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23. Passing over the bridge in a carriage, the horses became unmanageable, the carriage was on the edge of a precipice, the two leaders fell over and were killed, but Pascal's life was preserved through a breaking of the traces.

24. From this very diversity there springs a multifariousness of aspects under which it may be considered, that is sufficient of itself to inspire the subject with interest.

25. Let us create more of that spirit that I have tried to convey above, and less of the present wrangling, how much more profitably could our weekly meetings be held.

PART II. 26. The Spectator discussed and condemned the evils of the day, as well as all other topics which might please and profit its readers.

27. Tickled with the flattery, like a little fool, I went to work, and bitterly did I rue the day.

28. This king encouraged not only learned men, but also founded a number of schools of learning.

29. “Bois-Guilbert?” said Cedric, in the half-arguing tone, which the habit of living among dependents had accustomed him to employ, and resembled a man who talks to himself rather than to those around him. 30.

He gave a whimsical account of the sudden apparition of one of them at his gay apartments in the Temple, who may

have been a welcome visitor at his squalid quarters in Green Arbour Court.

31. The picture of the village pastor in this poem, which we have already printed, was taken in part from the character of his pathos, embodied likewise recollections of his brother Henry.

32. You forget that those were real dinners where people were hungry and thirsty, and you met a very miscellaneous company.

33. The house was crowded to its utmost capacity ; every available seat was occupied and many remained standing till the close.

34. We have seen that there are many angles of different magnitudes, which have the same sine.

35. When I see a man flattering the people, making great professions of attachment to liberty, who is in private life a tyrant, I say to myself, “ Look out, good people ! that fellow will set you to turning grindstones.”

36. The polar bears live on seal and walrus, crawling stealthily up to the former on the ice-floes and catching them ; while of the walrus only the young are caught, for an old walrus is twice as big as Bruin.

37. Obrutscheff regards war as inevitable, and urges immediate mobilization, and that not a moment should be lost in pushing on to Herat and Candahar.

38. The intellectual qualities of the youth were superior to those of his raiment.

39. The same night, while Crozier was at Carlton, Riel sent him word to come for his dead, and afterwards to Prince Albert, and said if they did not come he would bury them.

40. He is said to prefer plain food; he is also said to be extremely fond of bread, and dotes on water.

41. The young man did not want natural talents; but the father of him was a coxcomb, who affected being a fine gentleman so unmercifully that he could not endure in his sight, or the frequent mention of, one who was his son, growing into manhood and thrusting him out of the

gay

world. 42. He advanced against the old man, imitating his address, his face, and career, as well as the vigor of his horse and his own skill would allow.

43. When thousands are left without pity and unattended on a field of battle, amid the insults of an enraged foe and the trampling of horses, while the blood from their wounds, freezing as it flows, binds them to the earth, and they are exposed to the piercing air, it must be, indeed, a painful scene.

44. The bull I am speaking of was granted five years ago to the faithful people of Spain, by the late pope, which a gentleman of the army took accidentally from a master of a ship, whose name is Peter de Zologa, in the bay of Biscay, as it is signed by himself in the same bull, and may be seen at the publishers.

45. Nine times out of ten when you hear a farmer's boy set down as a hard case, you find his father to blame for it, for he has been too harsh and arbitrary.

46. In order further to advertise my business, I will send my new pipe organ to any one sending me $75, provided I receive fifty names, the same as given away at the concert of December

the 3d.

47. The critical position of the new free state, which is being founded in Africa by the King of the Belgians, is owing to its present jurisdiction on the Congo, being an island, and to the rights it possesses on the sea coast to the north of the Congo, being coveted by France.

48. This they. effected by conveying their letters to her by means of a brewer that supplied the family with ale, through a chink in the wall of her apartment.

49. We live in the past by a knowledge of its history, and we have hope and anticipation in the future.

50. A brazen statue of Justice stood in the public square, once in an ancient city, whose name I no longer remember, raised aloft on a column, upholding the scales in its left hand, and in its right a sword.

51. These funds will be available for meeting such expenses, and to enable the committee to carry out the scheme properly.

52. Two nights ago, I lectured to a large assembly in this hall, nearly all belonging to your country.

53. The progress of civilization works for land as against labor, shutting men off from free access to mother earth, whose bounteous breasts are stored with the food of men, making the landless increasingly dependent.

LESSON XXII.

2. STRENGTH.

Strength consists in constructing sentences in such a way as to give full force to the thought or meaning they contain.

When to be sought. -- In some kinds of composition, such as judicial opinions and text-books of science, all that is necessary is to make the language clear. If, however, the communication of knowledge is not the only aim, if the reader's attention cannot be taken for granted, the language must be more than clear, it must be forcible.

How promoted. - As strength in expression depends largely on the manner in which a sentence is formed, much may be gained by attending to the following points : Number of Words, the Order of Words, Forcible Words, Connection and Transition, Variety.

NUMBER OF WORDS.

Every word that does not add to the meaning of a sentence, enfeebles it. Hence, a sentence is strengthened by rejecting every clause, phrase, or word, that is redundant. Thus, “ Hands off !” is more forcible than “Keep your hands off !”; Strange !", than “ That is very strange !”

Among the principal violations of brevity are: Tautology, Redundancy, and Verbosity.

Caution. - Beginners must not run away with the idea that every sentence should be constructed with the smallest number of words possible. There are many considerations to be taken into account in determining just how many words should be used. The nature of the subject, the character of the treatment, as well as the capacity and intelligence of the persons addressed, demand variations that only a due attention to these things can justify. Commonplace thoughts on familiar topics admit briefer expres

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sion than original ideas ; greater conciseness is demanded in a book than in a newspaper or a speech ; intelligent people require less explanation than ignorant ones. In any case, one should avoid excessive conciseness on the one hand, and excessive diffuseness on the other.

1. Tautology is the fault of saying again in other words what has just been said.

Examples. False misrepresentations.” Umbrageous shade.“ He was by no means deficient in the subordinate and limited virtue which alleviates and relieves the wants of others." In each of these expressions one of the italicized words may be omitted with advantage. When Permissible.- What might appear Tautology by a strict

rendering of the rule is allowable

a. When one word does not express the full sense intended; as, Subject matter, part and parcel, ways and means.

b. For greater emphasis ; as, “The head and front of his offending." "He ruled with might and main."

c. In strong passion; as, “I am astonished, I am shocked, to hear such principles confessed."

2. Redundancy, or pleonasm, consists in the addition of useless words.

Examples. — “They returned back again to the same city from whence they came forth." “Throughout his whole career." When Permissible. — Redundancy is permissible when neces

sary to important statements, to give emphasis, and in the language of passion. Sometimes what is said directly may be said again indirectly; the abstract may be reproduced in the concrete form; the literal, in a metaphor; an object may be presented from a new point of view; an argument may be stated in a variety of forms. Thus, “We have seen it with our own eyes.” “Kings will be tyrants from policy when subjects are rebels from principle.

Epithets. — The handling of epithets requires great care on the part of beginners. With them the tendency generally is to heap up adjectives that add neither force nor beauty to the sentence.

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