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misery caused by intemperance, we believe it has become our duty to unite our efforts for its extermination.

47. The secretary shall read the minutes and all the papers ordered to be read.

48. In a short editorial in our last number, we pointed out the want in our school system of any attention being paid to the artistic sensibilities of our pupils.

49. The old soil should be picked out from the outer edges of the roots, care being taken not to break the roots too much, the object of re-potting being to not only give a larger-sized pot, but making the soil more porous by renewing as in cultivating land.

50. His reign was like the course of a meteor, which shoots along the face of heaven, which sheds around an unnecessary and portentous light, which is swallowed up by universal darkness.

51. The best possible way to learn geography would probably be to travel through the country; perhaps the next best way is by studying the progress of a war in the newspapers with the aid of maps.

52. If the formation of character is one of the aims of the teacher, as we have often insisted, let him be excessively cautious how he ridicules.

53. We spoke lately of discouragement as being one of the strongest wasters of brain power; there is a method employed by some teachers to correct faults which is even worse in its injurious results — ridicule.

54. Joseph Wilson Swan, the electric light inventor, lives elegantly at Bromley, England; and is described as a handsome man with a noble head set on a rather long neck, a distinguishing character of the Swan family.

55. Why remain in the land of snow, when you can visit New Orleans and return for $31.85, where the magnolia is in bloom.

56. A gentleman once drove up to a hotel, and giving his horse into the care of the hostler said : “Extricate this quadruped from the vehicle, stabulate him, supply him with a sufficient quantity of nutritious aliment, and when the Aurora of morn shall again


dawn, I will amply repay you for your amiable hospitality.” The hostler, amazed, hastened in to tell his master that a Dutchman wanted to see him.

57. Answer my prayer which is, if you dwell on this island or no, and that you inform me how to conduct myself.

58. All these tales were told in that drowsy tone that men talk in in the dark.

59. The expression of his face showed no more self-denial than his dress that he despised earthly pomp.

60. He was a man of many accomplishments and virtues, thoughtful in his doings, winning in his address, a kind friend, a faithful and loving husband, an affectionate father, and he played melodious tunes on the jews-harp.

61. The French foot guards are dressed in blue and all the marching regiments in white, which has a very foolish appearance for soldiers, and as for blue regimentals, it is only fit for the Horse Guards Blue or the Artillery.

62. Up the perfume-swept avenue of love, and under the roseate archway of hymen, they had passed into the joy-lit realms of that higher and holier existence where soul meets soul on limpid waves of ecstatic feeling, and hearts touch hearts through the blended channel of lips in rapture linked.

63. The author of the Waverley Novels was not only remarkable for his talent; he was equally remarkable for his industry.

64. I heard a cobbler who could scarcely put a sole on a shoe say that the soul is not immortal, and his sole reason was that he could not believe it.

65. But though we think the conduct of the regicides blamable, that of Milton appears to us in a very different light. The deed was done. It could not be undone. The evil was incurred. The object was to render it as small as possible. We censure the chiefs of the army for not yielding to the popular opinion. We cannot censure Milton for wishing to change that opinion. (Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of inserting connectives between these sentences.)

66. Compose a sentence on each of these subjects :

The Ocean.

Rip Van Winkle.

Public speaking.
The value of time.
The true aim of life.
The use of tobacco.
Bathing in the surf.
Your birthplace.
Your own town.
The value of education.

Criticise each of your sentences rigidly. Where you find any violation of the laws of Clearness, Strength, Unity, or Elegance, rewrite the defective sentence in improved form.




Explanation. — Though there is one set of words that expresses a thought with greater exactness than any other can, yet every thought may be expressed in a great variety of ways. Exercise in casting about to find these different modes of expression tends to give freedom and readiness of choice and to assist in learning to select the form that most fittingly conveys the meaning intended.

Kinds of Variety. - There may be variety of expression in : (1) The order of the words; (2) The construction of the sentences; (3) The kinds of the sentences; (4) The form ; (5) The individual words ; (6) The phraseology.

How attained. — This variety may be made by: (1) Change of Order; (2) Construction ; (3) Synonyms; (4) Phraseology.


The parts of a sentence may frequently be arranged in several ways without altering the meaning ; yet, in every case, there is a particular order that is more appropriate than any other. Example. — “The next argument you will all appreciate.” Or :

. “ You will all appreciate the next argument.” Or: “You all will appreciate the next argument."



DIRECTION. — Vary the following sentences by changing the order of the words, clauses, or phrases.

1. We know how cheaply praise is won.

2. After their death it was passed round somewhat freely, and fell into my hands.

3. Talent backs into the shafts like a lamb.
4. On this issue they were overwhelmingly defeated.

5. When the danger of a war had passed by, he again retired to his home.

6. The traces of martyrdom, it seems, are worn in the other world as stars and ribands are worn in this.

7. In a fierce battle he was struck by a musket ball which broke his ankle-bone.

8. I went on my way with a sad heart.

9. When the beavers build on the bank of a stream, they make a dam across it.

10. One by one, day after day, man learns to coin his wishes into facts.

11. By a long course of study and discipline he made himself what he was.

He had just raised the cup to his lips when his eye fell on a poor, dying soldier who was looking longingly at the cool drink.


13. Many born poets, I am afraid, flower poorly in song, or not at all, because they have been too often transplanted.

14. All legislative powers granted by the Constitution of the United States are vested in Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

15. I fear the popular notion of success stands in direct opposition in all points to the real and wholesome success.



Substitution. - In the construction of sentences, great latitude is afforded in the choice of the form of expression. As Variety in this respect is one of the beauties of good composition, pains must be taken to acquire a readiness and tact in substituting one construction for another.

How Secured. — Variety of construction may be secured by (1) substituting one kind of phrase or clause for another, (2) by varying the predicate, (3) by combining or expanding sentences, (4) by changing the form.

1. Adjectival phrases or clauses may be changed into :

1. Adjectives ; as, “A man of virtue”; “A virtuous man.” “He assumed a gravity that was ridiculous"; “ He assumed a ridiculous gravity."

2. Infinitives ; as, “He was the first that entered ” ; “He was the first to enter.”

3. Adverbial Clauses; as, “A man that does not care for music is to be pitied”; “A man, if he does not care for music, is to be pitied.” Or: “If a man does not care for music, he is to be pitied."

4. Prepositional Phrases; as, A man who has little sense, is

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