Page images
PDF

INSTITUTIONUM,

SEU

ELEMENTORUM,

D. JUSTINIANI

LIBER PRIMUS.

TITULUS PRIMUS.
DE JUSTITIA ET JURE.
D. 1. T. 1.

Definitio Justitiae.

Justitu est constans et perpetua Justice is the constant and per

voluntas jus suiun cuique tribuen- petual disposition to render every

di. man his due.

Definitio jurisprudentiae.

$ I. Jurisprudentia est divina- $ 1. Jurisprudence is the knowrum atque humanarum rerum no- ledge of thmgs divine and human; titia, justi atque injusti scientia. the science of what is just and unjust .

De juris methodo.

§ II. His igitur generaliter cog- $ 2. these definitions being pre

nitis, et incipientibus nobis expo- mised, we shall commence our ex

nere jura populi Romani, ita vi- position of the Roman Law most

dentur posse tradi commodissime, conveniently, if we take first the

si primo levi ac simplici via, post plainest and easiest path, and then

deinde diligentissima atque ex- proceed to treat each particular with

actissima interpretatione, singula the ultmost exactness: for, if at the

tradantur; alioqui, si statim ab ini- beginning we overload the mind of

tio rudem adhuc et infirmum ani- the student with a multitude and

mum studiosi multitudine ac varie- variety of topics, we may cause

tate rerum oneravermus, duorum him either wholly to abandon his alterum,raut desertorem studiorum studies, or bring him late to that

efficiemus, ant cum magno labore, knowledge through great labour

saepe etiam cum difridentia, (quae and diffidence, which he might

plerumque juvenes avertit,) serius otherwise have acquired earlier

ad id perducemus, ad quod, leviore with ease and confidence.
via ductus, fine magno labore et
fine uM diffidentia, maturius pro-
duci potuisset.

Juris prsecepta.

$ III. Juris praecepta sunt: ho- $ 3. The precepts of the law are,

neste vivere, alterum non laedere, to live honestly, to hurt no one, to

suum cuique tribuere. give to every one his due.

De jure publico et private

$ IV. Hujus studii duae sunt positiones, publiciun et privatum. Publicum just est, quod ad statum rei Romanae spectat. Privatum est, quod ad singulorum ultilitatem pertinet. Dicendum est igitur de jure privato, quod tripertitum est: collectum enim est ex naturalibus praeceptis, aut gentum, aut civilibus.

$ 4. The law is divided into public and private. Public law, regards the state of the commonwealth: but private law, of which we shall here treat, concerns the interest of individuals; and is tripartite, being collected from natural precepts, from the law of nations, and from municipal Regulations.

TITULUS SECUNDUS.

DE JURE NATURALI, GENTIUM, ET CIVILI.
De jure naturali.

Just naturale est, quod natura omnia animalia docuit: nam jus istud non humani generis proprium est, sed omnium animalium, quae in coelo, quae in mari, nascuntur. Hinc descendit maris atque fcerninae conjunctio, quam nos matrimonium appellamus. Hinc liberorum procreatio, hinc educatio.

The law of nature is a law not only to man, but likewise to all other animals, whether produced on the earth, in the air, or in the waters. From hence proceeds that conjunction of male and female, which we denominate matrimony; hence the procreation and education of children. We perceive also, that other Videmus enim, caetera quoque ani- animals are considered as having malia istius juris peritia censeri. some knowledge of this law.

Distinctio juris gentium et civilis, a definitione et etymologia. De lege et plebiscite

$ I. Jus autem civile a jure gentium distinguitur, quod omnes populi, qui legibus et moribus reguntur, partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum, jure utuntur: nam quod quisque populus sibi jus constituit, id ipsius proprium civitatis est, vocaturque jus civile, quasi jus proprium ipsius civitatis. Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes gentes perseque custoditur, vocaturque jus gentium, quasi duo jure omnes gentes utantur: et populus itaqueRomanus, partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum, jure utitur. Quae singula qualia sint, suis locis proponemus.

§ 1. Civil law is distinguished from the law of nations, because every community governed by laws, uses partly its own and partly the laws which are common to all mankind. That law, which a people enacts for its own government is called the civil law of that people. But that law, which natural reason appoints for all mankind, is called the law of nations, because all nations make use of it. The people of Rome are governed partly by their own laws, and partly by the laws, which are common to all men. Of these we shall treat separately in their proper places.

Ab appellatio:

$ II. Sed jus quidem civile ex unaquaquecivitate appellator, veluti Atheniensium: nam, si quis velit Solonis vel Draconis leges appellare jus civile Atheniensium, non erraverit. Sic enim et jus, quo Romanus populus utitur, jus civile Romanorum appellamus, vel jus Quiritmn quo Quirites utuntu r: Romani enim aRomulo, Quirites a Quirino, appellantur. Sed, quoties non addimus nomen cujus sit civitatis, nostrum jus significamus: sicuti cumpoetam dicimus, nec addimus nomen, subauditus apud Graecos egregius Homerus, apud nos Virgilius. Jus autem gentium omni humano gencri commune est: nam, usu exigente et

e et effectibus.

$ 2. Civil laws take their denomination from that city, in which they are established: it would not therefore be erroneous to call the laws of Solon or Draco the civil laws of Athens: and thus the law, which the Roman people make use of, is styled the civil law of the Romans, or of the Quirites; for the Romans are also called Quirites from Quirinus. Whenever we mention the words civil law, without addition, we emphatically denote our own law; thus the Greeks, when they say the poet, mean Homer, and the Romans Virgil. The law of nations is common to all mankind and all nations have enacted some laws, as occasion humanis necessitatibus, gentes humanae jura qu dam sibi constituerunt: bella etenimorta sunt, etcaptivitates secuta3, et servitutes, quae sunt naturali juri contrariae: jure enim naturali omnes homines ab initio liberi nascebanttir: et ex hoc jure gentium, omnes pene contractus introducti sunt, ut emptio et venditio, locatio et conductio, socictas, depositum, mutuum, et alii innumerabiles.

and necessity required: for wars arose andtheconsequences were captivity and servitude; both which are contrary to the law of nature; for by that law, all men are born free. But almost all contracts were at first introduced by the law of nations; as for instance, buying, selling, letting, hireing, partnership, a deposit, a loan and others without number.

Divisio juris in scriptum et

juris

$ III. Constat autem jus nostrum, quo utimur, aut scripto, aut sine scripto: ut apud Graecos. i»t, vo[toiv 01 fuv cyZqcKfoi, ot 8e ayotttpot

Scriptum autem jus, est, lex, plebiscitiun, senatus-consultum, principum placita, magistratuum edicta, responsa prudentum.

non scriptum; et subdivisio scripti.

$ 3. The Roman law is divided, like the Grecian, into written and unwritten. The written, consists of the plebiscites, the decrees of the senate, ordinances of princes, the edicts of magistrates, and the answers of the sages of the law.

$ IV. Lex est, quod populus Romanus, senatorio magistratu interrogante, (veluti consule,) constituebat. Plebiscitum est, quod plebs, plebeio magistratu interrogante (veluti tribuno,) constituebat. Plebs autem a populo eo differt, quo species a genere; nam appellatione populi universi cives significantur, connumeratis etiam patriciis et senatoribus. Plebis autem, appellatione, sine patriciis et senatoribus, caeteri cives significantur. Sed et plebiscita, lege Hortensia lata, non minus valere, quam leges, coeperunt

$ 4. A law is what the Roman people enact at the request of a senatorial magistrate; as a consul. A plebiscite is what the commonalty enact, when requested by a plebeian magistrate, as a tribune. The word commonalty differs from people as a species from its genus; for all the citizens, includingpatricians and se- ■ nators, are comprehended under the term people. The term commonalty, includesall the citizens, exceptpatricians and senators. The plebiscites, by the Hortensian law, began to have the same force as the laws themselves.

De eenatus-consulto.

$ V. Senatus-consultum est, quod senatusjubetatqueconstituit: nam, cum auctus esset popuhis Roman us in eum modum, ut difficile esset, in unum eum convocari legis sanciendae causa, aequum visum est, tum vice populi consuli.

$ 5. A senatorial decree is what the senate commands and appoints: for, when the people of Rome became so increased that it was difficult to assemble them for tlie enacting of laws, it seemed right, that the senate should be consulted. instead of the people.

De constitutione.

$ VI . Sed et, quod principi placuit, legis habet vigorem: cum lege regia, quae de ejus imperio lata est, populus ei, et in eum, omne imperium suum et potestatem concedat. Quodcunque ergo imperator per epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens decrevit, vel edicto praecepit, legem esse constat. Haec sunt, quaj constitutiones appellantur. Plane ex his quaedam sunt personales, quae nec ad exemplum trahuntur, quoniam non hoc princeps vult: nam quod alicui ob meritum indulsit, vel si quam pcenam irrogavit, vel si cui sine exemplo subvenit, personam non transgreditur. Aliae autem, cum generates sint, omnes proculdubio tenent. \

$ 6\ The ordinance of the prince hath also the force of a law; for the

people by the lex regia, make a concession to him of their whole power. Therefore whatever the emperor ordains by rescript, decree, or edict, is law. Such acts are called constitutions. Of these, some are personal, and are not to be drawn into precedent; for, if the prince hath indulged any man on account of his merit, or inflicted any extraordinary punishment on a criminal, or granted some unprecedented assistance, these acts extend not beyond the individual. But other constitutions being general, undoubtedly bind all.

De jure honorario.

$ VII. Praetorum quoque edicta non modicam obtinent juris auctoritatem. Hoc etiam jus honorarium soiemus appellare: quod, qui honores gerunt, (id est magistratus,) auctoritatem huic juri dederunt. Proponebant et aediles curules edict um de quibusdam cau8is; quod et ipsum juris honorarii portio est.

$ 7. The edicts of the praetors are also of great authority. These edicts are called the honorary law, because the magistrates who bear honors in the state, have given them their sanction. The curule aediles also, upon certain occasions, published their edicts, which became a part of the jus korwrarinm.

« PreviousContinue »