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Part II. 21. The plan of the University embraces the building of a new convocation hall.
22. He has been cutting a ridiculous figure for quite a spell.
23. Manufactures profited by the discovery of Watt and Arkwright, and by the consumption of raw cotton in the mills of Lancashire.
24. I will not be answerable for the exactitude of these speeches.
25. And hast thou walked in the world with so little observance as to wonder that men are not what they seem?
26. The deacons seem to have been quite unconscious that the law prohibited what they were doing.
27. Events had transpired in the country which changed the aspect of affairs.
28. The rains rendered the roads impracticable.
36. I am well aware that this view of my subject is not prevalent.
37. What he supposed to be a stone turned out to be only the apparition of one.
38. Some change will probably soon arrive. 39. The émeute, was caused by the hauteur of the new governor 40. He deprecates the whole proceeding.
41. The sportsmen bagged a large amount of game. 42. I have heard of the gents, but I never indorsed them. 43. He came home unbeknown to his parents. 44. An Assurance Company has been started in the town. 45. He perambulated up and down the street. 46. After several years, they at length heard from him. 47. They all refused to come except Mary and Alice would.
48. Directly I found the house inhabited, I began to be sorry that it was not vacant.
49. The epithets, thief, coward, liar, were heaped upon him. 50. I expect to receive an invitation to that party. 51. Such a statement was enough to dumbfounder him.
52. He was a model in mildness of temper and in properness of behavior.
53. The rogue deserved condign punishment for his crime.
54. The announcement of the victory was premature, as it turned out that the supposed victors were vanquished.
55. He died in the conscience of never having failed in his duty to the Pope.
56. We are more liable to see people's faults than their virtues. 57. Most of his statements were the converse of the facts. 58. We had an awfully jolly time that evening.
59. He was dragged in by the heels and afterwards ejected in the same manner.
60. When the English greeted the French soldiers, the latter evinced a reciprocity.
PART IV. 61. He experienced a very painful sensation.
62. That meeting was a howling success and the opponent's chances are now higher than a kite.
63. He was that sick that he could not proceed a step further.
64. That man is a great worker and he will be sure to “ get there."
65. Though lampoons do not relieve a man of his money, they lacerate his soul.
66. He soon acquired the custom of using tobacco. 67. In spite of all their threats he remained perfectly dumb. 68. We had a delightful dinner yesterday. 69. It is not difficult to discriminate between orange and green. 70. I am prepared to give my evidence on the case. 71.
“We are," said the preacher, "incessantly reminding people of their sins."
72. The public will heartily indorse the sentiments uttered by the court.
73. The state was, as the century crept on, invaded by bands of courageous settlers.
74. In spite of their universal determination, midnight arrived without anything decided.
75. His friends pardoned him for the injury he had done them. 76. There was a general outcry of surprise. 77. They assumed a seat at the banquet.
78. The island was then frequented by no travellers and few visitants of any kind.
79. He led us into a room lighted up with abundance of candles.
80. He read the recital of that dreadful accident. 81. He acts like a downright dude.
82. One would have thought by their acts that they had just blown in from the country.
83. Obstacles are overcome by diligence.
The formation of sentences will be considered under four heads : 1. Clearness, 2. Strength, 3. Unity, 4. Elegance.
Clearness requires a sentence to be so constructed that the meaning is easily and readily apparent to the reader. When the meaning is not clear, the sentence is said to be obscure; and when there is an uncertainty as to which of two different meanings the author intends to convey, the sentence is said to be ambiguous.
How promoted. Clearness is a relative term. What is clear to one person may be obscure to another. A writer's aim should be to make his meaning easily intelligible to persons who understand the language. Clearness is promoted by attending to the following points : The Words, Arrangement, Pronouns, Emphatic Words, Same Construction, Ellipses, Length of Sentences.
If we wish to make our meaning clear, we must use such words as are understood by the persons addressed. Discourse is sometimes rendered partially or wholly obscure through an excessive use of long, unfamiliar words. In dealing with abstract subjects, and in unfolding the principles of the various sciences, difficult, technical language is often necessary and proper; but in treating of subjects, such as are dealt with in ordinary narration or description, short, simple, familiar words should as far as possible be used.
ARRANGEMENT. Qualifying words, phrases, and clauses should be placed so near the words they modify, that there can be no mistaking the connection intended.
1. An adverb should stand close to the word, phrase, or clause, that it modifies; as, “ The general nearly lost a thousand of his men.” Here “ nearly” is placed so as to qualify“ lost,” though it was probably intended to qualify " a thousand.”
2. Adverbial phrases and clauses must, likewise, be placed near the words they qualify. Thus, “The eagle saw the lamb while flying." Here “flying" seems to qualify “lamb," but it was no doubt intended to qualify “ eagle”; so the sentence should read, “ The eagle while flying saw the lamb.”
3. Participial Clauses. — In placing participial clauses, care must be taken not to leave it ambiguous to which of two nouns the participle and its qualifying words belong. Thus," I saw my friend by mere accident when I was in the city at the fair, walking down the main street.” Arrange : “When I was in the city at the fair, I, by mere accident, saw my friend walking down the main street.”
When using, instead of adverbial phrases, participles implying “while,” “when," “though," " that,” or “if,” make it clear, by the context, or by the arrangement, which conjunction is implied. If this cannot be done, turn the phrase into a relative pronoun and finite verb; as, “Deafened by the sound, he went away." This sentence, as it stands, is open to different meanings, and unless the context makes clear which meaning is intended, the conjunction should be inserted. Thus, it may read, “because,” “since," "as,” “though,” “when," “ he was deafened by the sound, he went away."
“Men, following after shadows, are sure to be deceived." This may mean, “Men that,” etc.; or “When men,” etc.
“Seeing his danger, he withdrew.” In a sentence like this, the ambiguity may be removed by inserting a preposition; as, “On seeing," etc.
4. Clauses. - Dependent clauses should be so arranged as to keep them distinct from each other and from independent clauses; as, “ He stated that he wished to be present, and intended to speak on the question.” To make the intended arrangement clear, that should be inserted before intended.