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58, which

be made anywhere in that perfection, and wherras we the river of Rhine, for trying the legitimation of a drink it here in aqua vitæ measures, it goes down there child being thrown in--if he be a bastard, he will by beer-glassfuls, being more natural to the nation. sink; if otherwise, he will not.

In the Seventeen Provinces hard by, and all Low In China, they speak of a tree called Magnais, which Germany, beer is the common natural drink, and affords not only good drink, being pierced, but all nothing else ; so is it in Westphalia, and all the lower things else that belong to the subsistence of man; they circuit of Saxony; in Denmark, Swethland, and Nor- bore the trunk with an anger, and there issucth out way. The Pruss hath a beer as thick as honey ; in sweet potable liquor ; 'twixt the rind and the tree there the Duke of Saxe's country, there is beer as yellow as is a co

ie kind of m

rear gold, made of wheat, and it inebriates as soon as sack. for their clothing: it bears huge nuts, which have ex. In some parts of Germany they use to spice their beer, cellent food in them: it shoots out hard prickles above which will keep many years; so that at some wed- a fathom long, and those arm them : with the bark dings there will be a butt of beer drunk out as old as they make tents, and the dotard trees serre for firing. the bride. Poland also is a beer country ; but in Africa also hath a great diversity of drinks, as having Russia, Muscovy, and Tartary, they use mead, which more need of them, being a hotter country far. In is the naturalest drink of the country, being made of Guinea, of the lower Ethiopia, there is a famous the decoction of water and honey ; this is that which drink called Mingol, which issueth out of a tree much the ancients called hydromel. Marc's milk is a great like the palm, being bored. But in the upper Ethiopia, drink with the Tartar, which may be a cause why they or the Habassins' country, they drink mead, concocted are bigger than ordinary, for the physicians hold, that in a different inanner ; there is also much wine there. milk enlargeth the bones, beer strengtheneth the The common drink of Barbary, after water, is that nerves, and wine breeds blood sooner than any other which is made of dates. But in Egypt, in times past, liquor. The Turk, when he hath his stomach full of there was becr drunk called Zicus in Latin, which was pilau, or of mutton and rice, will go to nature's cel- no other than a decoction of barley and water : they lar, either to the next well or river to drink water, had also a famous composition (and they use it to this which is his natural common drink ; for Mahomet day) called Chissi, made of divers cordials and provotaught them that there was a devil in every berry of cative ingredients, which they throw into water to the grape, and so made a strict inhibition to all his make it gustful; they use it also for fumigation. But sect from drinking of wine as a thing profane ; he had now the general drink of Egypt is Nile water, which of also a reach of policy therein, because they should not all water may be said to be the best ; # # 'tis yellow. be encuinbered with luggage when they went to war, ish and thick ; but if one cast a few almonds into a as other nations do, who are so troubled with the car-potful of it, it will become as clear as rock-water; it is riage of their wine and bererages. Yet hath the Turk also in a degree of lukewarınness—as Martial's boy : peculiar drinks to himself besides, as sherbet made of

Tolle puer calices, tepidique toreumata Nili. juice of lemon, sugar, amber, and other ingredients; he hath also a drink called Cauphe," which is made of In the New World they have a world of drinks, for a brown berry, and it may be called their clubbing

there is no root, flower, fruit, or pulse, but is reducible drink between meals, which, though it be not very

to a potable liquor ; as in the Barbadoe Island, the gustful to the palate, yet it is very comfortable to the

common drink among the English is mobbi, made of stomach, and good for the sight; but notwithstanding

potato roots. In Mexico and Peru, which is the great their prophet's anathema, thousands of them will yen

continent of America, with other parts, it is prohibited ture to drink wine, and they will make a precedent

to make wines, under great penalties, for fear of prayer to their souls to depart from their bodies in the starving of trade, so that all the wines they have are interim, for fear she partake of the same pollution. * *

sent from Spain. In Asia, there is no beer drunk at all, but water,

Now for the pure wine countries. Greece, with all wine, and an incredible variety of other drinks, made

her islands, Italy, Spain, France, one part of four of of dates, dried raisins, rice, divers sorts of nuts, fruits,

(iermany, Hungary, with divers countries thereabouts, and roots. In the oricntal countries, as Cambaia,

all the islands in the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea, Calicut, Narsingha, there is a drink called Banque, are

are wine countries. which is rare and precious, and 'tis the height of en

The most generous wines of Spain grow in the midtertainment they give their guests before they go to

land parts of the continent, and Saint Martin bears sleep, like that nepenthe which the pocts speak so

the bell, which is near the court. Now as in Spain, much of, for it provokes pleasing dreanis and delightful

so in all other wine countries, one cannot pass a day'ga fantasies : it will accommodate itself to the humour journey but he will find a differing race of wine : those of the slecrer; as, if he be a soldier, he will dream of kinds that our merchants carry over are those only that victories and taking of towns ; if he be in love, he grow upon the sea-side, as malagas, sherries, tents, will think to enjoy his mistress ; if he be covetous, he

and alicants : of this last there's little comes over will dream of mountains of gold, &c. In the Molucca

right; therefore the vintners make tent (which is a

name for all wines in Spain, except white) to supply and Philippines there is a curious drink called

the place of it. There is a gentle kind of white wine Tampoy, made of a kind of gillyflowers, and another drink called Otraqua, that comes from a nut, and it

grows among the mountains of Gallicia, but not of is the more general drink. In China, they have a

body enough to bear the sea, called Ribadavia. Porholy kind of liquor made of such sort of flowers for

tugal affords no wines worth the transporting.* They ratifying and binding of bargains, and having drunk

have an old stone they call Yef, which they use to. thereof, they hold it no less than perjury to break what

throw into their wines, which clarifieth it, and makes they promise ; as they write of a river of Bythinia,

it more lasting. There's also a drink in Spain called whose water hath a peculiar virtue to discover a per

Alosha, which they drink between meals in hot weather, jurer, for, if he drink thereof, it will presently boil a

and 'tis a hydromel made of water and honey ; much in his stomach, and put him to visible tortures ; this

of them take of our mead. In the court of Spain there's makes me think of the river Styx among the poets,

a German or two that brew beer ; but for that ancient which the gods were used to swear by, and it was the

drink of Spain which Pliny speaks of, composed of greatest oath for the performance of anything.

flowers, the receipt thereof is utterly lost. Nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit.

* This will sound strangely in these days, when the wine It put me in mind, also, of that which some write of chi

chiefly drunk in England is of Portuguese extraction. The im.

portation of wines from Portugal dates froin the reign of * i. e. Coffee Charles IL.

In Greece there are no wines that have bodies carrieth a man to heaven.' If this be true, surely enough to bear the sea for long voyages ; some few more English go to heaven this way than any other ; muscadels and malmsies are brought over in small for I think there's more Canary brought into England casks; nor is there in Italy any wine transported to than to all the world besides. I think, also, there is a England but in bottles, as Verde and others; for the hundred times more drunk under the name of Canary length of the voyage makes them subject to pricking, wine than there is brought in ; for sherries and maand so lose colour, by reason of their delicacy.

lagas, well mingled, pass for canaries in most taverns, France, participating of the climes of all the coun- more often than Canary itself; else I do not see how tries about her, affords wines of quality accordingly; 'twere possible for the vintner to save by it, or to live as, towards the Alps and Italy, she hath a luscious rich | by his calling, unless he were permitted sometimes to wine called Frontiniac. In the country of Prorence, to be a brewer. When sacks and canaries were brought wards the Pyrenees in Languedoc, there are wines in first among us, they were used to be drunk in aqua congustable with those of Spain: one of the prime vitæ measures, and 'twas held fit only for those to sort of white wines is that of Beaume; and of clarets, drink who were used to carry their legs in their hands, that of Orleans, though it be interdicted to wine the their eyes upon their noses, and an alınanac in their king's cellar with it, in respect of the corrosiveness it bones; but now they go down every one's throat, both carr

h it. As in France, so in all other wine young and old, like milk countries, the white is called the female, and the claret The countries that are freest from excess of drinkor red wine is called the male, because commonly it ing are Spain and Italy. If a woman can prove her hath more sulphur, body, and heat in’t : the wines husband to have been thrice drunk, by the ancient that our merchants bring over upon the river of laws of Spain she may plead for a divorce from him. Garonne, near Bourdeaux, in Gascony, which is the Nor indeed can the Spaniarı, being hot-brained, bear greatest mart for wines in all France. The Scot, be much drink, yet I have heard that Gondamar was once cause he hath always been ar, Useful confederate to too hard for the king of Denmark, when he was here France against England, hath (among other privileges) in England. But the Spanish soldiers that have been right of pre-emption of first choice of wines in Bour in the wars of Flanders will take their cups freely, deaux ; he is also perinitted to carry his ordnance to and the Italians also. When I lived 'tother side the the very walls of the town, whereas the English are Alps, a gentleman told me a merry tale of a Ligurian forced to leave them at Blay, a good way down the soldier, who had got drunk in Genoa; and Prince river. There is a hard green wine, that grows about Doria going a-horseback to walk the round one night, Rochelle, and the islands thereabouts, which the cun- | the soldier took his horse by the bridle, and asked ning Hollander sometime used to fetch, and he hath what the price of him was, for he wanted a horse. a trick to put a bag of herbs, or some other infusions The prince, seeing in what humour he was, caused him into it (as he doth brimstone in Rhenish), to give it a to be taken into a house and put to sleep. In the whiter tincture, and more sweetness; then they re-em- morning he sent for him, and asked him what he bark it for England, where it passeth for good Bachrag, would give for his horse. “Sir,' said the recovered and this is called stooming of wines. In Normandy soldier, the merchant that would have bought him there's little or no wine at all grows ; therefore the last night of your highness, went away betimes in the coinmon drink of that country is cider, specially in morning. The boonest companions for drinking are low Normandy. There are also many beer houses in the Greeks and Germans ; but the Greek is the merParis and elsewhere ; but though their barley and riest of the two, for he will sing, and dance, and kiss water be better than ours, or that of Germany, and his next companions ; but the other will drink as though they have English and Dutch brewers among deep as he. If the Greek will drink as many glasses them, yet they cannot make beer in that perfection. as there be letters in his mistress's name, the other

The prime wines of Germany grow about the Rhine, will drink the number of his years; and though he be specially in the Prolts or lower Palatinate about not apt to break out in singing, being not of so airy a Bachrag, which hath its etymology from Bachiara ; for constitution, yet he will drink often musically a in ancient times there was an altar erected there to health to every one of these six notes, ut, re, mi, fa, the honour of Bacchus, in regard of the richness of the sol, la ; which, with this reason, are all comprehended wines. Here, and all France over, 'tis held a great in this hexameter :part of incivility for maidens to drink wine until they

Ut relivet miserum fatum solitosque labores. are married, as it is in Spain for them to wear high | The fewest draughts he drinks are three--the first to shoes, or to paint, till then. The German mothers, to quench the thirst past, the second to quench the premake their sons fall into a hatred of wine, do use, sent thirst, the third to prevent the future. I heard when they are little, to put some owl's eggs into a cup of a company of Low Dutchmen that had drunk so of Rhenish, and sometimes a little living eel, which, 1 deep, that, beginning to stagger, and their heads turntwingling in the wine while the child is drinking, soling round, they thought verily they were at sea, and scares him, that many come to abhor and have an an- that the upper chamber where they were was a shir, tipathy to wine all their lives after. From Bachrag l insomuch that, it being foul windy weather, they fell the first stock of vines which grow now in the grand to throw the stools and other things out of the window, Canary Island, were brought, which, with the heat of to lichten the vessel, for fear of suffering shipwreck. the sun and the soil, is grown now to that height of Thus bave I sent your lordybip a dry discourse perfection, that the wines which they afford are ac- lupon a twent subject; yet I hope your lordship will counted the richest, the most firm, the best bodied, and please to take all in good part, because it proceeds lastingst wine, and the most defecated from all earthly from your most humble and ready servitor, J. II. grossness, of any other whatsoever ; it hath little or no

Watmin. 7. Octob. 1631. sulphur at all in't, and leaves less dregs behind, though one drink it to excess. French wines may be said but From asther of Howell's works, entitled Instructo pickle meat in the stomachs, but this is the wine tions for Foreign Travel, published in 1642, and which, that digests, and doth not only breed good blood, but like his letters, contains many acute and humorous it nutrifieth also, being a glutinous substantial liquor: observations on men and things, we extract the folof this wine, if of any other, may be verified that lowing passage on the merry induction, “That good wine makes good blood, good blood causeth good humours, good humours cause

(Tales of Travellers] good thoughts, good thoughts bring forth good works, Others have a custom to be always relating strange good works carry a man to heaven-ergo, good wine things and wonders (of the humour of Sir John Man.


derille), and they usually present them to the hearers through multiplying-glasses, and thereby cause the

[Description of St Helena.] thing to appear far greater than it is in itself ; they St Helena was so denominated by Juan de Nova, make mountains of mole-hille, like Charenton-Bridge- the Portugal, in regard he first discovered it on that Echo, which doubles the sound nine times. Such a saint's day. It is doubtful whether it adhere to traveller was he that reported the Indian fly to be as America or Afric, the vast ocean bellowing on both big as a fox ; China birds to be as big as some horses, sides, and almost equally ; yet I imagine she inand their mice to be as big as monkeys; but they clines more to Afer than Vespusius. "Tis in circuit have the wit to fetch this far enough off, because the thirty English miles, of that ascent and height that hearer may rather believe it than make a voyage so 'tis often enveloped with clouds, from whom she far to disprove it.

receives moisture to fatten her; and as the land is rery one knows the tale of him who reported he very high, so the sea at the brink of this isle is had seen a cabbage, under whose leaves a regiment of excessive deep, and the ascent so immediate, that soldiers were sheltered from a shower of rain. Another,

though the sea beat fiercely on her, yet can no ebb was no traveller (yet the wiser man), said, he nor flow be well perceived there. had passed by a place where there were 400 braziers The water is sweet above, but, running down and making of a cauldron-200 within, and 200 without, | participating with the salt hills, tastes brackish at his beating the nails in; the traveller asking for what fall into the valleys, which are but two, and those very use that huge cauldron was ? he told him 'Sir, it small, having their appellations from a lemon-tree was to boil your cabbage.

above, and a ruined chapel placed beneath, built by Such another was the Spanish traveller, who was so l the Spaniard, and dilapidated by the Dutch. There habituated to hyperbolise, and relate wonders, that he

has been a village about it, lately depopulated from became ridiculous in all companies, so that he was her inhabitants by command from the Spanish king; forced at last to give order to his man, when he fell |

for that it became an unlawful magazine of seamen's into any excess this way, and report anything impro

- treasure, in turning and returning out of both the bable, he should pull him by the sleeve. The

Indies, whereby he lost both tribute and prerogative master falling into his wonted hyperboles, spoke of a in apparent measure. church in China that was ten thousand yards long ; Monuments of antique beings nor other rarities can his man, standing behind, and pulling him by the be found here. You see all, if you view the ribs of sleeve, made him stop suddenly: The company ask: an old carrick, and some broken pieces of her ording, “I pray, sir, how broad might that church be!

nance left there against the owner's good will or aphe replied, But a yard broad, and you may thank my

probation. Goats and hogs are the now dwellers, who man for pulling me by the sleeve, else I had made it

multiply in great abundance, and (though unwillingly) foursquare for you.'

ufford themselves to hungry and sea-beaten passengers. It has store of patridge and guinea-hens, all which

were brought thither by the honest Portugal, who now SIR TEOMAS HERBERT.

dare neither anchor there, nor own their labours, lest The only other traveller of much note at this time the English or Flemings question them. was Sir THOMAS HERBERT, who in 1626 set out! The isle is very even and delightful above, and on a journey to the east, and, after his return, pub- gives a large prospect into the ocean. 'Tis a saying lished, in 1634, A Relation of some Years' Travels with the seamen, a man there has his choice, whether into Africa and the Greater Asia, especially the Ter he will break his heart going up, or his neck coming ritory of the Persian Monarchy, and some parts of down ; either wish bestowing more jocundity than the Oriental Indies and Isles adjacent. According

comfort. to the judgment of the author of the Catalogue in Churchill's Collection, these travels have de

WILLIAM CAMDEN. servedly had a great reputation, being the best We now turn to a circle of laborious writers, who account of those parts written [before the end

exerted themselves in the age of Elizabeth to disof the seventeenth century] by any Englishman, cover and preserve the remains of antiquity which and not inferior to the best of foreigners; what is

had come down to their times. Among these, the peculiar in them is, the excellent description of all

leading place is unquestionably due to WILLIAM antiquities, the curious remarks on them, and the CAMDEN, who, besides being eminent as an antiquary, extraordinary accidents that often occur."* This claims to be considered likewise as one of the best eulogy seems too high; at least we have found the historians of his age. Camden was born in London author's accounts of the places which he visited far in 1551, and received his education first at Christ's too meagre to be relished by modern taste. A brief | hospital and St Paul's school, and afterwards at extract from the work is given below. In the civil Oxford. In 1575 he became second master of Westwars of England, Herbert sided with the parliament, minster school; and while performing the duties of and, when the king was required to dismiss his own this office, devoted his leisure hours to the study of servants, was chosen by his majesty one of the the antiquities of Britain-a subject to which, from grooms of the bed-chamber. Herbert then became his earliest years, he had been strongly inclined. much attached to the king, served him with much | That he might personally examine ancient remains, zeal and assiduity, and was on the scaffold when the

he travelled, in 1582, through some of the eastern ill-fated monarch was brought to the block. After and northern counties of England; and the fruits of the Restoration, he was rewarded by Charles II. |

his researches appeared in his most celebrated work, with a baronetcy, and subsequently devoted much |

written in Latin, with a title signifying. Britain ; time to literary pursuits. In 1678 he wrote Thren or a Chorographical Description of the Most Flourishing odia Carolina, containing an Historical Account of the Kingdom of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the AdjaTwo Last Years of the Life of King Charles I. This

cent' Islands, from Remote Antiquity. This was pubwas reprinted in a collection of Memoirs of the Two lished in 1586, and immediately brought him into Last Years of that Unparalleled Prince, of Ever-high repute as an antiquary and man of learning. blessed Memory, King Charles I.,' published in 1702. Anxious to improve and enlarge it, he journied at Sir Thomas Herbert died in 1682.

several times into different parts of the country,

examining archives and relics of antiquity, and col* Vol. i. p. 21. | lecting, with indefatigable industry, whatever infor


Wiltm (amdeta

mation might contribute to render it more complete. I profound antiquity, as things which are seen very The sixth edition, published in 1607, was that which deep and far remote ; like as the courses, the reaches, ruceived his finishing touches; and of this an Eng. the confluences, and the outlets of great rivers are

well-known, yet their first fountains and heads lie commonly unknown. I have succinctly run over the Romans' gorernment in Britain, and the inundation of foreign people thereinto, what they were, and from whence they came. I have traced out the ancient divisions of these kingdoms; I have summarily speci. fied the states and judicial courts of the same. In the sereral counties, I have coinpendiously set down the limits (and yet not exactly by perch and pole, to breed questions), what is the nature of the soil, which were places of the greatest antiquity, who have been dukes, marquesses, earls, riscounts, barons, and some of the most signal and ancient families therein (for who can particulate all ?) What I hare performed, I leave to men of judgment. But time, the most sound and sincere witness, will give the truest information, when envy (which persceuteth the living) shall have her mouth stopped. Thus much give me leave to say--that I have in no wise neglected such things as are material to search and sift out the truth. I have attained to some skill of the most ancient British and Saxou tongues. I have travelled over all England for the most part ; I have conferred with most skilful observers in each country ; I have studiously read over our own country writers (old and new), all Greek and Latin authors which have once made mention of Britain ; I have had conference with learned men in the other parts of Christendom; I have been diligent in the records of this realm ; I hare looked into most libraries, registers, and memorials of churches, cities, and corporations; I have pored over many an old roll and evidence, and produced their testimony (as beyond all exception) when

the cause required, in their very own words (although lish translation, executed, probably with the author's

barbarous they be), that the honour of verity might in

no wise be impeached. assistance, by Dr Philemon Holland, appeared in

For all this I may be censured as unadvised, and 1610. From the preface to that translation we

scant modest, who, being but of the lowest form in the extract the account which Camden gives of his

school of antiquity, where I might well have lurked labours :

in obscurity, have adventured as a scribbler upon the I hope it shall be no discredit if I now use again. stage in this learned age, amidst the diversities of re. by way of preface, the same words, with a few more,

| lishes both in wit and judgment. But to tell the truth that I used twenty-four years since in the first edi-unfeignedly, the love of my country, which compriseth tion of this work. Abraham Ortelius, the worthy all love in it, and hath endeared me to it, the glory restorer of ancient geography, arriving here in Enes of the British name, the advice of some judicious land about thirty-four years past, dealt earnestly

friends, hath over-mastered my modesty, and (will'd I, with me that I would illustrate this isle of Britain,

nilld 1) hath enforced me, against mine own judgor, as he said, that I would restore antiquity to Bri

ment, to undergo this burden too heavy for me, and tain, and Britain to antiquity : which was i under- so thrust me forth into the world's view. For I see stood), that I would renew ancientry, enlighten ob

judgments, prejudices, censures, aspersions, obstrucscurity, clear doubts, and recall home verity, by way

tions, detractions, affronts, and confronts, as it were, of recovery, which the negligence of writers, and cre

in battle array to environ me on every side; some dulity of the common sort, had in a manner proscribed

there are which wholly contemn and avile this study and utterly banished from among us. À painful

of antiquity as a back-looking curiosity ; whose authomatter, I assure you, and more than difficult; wherein

rity, as I do not utterly vilify, so I do not over-prize what toil is to be taken, as no man thinketh, so no or adm

| or admire their judgment. Neither am I destitute of man believeth but he who hath made the trial. Never- | reason whereby I might approve this my purpose to theless, how much the difficulty discouraged me from well-bred and well-meaning men, which tender the it, so much the glory of my country encouraged me glory of their na

ced me glory of their native country; and, moreover, could to undertake it. So, while at one and the same time I give them to understand that, in the study of antiquity I was fearful to undergo the burden, and yet desirous (which is always accompanied with dignity, and hath to do some service to my country, I found two diffe- a certain resemblance with eternity), there is a sweet rent affections, fear and boldness, I know not how, food of the mind well befitting such as are of honest conjoined in one. Notwithstanding, by the most and noble disposition..

and noble disposition. If any there be which are gracious direction of the Almighty, taking industry

desirous to be strangers in their own soil, and foreigners for my consort, I adventured upon it ; and, with all in their own city, they may so continue, and therein my study, care, cogitation, continual meditation, flatter themselves. For such like I have not written pain, and travail, I employed myself thereunto when

these lines, nor taken these pains. I had any spare time. I made search after the etymology of Britain and the first inhabitants timorously ; ||

The ‘Britannia' has gone through many subse neither in so doubtful a matter have I affirmed ought quent editions, and has proved so useful a repository confidently. For I am not ignorant that the first of antiquarian and topographical knowledge, that it originals of nations are obscure, by reason of their has been styled by Bishop Nicolson the common


sun, whereat our modern writers have all lighted them highly valuable, had before this time been un. their little torches.' The last edition is that of fortunately destroyed by fire. From those which 1789, in two volumes folio, largely augmented by remain, historians still continue to extract large Mr Gough.

stores of information. During his lifetime, materials In 1593 Camden became head master of West- were drawn from his library by Raleigh, Bacon, minster school, and, for the use of his pupils, pub- | Selden, and Herbert; and he furnished literary lished a Greek grammar in 1597. In the saine year, assistance to many contemporary authors. Besides however, his connexion with that seminary came to aiding Camden in the compilation of the Britannia,' an end, on his receiving the appointment of Claren-hie materially assisted Joik SPEED (1552-1629), cieux king-of-arms, an office which allowed him by revising, correcting, and adding to a History of more leisure for his favourite pursuits. The prin- Great Britain, published by that writer in 1614. cipal works which he subsequently published are, Speed was indebted also to Spelman and others for 1. An Account of the Monuments and Inscriptions in contributions. He is characterised by Bishop Nicol. Westoninster Abbey; 2. A Collection of Ancient English son as a person of extraordinary industry and at. Historians; 3. A Latin Narrative of the Gunpowier tainments in the study of antiquities.' Being a tailor Plot, drawn up at the desire of James VI.; and, 4. by trade, he enjoyed few advantages from educaAnnals of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, also in Latio. tion; yet his history is a highly creditable performThe last of these works is praised by Hume as good ance, and was long the best in existence. He was composition, with respect both to style and matter, the first to reject the fables of preceding chroniclers and as being written with simplicity of expression, concerning the origin of the Britons, and to exercise very rare in that age, and with a regard to truth.' a just discrimination in the selection of author It is, however, generally considered as too favour-His history commences with the original inbabitants able to Elizabeth; and Dr Robertson characterises of the island, and extends to the union of England the account of Scottish affairs under Queen Mary and Scotland under King James, to whom the work as less accurate than any other. Camden died un- is dedicated. In 1606 he published maps of Great married in 1623, at the age of seventy-two, and Britain and Ireland, with the English shires, hunwas interred in Westminster Abbey. Not long dreds, cities, and shire-towns. This collection was before his death, he founded and endowed a history superior to any other that had appeared. SAMUEL lecture at Oxford.

DANIEL (1562-1619), who has already been mentioned as a poet, distinguished himself also as a

writer of prose. Besides A Defence of Rhyme, pubSIR HENRY SPELMAN-SIR ROBERT COTTON ---JOIN

lished in 1611, he composed Å History of England, SPEED--SAMUEL DANIEL.

of which only the first and second parts, extending SIR HENRY SPELMAN, a man of similar tastes, from the Norman Conquest to the end of the reign and who was intimate with Camden, was born

of Edward III., were completed by himself. Of these, in 1562 at Congham, in Norfolk, of which county

the first appeared in 1613, and the second about he was high-sheriff in 1604. His works are almost

five years later. Being a judicious and tasteful perall upon legal and ecclesiastical antiquities. Hav

formance, and written in a clear, simple, and agreeing, in the course of his investigations, found it able style, the work became very popular, and soon necessary to study the Saxon language, he em- | passed through several editions. It was continued bodied the fruits of his labour in his great work in an inferior manner to the death of Richard III.. called Glossarium Archæologicum, the object of which | by John Trussel, an alderman of Winchester. Like is the explanation of obsolete words occurring in Speed, Daniel was cautious in giving credit to narthe laws of England. Another of his produc- ratives of remote events, as will appear from his tions is A Il istory of the English Councils, pub | remarks, here subjoined, on the lished partly in 1639, and partly after his death, which took place in 1641. The writings of this [Uncertainty of the Early History of Nations.] aŭthor have furnished valuable materials to English historians, and he is considered as the restorer of kingdom. I had a desire to have deduced the same

Undertaking to collect the principal affairs of this Saxon literature, both by means of his own studies,

tudies, from the beginning of the first British kings, as they and by founding a Saxon professorship at Cam

are registered in their catalogue ; but finding no bridge. Sir ROBERT Cotton (1570-1631) is cele

authentical warrant how they came there, I did put brated as an industrious collector of records, chart-off that desire with these considerations : That a ers, and writings of every kind relative to the an-leser

lesser part of time, and better known (which was cient history of England. In the prosecution of his

from William I., surnamed the Bastard), was more object he enjoyed unusual facilities, the recent sup

than enongh for my ability ; and how it was but our pression of monasteries having thrown many valuable

curiosity to search further back into times past than books and written documents into private hands. we might discern, and whereof we could neither have In 1600, he accompanied his friend Camden on an

proof nor profit ; how the beginnings of all people and excursion to Carlisle, for the purpose of examining states were as uncertain as the heads of great rivers, the Picts' wall and other relies of former times. It and could not add to our virtue, and, peradvent was principally on his suggestion that James I. re- little to our reputation to know them, considering how sorted to the scheme of creating baronets, as a means commonly they rise from the springs of poverty, piracy, of supplying the treasury; and he himself was one robbery, and violence; howsoever fabulous writers (to of those who purchased the distinction. Sir Robert glorify their nations strive to abuse the credulity of Cotton was the author of various historical, political, after-ages with heroical or miraculous beginuings. and antiquarian works, which are now of little in- For states, as inen, are ever best seen when they are terest, except to men of kindred tastes. Ilis name up, and as they are, not as they were. Besides, it is remembered chiefly for the benefit which he seeins, God in his providence, to check our presumpconferred upon literature, by saving his valuable tuous inquisition, wraps up all things in uncertainty, library of manuscripts from dispersion. After being bars us out from long antiquity, and bounds our considerably augmented by his son and grandson, searches within the coinpass of a few ages, as if the it became, in 1706, the property of the public, and same were sufhcient, both for example and instrucin 1757 was deposited in the British Museum. One tion, to the government of men. For had we the parhundred and eleven of the manuscripts, many of | ticular occurrents of all ages and all nations, it might

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