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17. They were refused entrance into, and forcibly driven from, the house.
18. I was sailing in a vast ocean, without other help than the pole-star of the ancients and the rules of the French stage.
19. The truth is that truth and error are blended together.
20. In a house like this the inmates resemble a knight in an enchanted castle.
21. At the news of a Russian war, the price of wheat instantly soared up to a dollar bushel.
22. He had sense enough not to use that word in that sense.
23. If the loss of temporal gain be the gain of eternal good, the reverse of fortune is the reverse of misfortune.
24. The farmer gave orders to his son to order the hired man to put the reaper in good order.
25. When I was there, there were friends of mine there also.
GENERAL EXERCISE ON ELEGANCE.
DIRECTION. - Reconstruct these sentences so as to correct all violations of the laws of Elegance.
1. We are a firm believer in keeping pace with the times.
5. Generally speaking, a prudent general will in the face of odds avoid a general engagement.
6. Shamefacedness may recommend many more than money.
7. The essayist could not find a trace of some of those worthies of whom the world was not worthy.
8. Everybody knows that that knows anything at all.
9. It was in vain they reached the other side; such fate does fate assign us.
10. Thou strokedst me and mad'st much of me.
11. You know, when you don't know where you are going, you generally take a rather slow pace.
12. Though generally scrupulous, he did not scruple to do that base act.
13. After describing so interesting a meeting concerning the rival parties contending for supremacy, the speaker paused.
14. They found that at an inroad of the Indians he had been taken prisoner.
15. As we approached the church we met crowds of respectable people hurrying towards it, as if afraid of being too late to obtain a good seat, or even admittance, etc.
16. She always displays a cheerful temper and pleasant humor. 17. Tediousness is the most fatal of all faults. 18. He attempted to express the inexplicable pleasure he felt.
19. Moral faults only, and then only extremely rarely, should be corrected by ridicule.
20. Boys are sensitive, and to ridicule more than anything else, especially where both sexes are taught in the same room.
21. Though virtue borrows no assistance from, yet it may often be accompanied by, the advantages of fortune.
22. It is hard to make good the pretence of a good quality. 23. He refused taking any further notice of it.
24. It is in my power to refuse you, and since I have the power to do it I will do it.
25. They directed their course in the direction of their father's house.
26. The night which descended upon her was the night (or the darkness ?) of an Arctic summer.
27. A man of his sense should have a higher sense of honor.
28. I am acquainted with a certain man who has a certain income obtained from the investment of a certain sum.
29. He was also known to, and visited by, Sheridan.
30. The devouring element consumed the edifice before its progress could be arrested.
31. He abruptly turned to the left and left the house.
32. The relations between maid and mistress became sorely strained.
33. He is the individual who took the initiative in introducing piscine preserves in this locality.
34. I look upon it as my duty, so long as I keep within the bounds of truth and duty, and of decency.
35. Listlessly talking over village gossip, or telling sleepy, endless stories about nothing, they used to sit here in the shade through a long lazy summer's day. (Here ... through ... talking . . . nothing.)
36. Therefore nothing, neither learning nor knowledge of the world, neither forensic acuteness, nor that eloquence which charms political assemblies, was wanting to the defence of Clive. (To the defence . . . assemblies.)
37. As they proceeded down the hill the rocks gradually receded from view.
38. Societies like these will help to educate society and to overthrow its drinking usages.
39. And see, first of all, that you have hearts, and sound hearts, too, to give.
40. After the appetizing banquet had been done full justice to, the party spent an extended period in pleasantly tripping the light fantastic.
41. She asked him to visit her paternal domicile, when the diurnal luminary sought his nocturnal resting-place behind the occidental horizon.
42. The Little Gentleman lies where he longed to lie, among the old names and the old bones of the Boston people. (Should old be repeated?)
III. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARAGRAPHS.
Hitherto we have considered only separate words and single sentences. We now come to study the connection of sentences in paragraphs, and of paragraphs in sketches.
The paragraph is a larger division of discourse than the sentence, and, like it, should deal with a single topic. It is, in fact, a whole composition and should therefore be complete in itself. It aids the reader by showing him where the development of a point begins and where it ends.
Principles. — The leading principles that govern the formation of the paragraph are : —
I. THE TOPIC SENTENCE.
The opening sentence should set forth the subject of the paragraph. This sentence is generally most effective when short.
Example. - “The government went on, oppressing at home and blundering abroad. (Topic sentence.)
(Topic sentence.) A war was foolishly undertaken against France, and more foolishly conducted. Buckingham led an expedition against Rhé, and failed ignominiously. In the meantime soldiers were billeted on the people. Crimes of which ordinary justice should have taken cognizance were punished by martial law. Near eighty gentlemen,” etc. paragraph goes on enumerating other acts of "oppressing ” and “blundering."
Sometimes the first sentence, or even sentences, are intended to connect the paragraph with the one that precedes, or to prepare the
way for the topic sentence. Example. — “These were mere follies. (Connective and introductory sentence.) But the spirit excited by these writers produced more serious effects." (Topic sentence.) The greater part of the crimes which disgraced the revolution," etc.
The different sentences that compose a paragraph must follow one another in natural and logical order. If they do not, the attention of the reader is distracted and he finds it difficult, if not impossible, to keep the thread of the discourse.
Example. “On the third day after the action the dead were buried in the naval churchyard ; the ceremony was made as public and as solemn as the occasion required. A public monument was erected upon the spot where the slain were gathered together. A subscription was opened on the day of the funeral for the relief of the sufferers, and collections in aid of it throughout all the churches in the kingdom. This appeal to the feelings of the people was made with circumstances which gave it full effect. A monument was raised in the midst of the church; young maidens, dressed in white, stood round it; and a suitable oration was delivered from the pulpit.”
In this paragraph the sentences do not follow the order of events.
3. CONTINUITY. It is not enough that the sentences of a paragraph follow one another in proper order; the connection of each with the preceding context must be made clear and unmistakable. It is of the utmost importance that the sentences should be connected in a clear, smooth, easy, and natural manner, so that the thought may be carried on without interruption from the beginning to the close.
How Attained. — Continuity is secured in various ways :
1. By the use of conjunctions, adverbs, pronouns, or connecting phrases; as : —
“One person might have fallen asleep, but two— but three that was a mere impossibility. And even supposing all three together with the baby locked in sleep, still how unaccountable was this utter silence ! Most naturally at this moment something like hysterical horror overshadowed the poor girl. And now, at