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gation. It therefore became a consequence, that the twelve tables continually received some explanation, addition, or alteration, by virtue of a new law, a senatorial decree or a plebiscite. And here it will be proper to observe, how they differ: a plebiscite was an ordinance of the plebeians or commonalty, which had the force of a law, without the authority of the senate; and a senatus-consnltum. or senatorial decree, was an order made by the senators assembled for that purpose; but to constitute a fair, properly so called, it was necessary, that it should first be proposed by some magistrate of the senate, and afterwards be confirmed by the people in general. Recourse was also had to the interpretation and decisions of the learned, which were so universally approved of, that, although ihey were unwritten, they became a new species of law, and were called auctorilas prudenlum and jus civile. It must here be observed, that, soon after the establishment of the twelve tables, the learned of that time composed certain solemn forms, called actions of law, by which the process of all courts and several other acts, as adoption, emancipation, were regulated. These forms were for above a century kept secret from the public, being in the hands only of the priests and magistrates; but about the year U. C. 413 they were collected and published by one Flavins, a scribe; and, from him, called the Flavian law: for which acceptable present the people in general showed many instances of their gratitude. But, as this collection was soon found to be defective, another was afterwards published by Sextos JElins, who made a large addition of many new forms, which passed under the title of jus JElianum, from the name of the compiler.
In process of time there also arose another species of law, called the
lus Gell. lib. xx. cap. 1. Grav. lib. vii. cap. 72.
And Tertullian writes as follows. "Sed "et, juJicitos in partes secan a creduori"bus,legeserunt; consensu tamen publico *' erudchlas postea erasa est." Apologit. cap. 4.
Solemn forms.] "Civile jus, repositnm "in peneiralibus pomificum, Cn. Flavius "evulgavit, fistosque circa forum in aibo "proposuit, ut, quando lege agi posset, "seiretur." Liv. lib. ix. cap. 46. "Vete"res qui huic seientiae praefuerunt, obtinen"dae atque augendae potentiae suae causa, "pervulgari artem suam noluerunt, &c." Cic. de Oral. lib. 1. c. 46. "Jus civilo "per multa saecula inter sacra caeremonias"que Deorum immortalium solisque ponti"ficibus notum." Val. Max. 1. ii. c. 5.
The Flarian Law ] "Postea, cum Ap"pins Claudius proposuisset, et ad foimam "rede gisset has actiones, Cnaeus Flavius "scriba ejus, libenini filius, subreptum li•' brum populo tractidil; et aduo gratuni fuit "id munus populo, ut Tribunus plebisfieret, "Senator, et iEdilis curulis, &e." ff. 1. t. 2. D", orig. juris. Lie. lib. ix. sub. frn. Val. Max. lib. ii. cap. 5. Aid. Gell. lib. vi. c. 9.
Tully, in his oration for Muraena, is remarkably severe upon these forms.and treats both thetn and their abettors with that just contempt, which they most ceriainly deserve. " Primum dignitas in tam tenui scien"tia qrne potest esse? res enim sunt parvae; "prope in singulis Uteris atque interpunc"tionibus uceupata;, &c, &c. &c." Pro Murama, cap. G. Epist. ad Alt. lib. vi. ep. 1. Do oratore, lib. cap- 41.
prcetorian edicts; which, although they ordinarily expired with the annual office of the praetor, who enacted them, and extended no further than his jurisdiction, were yet of great force and authority: and many of them were so truly valuable for their justice and equity, that they have been perpetuated as laws.
These were the several principal parts of the Roman law, during the free state of the commonwealth; But, after the re-establishment of monarchy in the person of Augustus; the law received two additional parts; the imperial constitutions and the answers of the lawyers.
The constitutions soon became numerous, but were not framed into a body, till the reign of Comtantine the great; when Gregorius and Hermogenes, both lawyers of eminence, collected in two codes the constitutions of the pagan emperors, from the reign of Adrian to that of Dioclesian inclusive: but these collections were not made by virtue of any public authority, and are not now extant.
Another code was afterwards published by order of the emperor Theodosius the younger, which contained the constitutions of all the christian emperors, down to his own time; and this was generally received both in the eastern and western empires.
But these three codes were still far from being perfect; for the constitutions, contained in them, were often found to be contradictory; and they wanted, but too plainly, that regulation, which they afterwards underwent through the care of Justinian; who in the year of Christ 528 ordered the compilation of a new code, which was performed and published the year following by Tribonian and others; the three former codes being suppressed by the express ordinance of the emperor. When this work was thus expeditiously finished, the emperor next extended his care to the Roman law in general, in order to render it both concise
But. notwithstanding this, the use of particular forms was very strictly adhered to, till the reign of Conslantine the emperor, who, to his great honour, put an end to these subtilities- His rescript to Marcellinus is in these words. "Juris formulae, "aucupauone syllabarum insidiantes, cunc"torum actibus radicitus amputentur." Cod. 2. t. 58.
Gregorius and Homo genes.] Vid Gothofredi prolegom. ad cod. Thcodosian, cap. 1. et Heineccii hist. jur. civ. lib. 1. cap. 5. sec. 368, &c.
By the express ordinance.] "Hunc igi"tur codicem in eetemum valiturum judicio "tui culmiuis intirnare perspeximus, ut sci"ant omnes tam litigatores quam disertissi"mi advocati, nullatenus eis licere de cee"teio constitutiones ex veteribus tribus co"dicibus, vel ex iis, que novellae constitu"tiones ad praesens tenipus vocabanlur, in "cognilionalihus recitare certaminihus, sod "solum, eidem nostra codici insertis, con"stitutionibus necesse est uti; falsi crimini "subdendis his, qui contra hoc facere ausi "fuerint," &c. De Justinianeo codice confirtnando.
and perfect. The answers and other writings of the ancient lawyers had long since acquired the full force of a law, and were now so numerous as to consist of near two thousand volumes; from which, by command of Justinian, the best and most equitable opinions were chosen; and being first corrected, where correction was necessary, were afterwards divided into fifty books, called digests ox pandects: and, that they might be the more firmly established, the emperor not only prohibited the use of all other law-books, but also forbad, that any comment should be written upon these his new digested laws, or that any transcript should be made of them with abbreviations. But, durmg the time of compiling the digests. it was thought expedient by Justinian, for the benefit of students, that an abridgment should be made of the whole Roman law; which work was soon performed in obedience to his order, and confirmed with the digests, under the title of institutions.
Near two thousand volumes.] "Postea "vera, maximum opus aggredientes, ipsa "vetuslalis studiusissima opera, jam pene "confusa et dissoluia, eidem viro excelso "(Triboniano) permisimus tam colligere "quam certo modcramine tradere. Sed, "cum omnia percontabamur. a praefato viro "excelso suggestum, duo pene millia libto"rum esse consciipta, quse necesse esset "omnia et legere et perscrulari ; quod coe"lesti fulgore, et sununae trinitaiia favore, "confectum est, secundum nostra mandata, "quae ab initio ad memoratum virum excel"sum fecimus, et in quinquaginta libros "omne, quod utilissimum erat, collectum "est; et omnes ambiguitates decisae, nullo '• sedilioso relicto; numenque libris impo"suimus digtstorvm sen pandrctarum." Cod. 1.1. 17. 1. 2. De vet jur. enucl.
Prohibited the use of all other law-books.] "Has itaque leges et adorate et observate, "omnibus antiquioribus quiescentibus, ne"raoque vestrum audeat vel comparare eas "prioribus, vel, si quid dissonans in utro'* que est, requirere; quia omne, quod hie. "positum est, hoc unicurn et solum obser"vari censemus; nec in judicio nec in alio "certamine, ubi leges necessariae sunt, ex "aliis libris, nisi ab institutionibus, nostris"que digestis, et constitutionilms a nobis "compositis, aliquid vel recitare vel osten
"dere conetur; nisi temcrator velit falsita"tis crimini suhjectus una cum judice, qui "eorum audieotiam patiatur, poenis gravis"simis laborare.'' Cod. 1. t. 17. 1. 9 $ 19.
"Hoc autetu tempestivum nobis videtur "et in praesenti sancire, ut nemo neque "eorum, qui in praesenti juris peritiam ha"bent, neque, qui postea fierent, audeat "commentaries his legibus adneclere; nisi "velit eas in Graecam vocem transformare "sub eodem ordine eadenique consequen"tia, sub qua et voce Romana posita e sunt; •* hoc quod Graeci x«r« rrodo dicunt," &c. Cod 1. t. 17. 1. 2. $31.
With abbreviations ] "Eandem autem "poenam falsitatis constituimus et adversus "eos, qui in posterum leges nostras, per "siglorum obtcuntates, ausi fuerinl con"scribere; omnia enim, id est, et nomina '' prudenturn, et tilulos, et librorutn nume"ros, per consequentias literarutn volumus, "non per sigh, manifestari." Cod. l.t. 17. 1. 2. $22.
Confirmed with the Digests.] "Leges "autem nostras, qnae in his codicibus, id "est, institutionem seu elementorum et di"gestorum, posuimus, suum obtiaere robur "ex tertio nostra felicissimo sancimus con"sulatu praesentis duodecimae indictionis, "tertio calendas januarias, in omne aevum "valituras, &c." Cod. 1. t. 17.1. 2.$ 23.
The emperor afterwards, upon mature deliberation, suppressed the first edition of his code, and published a second, which he intitled Codex repctitac prcelectionis, having omitted several useless laws, and inserted others, which were judged serviceable to the state.
The Justinian-law now consisted of three parts. the institutions. the digests, and the second code. But the emperor, after the publication of the second code, continued from time to time to enact diverse new constitutions or novels, and also several edicts; all which were collected after his decease, and became a fourth part of the law.
The 13 edicts of Justinian and most of the novels were originally conceived in the Greek tongue; and so great was the decline of the Roman language at Constantinople within forty years after the death of this emperor, that his laws in general were not otherways intelligible to the major part of the people, than by the assistance of a Greek version: but, notwithstanding this disadvantage, they still subsisted intire, till the publication of the Basilica, by which the east was governed, till the dissolution of the empire.
Suppressed the first eduion of his code.] "Nemini in posterum concedimus, vol ex "decisionibus nostris, vel ex aliis constitu"tionibus, quas aritea fecimus, vel ex pri"ma Juslinianei codicis editione, aliquid "recitare; sed.quod in praesenu purga.oet "renovato codice uosiroscripluminvenitur, "hoc lantummodo in omnibus rebus et ju"diciis et oblineat et recitetur : cujus scrip"turam, ad sitnilitudinem nostrarum insti"tatioDum et digestorum, sine uila signo"rum dubieiale consciibi jussimus." De emendutione cod. § 5.
Basilica.] "Versionibus juris Juslinianei "Graecis, et novellis eadem lingua scriptis, "in (oris tcholisque uubantur, donee, de "eo in compendium mittendo, Esccuio nono "cogitare inciperent imperatons Ryzauti"ni Ex his primum Basilius Hacedo anno "838 ediderat npo^f/poy Ioiv rouoi,\ quod "constabat tilulis quadraginta. Deinde "Leo aotfOi, patri Basilio succedens, col"lectionem illam paternam perfecit, eam"que sub titulo dtuiaSeujv p?a0ijUxaii> pro "mulgavit, anno Chrisli 886. Denique sub"secutus Lconem Constantinus, cogno
"menlo Poipbyrogeneta, pateruum opus "sub incudem revocavit, et libros illos "Bumlixo», publicavit sub initium saicu"li decimi. Et hi quidem sunt libri illi "Buatlixuif, ex Graeca institutionum, pan"dectarum, codicis versione, Jusliniani no"vellis et edictis tredecim, nec non ex ju"lis consultorum quorundam orientalium "paralitlis, aliisque libris, quin et pairibus "et conciliis collccti; ita tamen ut mul'a "omissa videamus, qnoe fortassis tum ab usu "recesserant, multas eliam leges in eom"pendium contractas, mulla denique ex •' posleriorum principum legibus et coasti"tationibus addita animadvertamus. Opus "istud in suxjginla libros divisum. praittr "pauca, quai nondum integra reperiri po"tuerum, cum glossis graece et laiine edi'• tam est a Car. Annib Fabrouo, Paris. "1647. fol. vol. vii." vid. H.ineccii hist. jur. civ. I. 1. $ 403.
The dissolution of the empire.] Constan"tinople was taken by the Turks, and a pe"riod was put to tho eastern empire in the "year of Christ, 14i3.
The laws published by Justinian were still successful in the west; where, even in the life-time of the emperor, they were not received universally; and, after the Lombard invasion, they became so totally negglected, that both the code and the pandects were lost, till the 12th century: when it is said that the pandects were accidentally recovered at Amalphi, and the code at Ravenna. But as if fortune would make an atonement for her former severity, they have since been the study of the wisest men, and revered, as law, by the politest nations.
After the Lombard invasion.] The Lombaids entered Italy under Alboinus about the year of Christ 568, in the reign of Justin the second, successor to Justinian.
A\ Amalphi.] " Eo tempore (AnnoDom. "1130) injustis peiturbatisque comiliis, la"cerarat ecclesiam falsus pontiles Pelrus "Leon is, Anaektus secundus nuncupatus "ab sua factione; cujus dux erat Rogtrius "Apulia ac Siciliae comes, Regis nomine "a falso pontifice donatus. Adversus Ana"cletum creatus rite ac solenniter fuerat/n"nocentius secundus, cuifavebat imperulor "Lotharius Saxo, summavirtuteatque pru"dentia princeps; quo bellum gerente ad"versus Rogerium, Amalphi, urbe Salerno "proxima, (quam perperam aliqui locant "in Apulia, Melphiam cum Amalphi con"fundentes,) inopinato reperli fuerunt di"gestorum libri; quos Pisani, qui classe, "Lotharium contra Rogerium adjuverant, "praimio bene navatae operai sibi exorarunt. "Pisis veto post longam obsidioneni a Ca"ponio militiai duce strenuo expugnatis,
"translati fuere Florentiam; ubi, pro Au"gusta Mediceae domus magnificentia, in "museo magni ducis conservantur. Ilinc "promiscua Pisanarum et Florentinarum "apud scriptores pandectarum appcllatio. "Iisdem temporibus repertum Ravennae fuit "constitutionum imperialium volumen, "quod codex appellatus; indeque caHeros li"bros juris, imo et digestorum aliudexem"plar in lucem aliqui rediisse putant: nec "mirum, cum ea urbslongo tempore Roraa"nis legibus vixerit,etorientaliKomanorum "imperio diu obtemperavit. Noveliae vero "coustitutiones etiam antea per Italiam va"gabantur; utque mea fert opinio, multi "juris civilis libri, postquam incessit homi"nes cupido rccipiendi Romani juris, agni"ti potius fuere, quam reperti: nam, et ali"quot ante Lotharium annis, jus civile Jus"tiniani commemoravit Ivo Carnotensis, et "libros pandectarum; cum antea, si occur"rerent, forsan soeordia et oblivione prae"termitlerentur." vid. Gravmg orig. jur. civ. lib. 1. cap. 140. et Htin. hist. jur. civ. lib. 1. $412.