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Servus autem alienus pure inutili- slave to be free, by testament apter testamento datur tutor: sed ita, points him, as such, to be a tutor, the cum. liber eril, utiliter datur. Pro- appointment wiil not avail. Also prius autem servus inutiliter eo the absolute appointment of another modo tutor datur. man's slave to be a tutor is altogether

ineffectual; but, if the appointment is upon condition that the person appointed obtains his freedom, then it is well made: but if a man by testament appoints his own slave to be a tutor, when he shall obtain his liberty, the appointment will be void.

De furioso et minore viginti-quinque annis.

$ II. Furiosus, vel minor viginti- $ 2. If a madman or minor (unquinque annis, tutor testamento da- der twenty-five) is by testament aptus, tutor tunc erit, cum compos pointed tutor, the one shall begin mentis, aut major viginti-quinque to act, when he becomes of sound annis, fuerit factus. mind, and the other, when he has

completed his twenty-fifth year.

Quibus modis tutores dantur.

$ III. Ad certum tempus, vel ex certo tempore, vel sub conditione, vel antehaeredisinstitutionem posse pari tutorem non dubitatur.

$ 3. It is not doubted, but that a testamentary tutor may be appointeither until a certain time, or from a certain time, or conditionally, or before the institution of an heir.

Cui dantur.

$ IV. Certae autem rei, vel causae, $ 4. A tutor cannot be assigned to tutor dari non potest: quia personae any particular thing, or upon any non causa, vel rei, tutor datur. certain account, but can only be

given to persons.

De tutore dato filiabus, vel filiis, vel liberis, vel nepotibus.

$ V. Si quis filiabus suis, vel fi- $ 5. If a man nominates a tutor

liis, tutores dederit, etiam posthu- for his sons or daughters, the nom

mae vel posthumo dedisse videtur: ination extends to his posthumous is

quia, filii vel filiae appellatione, et sue; because, under the appellation

posthumus etposthumacontinentur. of son or daughter, a posthumous

Quod si nepotes sint, an appella- child is comprehended. But, are

tione filiorum et ipsis tutores dati grand-children denoted by the word sint? Dicendum est, ut et ipsis quoque dati videantur, si modo liberos dixerit; caeterum, si filios, non continebuntur. Aliter enim filii, aliter nepotes appellantur. Plane, si posteris dederit, tam filii posthumi, quam cateri liberi, continebuntur.

sons 1 we answer, that under children, grand-children are included, but not under sons: for son and grand-son, differ in signification. But, if a testator assigns a tutor to his descendants, it is evident, that not only his posthumous sons are comprehended, but all his other children.

TITULUS DECIMUS-QUINTUS.

DE LEGITIMA AGNATORUM TUTELA.
D. xxxvi. T. 4 . C. v. T. 30.
Summa.

QUIBUS autem testamento tu- The Agnati by a law of the twelve' tor datus non est, his, ex lege duo- tables, are appointed tutors to those, decim tabularum, agnati sunt tu- to whom no testamentary tutor was tores, qui vocantur legitimi. given; and these tutors are called

legitimi, tutors by law.

Qui sunt agnati.

$ I. Sunt autem agnati cognati, per virils sexus cognationem conjuncti, quasi a patre cognati: veluti frater ex eodem patre natus, fratris filius, neposve ex eo: item patruus et pratrui filius, neposve ex eo. At, qui per fceminini sexus personas cognatione junguntur, agnati non sunt, sed alias naturali jure cognati, Itaque amitae tuae filius non est tibi agnatus, sed cognatus: et invicem tu illi eodem jure conjungeris: quia, qui ex ea nascuntur, patris, non matris, familiam sequuntur.

$ 1. Agnati are those, who are collaterally related to us .by males, as a brother by the same father, or the son of a brother, or by him a grand-son; also a father's brother, or the son of such brother, or by him a grand-son. But those, who are related to us by a female are not agnate, but cognate, bearing only a natural relation to us. Thus the son of a father's sister is related to you not by agnation, but cognation; and you are also related to him by cognation; for the children of a father's sister, follow the family of their father, and not that of their mother.

$ II. Quod autcm lex duodecim tabularum ab initestato voeat ad tutelam agnatos, non hanc habet significatienem, si omnino non fecerit testamontum is, qui poterat tu tores dare; sed si, quantum ad tutelam pertinet, intestatus decesserit: quod tunc quoque accidere intelligitur, cum is qui datus est tutor, vivo testatore decesserit.

Quis dicatur intestatus.

$ 2. The law of the twelve tables, in calling the agnall to tutelage in case of intestacy, relates not solely to persons altogether intestate, who might have appointed a tutor, but also to those, who are intestate only in respect of tutelage: and this may happen. if a tutor, nominated by testament, should die in the lifetime of the testator.

Quibus modis agnatio, vel cognatio, finitur.

$ III. Sed agnationis quidem jus omnibus modis capitis diminutione perumque perimitur: nam agnatio juris civilis nomen est: cognationis vero jus non omnibus modis commutatur: quia civilis ratio, civila quidem jura c«rrumpere potest, naturalia vero, non utique.

$ 3. The right of agnation is taken away by almost every diminution, or change of state: for agnation is but a name given by the civil law: but the right of cognation is not thus altered: lor although civil policy may extinguish civil rights yet over natural rights it has no such power.

TITULUS DECIMUS-SEXTUS.

DE CAPITIS DIMINUTIONE.
D. iv. T. 5.
Definitio et divisio.

EST autem capitis diminutio prions status mutatio; eaque tribus modis accidit: nam aut maxima est capitis diminutio, aut minor, (quam quidam mediam vocant,) aut minima.

Diminution is the change of a man's former condition: and this is threefold, the greater, the less, and the least.

De maxima capitis diminutione.

$ I. Maxima capitis diminutio $ 1. The greater diminution is, est, cum aliquis simul et civitatem when a man loses both the right of a et libertatem amittit; quod accidit citizen and his liberty; as they do, his, qui servi poense efficiuntur atro- wlio by the rigour of their sentence

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De sero manumisso.

IV. Servus autem manumis- $ 4. The manumission of a slave sus capite non minuitur; quia mil- produces no change of state in him, lum caput habuit. because he had no state, or civil ca

pacity.

De mutatione dignitatis.

$ V. Quibus autem dignitas § 5. Those, whose dignity is ra

magis quam status permutatur, ca- ther changed than their state, do not

pite non minuuntur; et ided a sc- suffer diminution; hence it is not

natu motos capite non minui, con- diminution to be removed from the

stat. senatorial dignity.

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TITULUS DECIMUS-SEPTIMUS.

DE LEGITIMA PATRONORUM TUTELA.
D. xxvi. T. 4. C. v. T. 30.
Ratio ob quam patronorum tutela dicitur legitima.

EX eadem lege duodecim tabularum, libertorum et libertarum tutela ad patronos liberosque eorum pertinet, qua et ipsa legitima tutela vocatur; non quia nominatim in ea lege de hac tutelS caveatur; sed quia perinde accepta est per interpretationem, ac si verbis legis in

By the same law of the twelve tables, the tutelage of freed-men and freed-women, belongs to their patrons, and to the children of such patrons; and this is tutelage by operation of law, although it exists not nominally in the law; but it isas firmly established by interpretation, as if it

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