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D. vii. T. 1. C. iii. T. 33.

Definitio ususfructus.

USUSFRUCTUS est jus alienis rebus utendi, fruendi, salva rerum substantia. Est autem jus in corpore, quo sublato, et ipsum tolli necesse est.

Usufruct, is the right of using, and enjoying, without consuming or destroying, things which are the property of another. It is a right over a corporeal substance; if the substance perish, the usufruct must cease.

Quibus modis constituitur.

$ I. Ususfructus a proprietate separationem recipit, idque pluribus modis accidit: ut ecce, si quis usumfructum alicui legaverit: nam haeres nudam habet proprietatem, legatarius vero usumfructum. Et contra, si fundum legaverit deducto usufructu, legatarius nudam habet proprietatem, haeres verd usumfructum. Item alii usumfructum, alii, deducto eo, fundum legare potest. Sine testamento verd si quis velit usumfructum alii constituere, pactionibus et stipulationibus id efficere debet. Ne tamen in universum inutiles essent proprietates, semper abscedente usufructu, placuit certis modis extingui usumfructum, et ad proprietatem reverti.

$ 1. The usufruct may be in various ways separated from the property, as when it is bequeathed: for naked property only is then vested in the heir, while the legatee possesses the usufruct; it happens on the contrary, when a testator hath bequeathed his lands without the usufruct; for then the legatee hath only the bare property, while the heir enjoys the profits: for the usufruct may be bequeathed to one, and the lands, without the usufruct, to another. Yet, if any man would constitute an usufruct otherwise than by testament, he must do it by pact, and stipulation. But, lest the property of lands should be rendered wholly unbeneficial by deducting the usufruct for ever, it was thought convenient, that the usufruct should by certain means become extinguished, and revert to the property.

Quibus in rebus constituitur.

$ II. Constituitur autem ususfructus non tantilm in fundo et aedibus, verum etiam in servis, et jumentis, et caeteris rebus; exceptis iis, quae ipso usu consumuntur: nam hae res neque naturali rations neque civili, recipiunt usumfructum: quo in numero sunt, vinum, oleum, frumentum, vestimenta: quibus proxima est, pecunia numerata: namque ipso usu, assidua permutatione, quodammodo extinguitur. Sed utilitatis causa Senatus censuit, posse etiam earum rerum usumfructum constitui, ut tamen eo nomine haeredi utiliter caveatur: itaque, si pecuniae ususfructus legatus sit, ita datur legatario, ut ejus fiat; et legatarius satisdet haeredi de tanta pecunia restituenda si morietur, aut capite minuetur. Caeterae quoque res ita traduntur legatario, ut ejus fiant: sed aestimatis his satisdatur, ut, si moriatur aut capite minuatur, tanta pecunia restituatur, quanti hae fuerint aestimatae. Ergo Senatus non fecit quidem earum rerum usumfructum, (nec enim poterat,) sed per cautionem quasi usumfiructum constituit .

$ 2. The usufruct not only of lands and houses is grantable, but also of slaves, cattle, and other things; except those which are consumed by use; for the usufruct of such things is neither grantable by civil policy, or natural reason; among these may be reckoned wine, oil, cloaths, money is nearly of the same nature; for by constant use, and the frequent change of owners, it in a manner becomes extinct. But the senate, through a motive of public utility, hath ordained, that the usufruct of these things may be constituted, if sufficient security be given to the heir: and therefore, if the usufruct of money is bequeathed, the money is so given to the legatee as to make it instantly his own: but then the legatee, lest he should die, or suffer diminution, is obliged to give security to the heir for the repayment of a like sum. Other things also, are so delivered to the legatee as to become his property; but in this case, after valuation, security must be given to the heir for the payment of that amount, either at the death of the legatee, or if he should suffer diminution. It is not therefore to be understood, that the senate hath created strict usufruct of these things, which is impossible: but a quasi-usufruct by means of a security.

Quibus modis finitur.

$ III. Finitur autem ususfructus morte ususfructuarii, et duabus

$ 3. The usufruct determines by the death of the usufructuary; and capitis diminutionibus, maxima et media, and non utendo per modum et tempus; quae omnia nostra statuit constitutio. Item finitur ususfructus, si domino proprietatis ab usufructario cedatur, (nam cedendo extraneo nihil agitur,) vel ex contrario, si usufructarius proprietatem rei acquisiverit: quae res consolidatio appellatur. Eo amplius constat, si aedes incendio comsumpt83 fuerint, vel etiam terrae motu, vel vitio suo corruerint, extingui usumfructum; et ne aresBquidem usumfructum deberi.

by two of the three namely, the greatest and the middle diminution, (or change of state; and also by not being used, according to the manner and during the time prescribed: all which is set forth in our constitution. The usufruct also determines if the usufructuary surrender it to the lord of the property; for a cession to a stranger is of no avail: or if the usufructuary hath acquired the property, which is called consolidation. And it is certain, if a house hath been consumed by fire, or thrown down by an earthquake, or fallen through decay, that the usufruct of such house is wholly destroyed; and that no usufruct of the area, or ground of it, enures to the usufructuary.

Si finitus sit.

$ IV. Cum autem finitus fuerit totus ususfructus, revertitur scilicet ad proprietatem; et, ex eo tempore, nudae proprietatis dominus incipit plenam in re habere potestatem.

$ 4. When the whole usufruct of a thing is determined, it then reverts to the property; and from that time, the owner of the nude property begins to have full power over it.


D. vii. T. 8. C. iii. T. 33.

Communia de usufructu et usu.

ISDEM iilis modis, quibus ususfructus constituitur, etiam nudus usus constitui solet: iisdem illis modis finitur, quibus et ususfructus desinit.

The usufruct, and the naked use of a thing, are constituted, and determined by the same means.

Quid intersit inter usumfructum et usum fundi.

$. 1. Minus autem juris est in usu, quam in usufructu: nam is, qui fundi nudum habet usum, nihil ulterius habere intelligitur, quam ut oleribus, pomis, floribus, foeno, stramentis, et lignis, ad usum quotidianum utatur: inque eo fundo hactenus ei morari licet, ut neque domino fundi molestus sit, neque iis, per quos opera rustica fiunt, impedimento: nec ulli alii jus, quod habet, aut locare, aut vendere, aut gratis concedere, potest; cum is, qui usumfrnctum habet, possit haec omnia facere.

$ 1. Less right appertains to the use of a thing, than the usufruct; for he, who has but the use of lands, is understood to have nothing more than the liberty of using so much of the herbs, fruit, flowers, hay, straw, and wood, as may be sufficient for his daily supply : and he is permitted to be commorant upon the land, on condition that he neither becomes troublesome to the owner, nor impedes the labours of the husbandmen. Neither can he let, sell, or give his right to another, which an usufructuary may.

iEdium usus.

$ II. Item is, qui sodium usum habet, hactenus jus habere intelligitur, ut ipse tantum inhabitet; nec hoc jus ad aliun transferre potest: et vix receptum esse videtur, ut hospitem ei recipere liceat; sed cum uxore liberisque suis, item libertis, nec non personis aliis liberis, quibus non minus, quam servis utitur, habitandi jus babeat. Et conveni

§ 2. He, who hath but the use of an house, is understood to ha^e no other right than that of personal habitation : for he cannot transfer this right; and it is hardly thought allowable to receive a guest or a lodger. But he may inhabit the house with his, wife, children, freed-men, and such other free persons as are servants. And agreably to this, if the

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Transit io.

$ VI. Haec de servitutibus, et $ 6. What hath been said, may

usufructu, et usu, et habitatione, suffice concerning real services, usu

dixisse sufficiat. De haereditatibus fructs, uses and habitations. We

autem et suis locis shall treat of inheritances and obli

proponemus. Exposuimus summa- gations, in their proper places. Hav

tim, quibus modis jure gentium res ing already briefly explained how

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