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humanis necessitatibus, gentes hu- and necessity required: for wars amanæ jura qu dam sibi constitue- rose and the consequences were caprunt: bella etenim orta sunt, et cap- tivity and servitude; both which are tivitates secutæ, et servitutes, quæ contrary to the law of nature; for sunt naturali juri contrariæ: jure by that law, all men are born free. enim naturali omnes homines abini- But almost all contracts were at tio liberi nascebantur: et ex hoc first introduced by the law of najure gentium, omnes penècontractus tions; as for instance, buying, sellintroducti sunt, ut emptio et vendi- ing, letting, hireing, partnership, a tio, locatio et conductio, socictas, deposit, a loan and others without depositum, mutuum, et alii innu- number. merabiles.

Divisio juris in scriptum et non scriptum ; et subdivisio

juris scripti.

$ III. Constat autem jus nos- $ 3. The Roman law is divided, trum, quo utimur, aut scripto, aut like the Grecian, into written and sine scripto: ut apud Græcos. twv unwritten. The written, consists of vouo ou pev syspagoi, ou da aypagou the plebiscites, the decrees of the seScriptum autem jus, est, lex, plebis- nate, ordinances of princes, the ecitum, senatus-consultum, princi- dicts of magistrates, and the answers pum placita, magistratuum edicta, of the sages of the law. responsa prudentum.

De lege et plebiscito. $ IV. Lex est, quod populus Ro- $ 4. A law is what the Roman manus, senatorio magistratu inter- people enact at the request of a senarogante, (veluti consule,) constitue- torial magistrate; as a consul. A bat. Plebiscitum est, quod plebs, plebiscite is what the commonalty plebeio magistratu interrogante (ve- enact, when requested by a plebeian luti tribuno,) constituebat. Plebs magistrate, as a tribune. The word autem a populo eo differt, quo spe- commonalty differs from people as a cies a genere; nam appellatione po- species from its genus; for all the puli universi cives significantur, citizens, including patricians and se- ' connumeratis etiam patriciis et se- nators, are comprehended under the natoribus. Plebis autem, appella- term people. The term commonalty, tione, sine patriciis et senatoribus, includes all the citizens, except patricæteri cives significantur. Sed et cians and senators. The plebiscites, plebiscita, lege Hortensia lata, non by the Hortensian law, began to have minus valere, quam leges, ceperunt the same force as the laws them

selves.

De senatus-consulto. ♡ V. Senatus-consultum est, quod $ 5. A senatorial decree is what senatus jubet atque constituit: nam, the senate commands and appoints: cum auctus esset populus Romanus for, when the people of Rome bein eum modum, ut difficile esset, in came so increased that it was diffiunum eum convocari legis sancien- cult to assemble them for the enactdæ causâ, æquum visum est, sena- ing of laws, it seemed right, that the tum vice populi consuli.

senate should be consulted instead of the people.

De constitutione. SVI. Sed et, quod principi pla- $ 6. The ordinance of the prince cuit, legis habet vigorem : cum lege hath also the force of a law; for the regia, quæ de ejus imperio lata est, people by the lex regia, make a conpopulus ei, et in eum, omne impe- cession to him of their whole power. rium suum et potestatem concedat. Therefore whatever the emperor orQuodcunque ergo imperator per dains by rescript, decree, or edict, is epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens law. Such acts are called constitudecrevit, vel edicto præcepit, legem tions. Of these, some are personal, esse constat. Hæc sunt, quæ consti- and are not to be drawn into precetutiones appellantur. Planè ex his dent; for, if the prince hath indulgquædam sunt personales, quæ nec ed any man on account of his merit, ad exemplum trahuntur, quoniam or inflicted any extraordinary punnon hoc princeps vult: nam quod ishment on a criminal, or granted alicui ob meritum indulsit, vel si some unprecedented assistance, quam pænam irrogavit, vel si cui these acts extend not beyond the sine exemplo subvenit, personam individual. But other constitutions non transgreditur. Aliæ autem, being general, undoubtedly bind cum generales sint, omnes procul- all. dubio tenent.

De jure honorario. O VII. Prætorum quoque edic 8 7. The edicts of the prætors ta non modicam obtinent juris are also of great authority. These auctoritatem. Hoc etiam jus ho- edicts are called the honorary law, norarium solemus appellare: quod, because the magistrates who bear qui honores gerunt, (id est magis- honors in the state, have given them tratus,) auctoritatem huic juri de- their sanction. The curule ædiles derunt. Proponebant et ædiles also, upon certain occasions, pubcurules edictum de quibusdam cau- lished their edicts, which became a sis; quod et ipsum juris honorarii part of the jus honorarium. portio est.

De responsis prudentum. ♡ VIII. Responsa prudentum $8. The answers of the lawyers sunt sententiæ et opiniones eorum, are the opinions of persons arthorquibus permissum erat de jure res- ised to give answers on matters of pondere: nam antiquitùs constitu- law. For antiently, public Intertum erat, ut essent, qui jura publicè preters of the law were licenced by interpretarentur, quibus a Cæsare the emperors and were called jurisjus respondendi datum est, qui ju- consulti; and their opinions obris-consulti appellabantur: quorum tained so great an authority, that it omnium sententiæ et opiniones eam was not in the power of a judge to auctoritatem tenebant, ut judici re- recede from them. cedere a responsis eorum non liceret, ut est constitutum.

De jure non scripto. S IX. Sine scripto jus venit, $ 9. The unwritten law is that, quod usus approbavit; nam diutur- which usage has approved : for daini mores, consensu utentium com- ly customs, established by the conprobati, legem imitantur.

sent of those who use them, put on the character of law.

Ratio superioris divisionis. $ X. Et non ineleganter in duas $ 10. Nor is it an inelegant divispecies jus civile distributum esse sion of the law, into written and videtur; nam origo ejus ab institu- unwritten : which seems to have tis duarum civitatum, Athenarum taken rise from the peculiar customs scilicet et Lacedæmoniorum, flux- of the Athenians and Lacedemonisse videtur. In his enim civi- ians. For the Lacodemonians trusttatibus, ita agi solitum erat, ut ed chiefly to memory, for the presLacedæmonii quidem ea, quæ pro ervation of their laws; but the legibus observabant,m emoriæ man- laws of the Athenians were comdarent: Athenienses verò ea, quæ mitted to writing. in legibus scripta comprehendissent, custodirent.

Divisio juris in immutabile et mutabile. ♡ XI. Sed naturalia quidem jura, $11. The laws of nature, observed quæ apud omnes gentes peræque by all nations, inasmuch as they are observantur, divinâ quadam provi- the appointment of divine providentiâ constituta, semper firma at- dence, remain fixed and immutable. que immutabilia permanent. Ea But the laws, which every city has vero, quæ ipsa sibi quæque civitas enacted for itself, suffer frequent constituit, sæpe mutari solent, vel changes, either by tacit consent of tacito consensu populi, vel aliâ pos- the people, or by some subsequent tea lege latâ.

law.

De objectis juris. S XII. Omne autem jus, quo $ 12. All laws, relate to persons, utimur, vel ad personas pertinet, things, or actions. First then of pervel ad res, vel ad actiones. Et sons; for it would be of little purprius de personis videamus: nam pose to study the law, while ignorparùm est jus nosse, si personæ, ant of persons, for whose sake the quarum causâ constitutum est, ig- law was constituted. norentur.

TITULUS TERTIUS.
DE JURE PERSONARUM.

, D. 1. T. 5.

Prima divisio personarum. SUMMA itaque divisio de jure The first general division of perpersonarum hæc est : quod omnes sons, in respect to their rights, is homines aut liberi sunt, aut servi. into freemen and slaves.

Definitio libertatis.

I. Et libertas quidem (ex quâ § 1. Freedom, from which we etiam liberi vocantur) est naturalis are denominated free, is the natufacultas ejus, quod cuique facere li- ral power of acting as we please, bet, nisi quid vi aut jure prohibe- unless prevented by force, or by the tur.

law.

Definitio servitutis

$ II. Servitus autem est consti- § 2. Slavery, is when one man is tutio juris gentium, quâ quis do- subjected to the dominion of anothminio alieno contra naturam sub- er, according to the law of nations, jicitur.

though contrary to natural right.

Servi et mancipii etymologia. III. Servi autem ex eo appel- $3. Slaves are denominated servi, lati sunt, quod imperatores capti- from the practice of our generals vos vendere, ac per hoc servare, to sell their captives, and thus prenec occidere solent; qui etiam serve, (servare) and not slay them. mancipia dicti sunt; eo, quod ab Slaves are also called mancipia in hostibus manu capiantur.

that they are taken from the enemy by hand (manucapti.)

Quibus modis servi constituuntur.

$ IV. Servi autem aut nascun- § 4. Slaves are born such, or betur, aut fiunt. Nascuntur ex ancil- come so. They are born such of lis nostris : fiunt aut jure gentium, bond-women: they become so either id est, ex captivitate ; aut jure ci- by the law of nations, that is, by vili, cum liber homo, major viginti captivity; or by the civil law; as annis, ad pretium participandum when a free person, above the age of sese venundari passus est.

twenty, suffers himself to be sold, for the sake of sharing the price given for him.

De liberorum et servorum divisione. Ś V. In servorum conditione $ 5. In the condition of slaves nulla est differentia ; in liberis au- there is no diversity; but among tem multæ : aut enim sunt ingenui, free persons, there are many; thus, aut libertini.

some are ingenui, or Freemen; others libertini or Freed Men.

TITULUS QUARTUS.

DE INGENUIS.

C. vii. T. 14.

De ingenui definitione. INGENUUS est is, qui statim, A Freeman is one who is born ut natus est, liber est; sive ex free, by being born in matrimony, duobus ingenuis matrimonio editus of parents, who are both free, or est, sive ex libertinis duobus, sive both freed; or of parents, one free, ex altero libertino, et altero ingenuo. the other freed. But one born of a

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