwards became

viour and decent forins. Fourthly, the tempering of steward to the Earl of Warwick. He died in 1652, affections. Fifthly, the quickening and exciting of leaving in manuscript a work on The Life and observations and practical judgment. Sixthly, and

| the last in order, but the principal in value, being Reign of James I., which was published in the following year. A comedy of his, entitled The Inconstunt |

that which must knit and consolidate all the rest, is Lady, was printed at Oxford in 1814.

the timely instilling of conscientious principles and We shall conclude our survey of the historical

seeds of religion. writers of this period by devoting a few words to Sik RICHARD BAKER, who lived from 1568 to 1645, and

Every Nature is not a Pit Stock to Graft a Scholar on. whose • Chronicle' was long popular in England, par The Spaniard that wrote “The Trial of Wits,' ticularly among country gentlemen. Addison makes

undertakes to show what complexion is fit for every it the favourite book of Sir Roger de Coverley. Baker profession. I will not disable any for proving a was knighted by James I. in 1603, and in 1620 be

scholar, nor yet disseinble that I have seen many came high-sheriff for Oxfordshire, in which he pos- happily forced upon that course, to which by nature sessed considerable property. Afterwards having they seeined much indisposed. Sometimes the possiimprudently engaged for the payment of debts con- / bility of preferment prevailing with the credulous, tracted by his wife's family, he became insolvent, and expectation of less expense with the covetous, opinion spent several years in the Fleet prison, where he died of ease with the fond, and assurance of remoteness in 1645. While in durance, he wrote Meditations and with the unkind parents, have moved them, without Disquisitions on portions of Scripture, translated discretion, to engage their children in adventures of

Balzac's Letters and Malvezzi's Discourses on Tacitus, learning, by whose return they have received but in and composed two pieces in defence of the theatre. small contentment : but they who are deceived ir

His principal work, however, was that already re-their first designs deserve less to be condemned, as ferred to, entitled A Chronicle of the Kings of England, such who (after sufficient trial) persist in their wil. from the lime of the Romans' Government unto the Death fulness are no way to be pitied. I have known some of King James. This work, which appeared in 1641, who have been acquainted (by the complaints of governors, clamours of creditors, and confessions of the young Earl of Devonshire, with whom he set off, their sons) what might be expected from them, yet three years later, on a tour through France, Italy, have held them in with strong hand, till they have and Savoy. At Pisa he became intimate with Galidesperately quit, or disgracefully forfeited, the places leo the astronomer, and elsewhere held communicawhere they lived. Deprived of which, they might tion with other celebrated characters. After his rehope to avoid some misery, if their friends, who were turn to England in 1637, he resided in the earl's so careful to bestow them in a college when they were family, at Chatsworth, in Derbyshire. He now deyoung, would be so good as to provide a room for voted himself to study, in which, however, he was them in some hospital when they are old.

| interrupted by the political contentions of the times.

Being a zealous royalist, he found it necessary, in [Commendation before Trial Injudicious.] 1640, to retire to Paris, where he lived on terms of The fashion of commending our friends' abilities

intimacy with Descartes and other learned men, before they come to trial, sometimes takes good effect

whom the patronage of Cardinal de Richelieu had

at that time drawn together. While at Paris, he enwith the coinmon sort, who, building their belief on

gaged in a controversy about the quadrature of the authority, strive to follow the conceit of their betters;

circle, and in 1647, he was appointed mathematical but usually, amongst men of independent judgments, this bespeaking of opinion breeds a purpose of stricter

instructor to Charles, Prince of Wales, who then reexamination, and if the report be answered, procures

sided in the French capital. Previously to this time, only a bare acknowledgment; whereas, if nothing be

he had commenced the publication of those works proclaimed or promised, they are perhaps content to

which he sent forth in succession, with the view of signify their own skill in testifying another's desert :

curbing the spirit of freedom in England, by showing otherwise great wits, jealous of their credit, are ready

the philosophical foundation of despotic monarchy. to suppress worth in others, to the advancing of their

The first of them was originally printed in Latin at own, and (if more ingenuous) no farther just than to

Paris, in 1642, under the title of Elementa Philosoforbear detraction: at the best, rather disposed to phica de Cive ; when afterwards translated into Enggive praise upon their own accord, than to make pay

lish, it was entitled Philosophical Rudiments Concernment upon demand or challenge.

ing Government and Society. This treatise is regarded

as the most exact account of the author's political THOMAS HOBBES.

system: it contains many profound views, but is

disfigured by fundamental and dangerous errors. No literary man excited more attention in the The principles maintained in it were more fully dismiddle of the seventeenth century, and none of that

cussed in his larger work, published in 1651, under age has exercised a more wide and permanent in

the title of Leviathan : or the Matter, Form, and Power fluence on the philosophical opinions of succeeding of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil. Man is generations, than THOMAS HOBBES, born at Malmes- l here represented as a selfish and ferocious animal. bury in 1588. His mother's alarm at the approach of

requiring the strong hand of despotism to keep him the Spanish Armada is said to have hastened his birth,

in check; and all notions of right and wrong are
made to depend upon views of self-interest alone.
Of this latter doctrine, commonly known as the
Selfish System of moral philosophy, Hobbes was in-
deed the great champion, both in the 'Leviathan,' and
more particularly in his small Treatise on Human
Nature, published in 1650. There appeared in the
same year another work from his pen, entitled De
Corpore Politico; or, 'Of the Body Politic.' The
freedom with which theological subjects were handled
in the Leviathan,' as well as the offensive political
views there maintained, occasioned a great outcry
against the author, particularly among the clergy.
This led Charles to dissolve his connexion with
the philosopher, who, according to Lord Clarendon,
' was compelled secretly to fly out of Paris, the
justice having endeavoured to apprehend him, and
soon after escaped into England, where he never re-
ceived any disturbance.' He again took up his abode
with the Devonshire family, and became intimate
with Selden, Cowley, and Dr Harvey, the discoverer
of the circulation of the blood. In 1654 he published
a short but admirably clear and comprehensive Letter
upon Liberty and Necessity; where the doctrine of
the self-determining power of the will is opposed
with a subtlety and profundity unsurpassed in any

subsequent writer on that much-agitated question. Thomas IIobbes.

Indeed, he appears to have been the first who underand was probably the cause of a constitutional timi- stood and expounded clearly the doctrine of philosodity which possessed him through life. After study-phical necessity. On this subject, a long controversy ing for five years at Oxford, he travelled, in 1610, between him and Bishop Bran hall of Londonderry through France, Italy, and Germany, in the capa- took place. Here he fought with the skill of a mascity of tutor to Lord Cavendish, afterwards Earl of ter ; but in a mathematical dispute with Dr Wallis, Devonshire, with whom, on returning to England, professor of geometry at Oxford, which lasted twenty he continued to reside as his secretary. At this years, he fairly went beyond his depth, and obtained time he became intimate with Lord Bacon, Lordno increase of reputation. The fact is, that Hobbes Herbert of Cherbury, and Ben Jons in. His popel had not begun to study mathematics till the age dying in 1628, Hobbes again visited Paris ; but in of forty, and, like other late learners, greatly over1631 he undertook to superintend the education of estimated his knowledge. He supposed himself to have discovered the quadrature of the circle, and tory of the Civil Wars from 1640 to 1660, was finished dogmatically upheld his claim in the face of the in 1679, but did not appear till after his death, an clearest refutation. In this controversy, personal event which took place in December of that year, feeling, according to the custom of the time, appeared when he had attained the age of ninety-two. without disguise. Hobbes having published a sar- Hobbes is described by Lord Clarendon as one for castic piece, entitled Six Lessons to the Professors whom he had always had a great esteem, as a of Mathematics in Orford, Wallis retorted by ad-man who, besides his eminent parts of learning and ministering, in 1656, Due Correction for Mr llobbes, knowledge, hath been always looked upon as a man or School Discipline for not Suying his Lessons Right. of probity and a life free from scandal.' It was a Here his language to the philosopher is in the saying of Charles II., in reference to the opposition following unceremonious strain : - It seems, Mr which the doctrines of Hobbes met from the clergy, Hobbes, that you have a mind to say your lesson, and that he was a bear, against whom the church played that the mathematic professors of Oxford should hear their young dogs, in order to exercise them. In you. You are too old to learn, though you have as his latter years he became morose and impatient of much need as those that be younger, and yet will contradiction, both by reason of his growing infirthink much to be whipt. What moved you to say mities, and from indulging too much in solitude, by your lessons in English, when the books against which his natural arrogance and contempt for the which you do chictly intend them were written in opinions of other men were greatly increased. lle Latin? Was it chiefly for the perfecting your natu- at no time read extensively : liomer, Virgil, Thural rhetoric, whenever you thought it convenient to cydides, and Euclid, were his favourite authors; and repair to Billingsgate? You found that the oyster- he used to say, that, if he had read as much as women could not teach you to rail in Latin. Now other men, he should have been as ignorant as you can, upon all occasion, or without occasion, give they.' Owing to the timidity of his disposition, he the titles of fool. beast, ass, dog, &c., which I takel was continually apprehensive about his personal to be but barking, and they are no better than a safety, insomuch that he could not endure to be left man might have at Billingsgate for a box o' the ear. in an empty house. From the same motive, probably, You tell us, " though the beasts that think our rail- it was, that, notwithstanding his notorious heteroing to be roaring, have for a time admired us, yet, doxy, he maintained an external adherence to the now you have showed them our ears, they will be established church, and in his works sometimes less affrighted.” Sir, those persons needed not a sight assented to theological views which undoubtedly he of your ears, but could tell by the voice what kind of did not hold. Though he has been stigmatised as creature brayed in your books: you dared not have an atheist, the charge is groundless, as may be insaid this to their faces.' When Charles II. came to ferred from what he says, in his “Treatise on Human the throne, he conferred on Hobbes an annual pen- | Nature,' concerning sion of one hundred pounds; but notwithstanding this and other marks of the royal favour, much odium

[graphic]

[God.] continued to prevail against him and his doctrines.

Forasmuch as God Almighty is incomprehensible, The 'Leviathan' and 'De Cive' were censured in par

it followeth that we can have no conception or image liament in 1666, and also drew forth many printed replies. Among the authors of these, the most dis

' of the Deity; and, consequently, all his attributes

signify our inability and defect of power to conceive tinguished was Lord Clarendon, who, in 1676, published A Brief View and Survey of the Dangerous and

anything concerning his nature, and not any concer. Pernicious Errors to Church and State, in Mr Hobbes's

tion of the same, except only this, That there is a

God. For the effects, we acknowledge naturally, do Book, entitled Leviathan. Two years previously,

include a power of their producing, before they were Hobbes had entered a new field of literature, by publishing a metrical version of four books of Homer's

| produced ; and that power presupposeth something Odyssey, which was so well received, that, in 1675, 1

existent that hath such power : and the thing so

existing with power to produce, if it were not eternal, he sent forth a translation of the remainder of that

must needs have been produced by somewhat before poem, and also of the whole Iliad. Iere, according

| it, and that, again, by something else before that, till to Pope, “Hobbes has given us a correct explanation

we come to an eternal (that is to say, the first) Power of the sense in general; but for particulars and cir

of all Powers, and first Cause of all Causes : and this cumstances, he continually lops them, and often is it which all men conceive by the name of GOD, omits the most beautiful. * * He sometimes

implying eternity, incomprehensibility, and omniomits whole similes and sentences, and is now and

potency. And thus all that will consider may know then guilty of mistakes, into which no writer of his that God

hich no writer of his that God is, though not what he is : even a man that learning could have fallen but through carelessness.

is born blind, though it be not possible for him to His poetry, as well as Ogilby's, is too mean for criti

have any imagination what kind of thing fire is, yet cism. Nevertheless, the work become so popular, | he cannot but know that soinething there is that men that three large editions were required within less call tire, because it warmeth him. than ten years. Hobbes was more successful as a translator in prose than in poetry ; his version of the Greek historian Thucydides (which had ap

[Pity and Indignation.] peared in 1629, and was the first work that he pub- Pity is imagination or fiction of future calamity lished) being still regarded as the best English to our clves, proceeding from the sense of another translation of that author. Its faithfulness to the man's calamity. But when it lighteth on such as we original is so great, that it frequently degenerates think have not deserved the same, the compassion is into servility. This work, he says, was undertaken greater, because then there appeareth more probabi. by him from an honest desire of preventing, if pos-lity that the same may happen to us; for the evil sible, those disturbances in which he was apprehen. that happeneth to an innocent man may happen to sive that his country would be involved, by showing,

every man. But when we sec a man suffer for great in the history of the Peloponnesian war, the fatal crinies, which we cannot easily think will fall upon consequences of intestine troubles. At Chatsworth, ourselves, the pity is the less. And therefore men are to which he retired in 1674 to spend the remainder apt to pity those whoin they love ; for whom they of liis days, he continued to compose various works, love they think worthy of good, and therefore not the principal of which, entitled Behemoth, or a His- | worthy of calamity. Thence it is also, that men pity

the vices of some persons at the first sight only, out of love to their aspect. The contrary of pity is hard

(Love of Knowledge.] ness of heart, proceeding either from slowness of ima Forasmuch as all knowledge herinneth from expegination, or some extreme great opinion of their own rience, therefore also new experience is the beginning exemption from the like calamity, or from hatred of of new knowledge, and the increase of experience the all or most men.

beginning of the increase of knowledge. Whatsoever, Indignation is that grief which consisteth in the therefore, happeneth new to a man, giveth him matter conception of good success happening to them whom of hope of knowing somewhat that he knew not bethey think unworthy thereof. Seeing, therefore, men fore. And this hope and expectation of future knowthink all those unworthy whom they hate, they think ledge from anything that happeneth new and strange, them not only unworthy of the good fortune they have, is that passion which we commonly call admiration; but also of their own virtues. And of all the passions and the same considered as appetite, is called curiosity, of the mind, these two, indignation and pity, are most which is appetite of knowledge. As in the discerning raised and increased by eloquence; for the aggrava-of faculties, man leaveth all community with beasts tion of the calamity, and extenuation of the fault, at the faculty of imposing names, so also doth he augmenteth pity; and the extenuation of the worth of surmount their nature at this passion of curiosity. For the person, together with the magnifying of his suc- when a beast seeth anything new and strange to him, cess, which are the parts of an orator, are able to turn he considereth it so far only as to discern whether it these two passions into fury.

be likely to serve his turn or hurt him, and accord

ingly approacheth nearer to it, or fleeth from it: [Emulation and Envy.]

whereas man, who in most events remeinbereth in Emulation is grief arising from seeing one's self

what manner they were caused and begun, looketh exceeded or excelled by his concurrent, together with

for the cause and beginning of everything that ariseth

new unto him. And from this passion of admiration hope to equal or exceed him in time to come, by his

and curiosity, have arisen not only the invention of own ability. But envy is the same grief joined with

names, but also supposition of such causes of all pleasure conceived in the imagination of some ill-for

things as they thought might produce them. And tune that may befall him.

from this beginning is derived all philosophy. as astm.

nomy from the adıiration of the course of hearen; [Laughter.]

natural philosophy from the strange effects of the There is a passion that hath no name ; but the elements and other bodies. And from the degrees of sign of it is that distortion of the countenance which curiosity proceed also the degrees of knowledge we call laughter, which is always joy : but what joy, amongst men ; for, to a man in the chase of riches or what we think, and wherein we triumph when we authority (which in respect of knowledye are but senlaugh, is not hitherto declared by any. That it con- suality), it is a diversity of little pleasure, whether it sisteth in wit, or, as they call it, in the jest, expe- be the motion of the sun or the earth that maketh the rience confuteth ; for men laugh at mischances and day ; or to enter into other contemplations of any indecencies, wherein there lieth no wit nor jest at all. strange accident, otherwise than whether it conduce And forasmuch as the same thing is no more ridi- or not to the end he pursueth. Because curiosity is culous when it groweth stale or usual, whatsoever it delight, therefore also novelty is so ; but especially be that moveth laughter, it must be new and unex- that novelty from which a man conceiveth an opinion, pected. Men laugh often (especially such as are true or false, of bettering his own estate ; for, in such greedy of applause from everything they do well) at case, they stand affected with the hope that all gametheir own actions performed never so little beyond sters have while the cards are shuttling. their own expectations; as also at their own jests : and in this case it is manifest that the passion of The following passages are extracted from Hobbes's laughter proceedeth from a sudden conception of some works on ability in himself that laugheth. Also, men laugh at the infirmities of others, by comparison wherewith

The Necessity of the Will. their own abilities are set off and illustrated. Also

The question is not, whether a man be a free agent, men laugh at jests, the wit whereof always consisteth

that is to say, whether he can write or forbear, speak in the elegant discovering and conveying to our minds

or be silent, according to his will ; but whether the some absurdity of another; and in this case also the

will to write, and the will to forbear, come upon him passion of laughter proceeded from the sudden imagi

according to his will, or according to anything else in nation of our own odds and eminency; for what is else the recommending of ourselves to our own good

his own power. I acknowledge this liberty, that I

can do if I will : but to say, I can will if I will, I take opinion, by comparison with another's man's infirmity or absurdity! For when a jest is broken upon our

to be an absurd speech. selves, or friends, of whose dishonour we participate, [In answer to Bishop Pramhall's assertion, that we never laugh thereat. I may therefore conclude, the doctrine of free will is the belief of all man. that the passion of laughter is nothing else but sudden kind, which we have not learned from our tutors, glory arising from a sudden conception of some emi- but is imprinted in our hearts by nature')-It is nency in ourselves, by comparison with the infirmity true, very few have learned from tutors, that a man of others, or with our own formerly ; for men laugh at is not free to will ; nor do they find it much in the follies of themselves past, when they come sud- books. That they find in books, that which the denly to remembrance, except they bring with them poets chaunt in the theatres, and the shepherds on any present dishonour. It is no wonder, therefore, the mountains, that which the pastors teach in the that men take heinously to be laughed at or derided ; churches, and the doctors in the universities, and that that is, triumphed orer. Laughing without offence, which the common people in the markets and all manmust be at al-urities and infirmities abstracted | kind in the whole world do assent unto, is the same from persons, and when all the company may laugh that I assent unto; namely, that a man hath freedom together; for laughing to one's self putteth all the to do if he will ; but whether he hath freedom to will, rest into jealousy, and examination of themselves. is a question which it seems neither the bishop nor they Besides, it is vain glory, and an argument of little ever thought on. * * A wooden top that is lashed worth, to think the infirmity of another sufficient by the boys, and runs about, sometimes to one wall, matter for his triumph.

I sometimes to another, sometimes spinning, sometimes

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