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have been many hundred years ago, this people had some religion for they give it the name of a temple, and they have a tradition that it was designed for men to pay their devotions in.

2. Combine the following simple sentences into complex sentences : a. The blossom perishes. The infant perished similarly.

The recollection causes a pang. It causes a pang to the mother, Still she would not forget it.

b. Shakespeare is buried. He is buried in the church. He is buried in its chancel. It is a large pile. It is a venerable pile. It is mouldering with age. It is richly ornamented.

c. The “Vicar of Wakefield” is captivating. The bookseller did not appreciate it. He kept it by him two years. He then published it. It has since attained popularity. It has attained this in several languages. It retains that popularity.

3. Compose a complex sentence in which the predicate (1) is modified by an adverbial clause of (a) time, (6) place, (c) degree, (d) manner, (e) cause ; (2) is completed by a noun clause.

4. Compose a complex sentence in which a noun clause (1) is subject, (2) is an appositive modifier, (3) is the object of a preposition, (4) completes the predicate, (5) forms the object of the predicate verb, (6) is in the objective adverbial relation.

5. Compose a complex sentence in which the subject is limited by an adjective clause introduced (1) by a relative pronoun, (2) by a relative adverb, (3) by as, (4) by but.

6. Compose a complex sentence in which the object is modified as is the subject of the sentence required in 5.

7. Compose a complex sentence in which the adverbial clause is introduced (1) by a subordinate conjunction (a) of time, (6) of place, (c) of cause, (d) of manner; (2) by (a) who, (6) which.



A compound sentence consists of two or more independent simple sentences.

1. The relation existing between the parts of the compound sentence is usually expressed by a co-ordinate conjunction. Thus: a. Cumulative clauses are connected by and, also, likewise,

moreover, etc. b. Adversative clauses are connected by but, yet, still, or, nor,

nevertheless, otherwise, etc. c. Illative clauses are connected by therefore, hence, for, so,

thus, then, etc. 2. Sometimes the relation between the parts of the compound is disguised under the appearance of that of a complex sentence; as, “He had a ready command over his countenance which (and

it) he could contract at pleasure into solemnity"; "There were at the corners folding-doors which (and they) gave access to other parts of the building.”

3. Occasionally the connective is omitted ; as, “ Goldsmith tells you shortly all you want to know; Robertson detains you a great deal too long."

The members of a compound sentence may be all simple ; one or all of them may be complex, or even compound.

In compound sentences one of the members is frequently abbreviated by the omission of words easily supplied; as, "At this juncture inspiration seemed to be at an end, and the poetic fire extinguished."


COMPOUND SENTENCES. Complete the following sentences by the addition of another clause :

a. Time passes away and

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b. The sun is setting and ...
c. He rode, not a mule, but .
d. Our captives are as fierce as Odin, yet
e. He has transgressed the law, therefore
f. Take the path to the left, for ...
g. In his girdle he wore a long dagger, which .
h. His shield was covered with a scarlet cloth, which . .

2. Combine the following simple sentences into compound sen. tences :

a. A number u. horsemen were seen. They were slowly advancing. They nearly reached the foot of the hill. They then struck off. They struck off in a different direction.

b. Animal attachment must be refreshed. It must be refreshed continually. It must be kept alive. It must be kept alive by the presence of its object. True affection is seated in the soul. It can live on long remembrance.

c. He was a great reader. He read old legends. He read romances. He could not believe them. He regretted this. Superstitious persons live in a kind of fairyland. He desired that pleasure.

3. Compose a compound sentence with simple subjects and simple predicates about each of the following: Time, money, sleep, base-ball, horses, railroads, steam-boats.

4. Introduce as many modifiers as you can into each of the sentences required in 3.

5. Compose other sentences on the topics named in 3, in which the members are (1) simple, (2) complex, (3) compound.

6. Write out fully the following abbreviated compound sentences :

a. Measures should be supported, not men.

b. At every turn I met with some illustrious name, or the cognizance of some powerful house.

C. Now one of these elements appears most prominent, now the other.

d. His hospitable intentions were brief, but expressive. e. He whistled after him, and shouted his name, but all in vain.




Kinds of Sentences. – On the basis of rhetorical value, sentences may be divided into Periodic, Loose, The Compromise, Balanced, Short, and Long.

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A periodic sentence is one which is so constructed that the complete meaning is suspended till the close.

Examples.-(1) “When the sun shines forth, we will set sail.”

(2) “What I cannot describe is, how in the innermost recesses of my own heart, I had a lurking suspicion."


A loose sentence is one which is so constructed that it may be brought to a close at one or more places and still be complete in



Examples. (1) “The battle was won | at last | after hard fighting | and prodigious displays of valor.”

(2) “The mature man, in the desire to get quit of an early habit, attempts an imitation | in which he is prevented from succeeding | by the lasting consequences of the unintentional imitation, | into which he had glided when a child."

In these examples we may stop at the several places marked and have complete sense.

A loose sentence is not necessarily a faulty sentence, but as a person who writes such sentences is apt to fall into obscure and careless constructions, it is well for beginners to give attention to forming periodic sentences.

Most loose sentences may be converted into periodic by some change in arrangement. The first example will become periodic if arranged thus: “At last, after hard fighting, and prodigious displays of bravery, the battle was won."

3. THE COMPROMISE. The compromise is a sentence that is partly a periodic and partly a loose sentence. It consists of two or more parts, one of which is periodic, while the sentence taken as a whole is a loose sentence.

Example. “He then sent two more, and one of them, hurrying back in affright, said that the whole British army was at hand.”

4. BALANCED SENTENCE. A balanced sentence is one which contains two clauses that are similar in form, and either parallel or contrasted in meaning.

Examples. — (1) “Contempt is the proper punishment of affec: tation; and detestation, the just consequence of hypocrisy."

(2) “The style of Dryden is capricious and varied, that of Pope is cautious and uniform. Dryden obeys the motions of his owil mind; Pope constrains his mind to his own rules of composition. Dryden is sometimes vehement and rapid ; Pope, always smooth, uniform, and level. Dryden's page is a natural field, rising into inequalities, and diversified by the varied exuberance of abundant vegetation ; Pope's is a velvet lawn, shaven by the scythe and levelled by the roller.”

5. SHORT AND LONG SENTENCES. These terms carry with them their own definition.

Advantages of Each. Each of these kinds of sentences has its advantage. Short sentences are more easily understood, and, if introduced after a number of long ones, give sprightliness and animation, as well as relieve the monotony by variety. If, however, too many of them are used together, the effect is irksome, because abrupt. Long sentences, on the other hand, although requiring closer attention, afford greater scope for the addition of

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