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De captivitate et postliminio.

$ V. Si ab hostibus captus fuerit parens, quamvis servus hostium fiat, tamen pendet jus liberorum, propter jus postliminii: quia hi, qui ab hostibus capti sunt, si reversi fuerint, omnia pristina jura recipiunt: idcirco reversus etiam liberos habebit in*potestate : quia postliminium fingit eiun, qui captus est, in civitate semper fuisse. Si vero ibi decesserit, exinde, ex quo captus est pater, filius sui juris fuisse'videtur. Ipse quoque filius, neposve, si ab hostibus captus fuerit, similiter dicimus, propter jus postliminii, jus quoque potestatis parentis in suspenso esse. Dictum autem est postliminium a limine et post. Unde eum, qui ab hostibus captus . est, et in fines nostros postea pervenit, postliminio reversum recte dicimus. Nam hmina sicut in domo finem quendam faciunt, sic et imperii finem esse limen veteres voluerunt. Hinc et limen dictum est, quasi finis quidam et terminus. Ab eo postliminium dictum est, quia ad idem limen revertebatur, quod amiserat. Sed et, qui captus victis hostibus recuperatur, postliminio rediisse existimatur.

$ 5. If a parent is taken prisoner, although he become a slave, he loses not his paternal power, which remains in suspense by reason of a privilege granted to all prisoners, namely, the right of return: for captives, when they obtain their liberty, are repossessed of all their former rights, in which paternal power is of course included; and, at their return, they are supposed, by a fiction of law, never to have been absent. If a prisoner dies captive, the son's independence is reckoned from the commencement of his father's captivity. Also, if a son, or grand-son, becomes a prisoner. the power of the parent is said, for the reason before assigned, to be only in suspense. The term postliminium is derived from post and limen. We therefore aptly use the expression reversus postliminio, when a person, who was a captive, returns within our own confines.

De emancipatione item de modis et effectibus ejusdem.

$ VI. Praeterea, emancipatione quoque desinunt liberi in potestate parentum esse. Sed emancipatio antea quidem vel per antiquam legis observationem procedebat, quaa per imaginarias venditiones et intercedentes manumissiones celebraba

$ 6. Children also cease to be under the power of their parents by emancipation. Emancipation was effected according to our ancient law, either by imaginary sales and intervening manumissions, or by imperial rescript; but it has been our care tur, vel ex imperiali rescripto. Nostra autem providentia etiam hoc in melius per constitutionem reformavit; ut, fictione pristina explosa, recta via ad competentes judices, vel magistratus, parentes intrent, et filios suos vel filias, vel nepotes vel neptes, ac deinceps, a sua manu dimittant. Et tunc, ex edicto praetoris, in bonis ejusmodi filii vel filiae, vel nepotis vel neptis qui quaeve a parente manumissus vel manumissa merit, eadem jura praestantur parenti, quae tribuuntur patrono in bonis liberti. Et praeterea, si impubes sit filius, vel filia, vel caeteri, ipse parens ex manumission e tutelam ejus nansciscitur.

Si alii emacipente alii

$ VII. Admonendi autem sumus, liberum arbitrium esse ei, qui filium, et ex eo nepotem, vel neptem, in potestate habet, filium quidem de potestate dimittere, nepotem vero vel neptem retinere: et, e converso, filium quidem in potestate retinere, nepotem verd vel neptem manumittere: vel omnes sui juris efficere. Eadem et de pronepote et pronepte dicta esse intelliguntur.

to reform these ceremonies by an express constitution, so that parents may now have immediate recourse to the proper judge or magistrate, and emancipate their children, grand-children, &c. of both sexes. And also, by a praetorian edict, the parent is allowed to have the same right in the goods of those, whom he emancipates, as a patron has in the goods of his freed-man. And farther, if the children emancipated are within the age of puberty, the parent, by whom they were emancipated, obtains the right of wardship or tutelage, by the emancipation.

retineantur in potestatu.

$ 7. A parent having a son under his power, and by that son a grand-son or grand-daughter, may emancipate his son, and retain his grand-son or grand-daughter in subjection. He may also emancipate his grand-son or grand-daughter, and retain his son; or, he may make them all independent. And the same may be said of a greatgrand-son, or a great-grand-daughter.

De adoptione

$ VIII. Sed et, si pater filium, quem in potestate habet, avo, vel proavo naturali, secundum nostras constitutiones super his habitas, in adoptionem dederit, id est, si hoc ipsum actis intervenientibus apud competentem judicem manifestaverit, praesente eo, qui adoptatur, et

$ 8. If a father gives his son in adoption to the natural grand-father or great-grand-father of such son, adhering to our constitutions for that purpose enacted, which enjoin the parent to declare intention before a competent judge, in the presence of the person to be adopted, and also in the

non contradicente, nec non eo praesente, qui adoptat, solvitur quidem jus potestatis patris naturalis; transit autem in hujusmodi parentem adoptivum; in cujus persona et adoptionem esse plenissimam antea diximus.

presence of the adoptor, then does the right of paternal power pass wholly from the nalural father to the adoptive, in whose person, as we have hefore observed, adoption has its fullest extent.

De nepote nato post filium emancipatum.

$ IX. Illud scire oportet, quod si nurus tua ex filio tuo conceperit, et filium tuum emancipaveris, vel in adoptionem dederis, praegnante nuru tua, nihilominus, quod et ea nascitur, in potestate tua nascitur. Quod si post emancipationem vel adoptionem conceptus fuerit, patris sui emancipati, vel avi adoptivi, potestati subjicitur.

$ 9. It is necessary to be known, that, if a son's wife hath conceived, and you afterwards emancipate that son or give him in adoption, his wife being pregnant, the child will be born under your paternal authority. But if the conception be subsequent to the emancipation or adoption, the child becomes subject at his birth, either to his emancipated father, or his adoptive grand-father.

An parenfes cogi possunt liberos suos de potestate dimittere?

$ X. Et quidem neque naturales $ 10. Children, either natural or liberi, neque adoptivi, ullo pene mo- adopted, can rarely compel their pado possunt cogere parentes de po- rents by any method to dismiss testate sua eos dimittere. them from subjection.

TITULUS DECIMUS-TERTIUS.

DE TUTELIS.
D. xxvi. T. 1. Nov. 72.

De personis sui juris.

TRANSEAMUS nunc ad aliam Let us now proceed to another di

divisionem personarum. Nam ex vision of persons. Of those, who

his personis, quae in potestate non are not under parental power, some

sunt, quaedam vel in tutela sunt, vel are under tutelage, some under cura

in curatione, quaedam neutro jure tion, and some under neither. Let

tenentur. Videamus ergo de his, quae in tutela vel curatione sunt: ita enim intelligemus caeteras personas, quae neutro jure tenentur. Ac prius dispiciamus de his, qui in tutela sunt.

Tutelae

$ I. Est autem tutela (ut Servius definivit) vis ac potestas in capite libero, ad tuendum eum, qui per aetatem se defendere nequit, jure civili data ac permissa.

us enquire then, what persons are under tutelage and curation; for thus we shall ascertain, who are not subject to either. And first of persons under tutelage.

definitio.

$ 1. Tutelage, as Servius has defined it, is an authority and power. given and permitted by the civil law, over such independent persons, as are unable, by reason of their youth, to protect themselves.

Definitio et etymologia tutoris.

$ II. Tutores autem sunt, qui eam vim ac potestatem habent: exque ipsa re nomen acceperunt. Itaque appellantur tutores, quasi tuitores atque defensores; sicut aeditui dicuntur, qui aedes tuentur.

$ 2. Tutors are those, who have this authority and power; and they take their name from the nature of their office. For they are called tutors, (/nasi tuitores defenders; as those, who have the care of the sacred buildings, are called aditui, quod cedes tueantur.

Quibus testamento tutor datur: et primum, de liberis in po

testate.

$ III. Permissum est itaque parentibus liberis impuberibus, quos in potestate habent, testamento tutores dare: et hoc in filios filiasque procedit omnimodo: nepotibus vero neptibusque ita demum parentes possunt testamento tutores dare, si post mortem eorum in potestatem patris sui non sunt recasuri. Itaque, si filius tuus, mortis tuae tempore in potestate tua sit, nepotes ex eo non poterunt ex testamento tuo tutores habere, quamvis in potestate tua fuerint: scilicet, quia, mortuo te, in potestatem patris sui recasuri sunt.

$ 3. Parents may assign tutors by testament to such of their children as are not arrived at puberty, and are under their power. And this privilege extends without exception over sons and daughters. But grand-fathers can only give tutors to their grand-children, when these cannot fall under the power of their father, after the death of their grand-father. Hence, if your son is in your power at the time of your death, your grand-children by that son cannot receive tutors by your testament, although they were actually in your power; because at your decease they will become subject to their father.

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TITULUS DECIMUS-QUARTUS

QUI TESTAMEKTO TUTORES DARI POSSUNT.

D. xxvi. T. 2. C. v. T. 28.

Qui tutores dari possunt.

DARI autem tutor potest testa- Not only the father of a family mento non solum pater-familias, may be appointed tutor by testament sed etiam filius-familias. but also the son of a family.

De servo.

$ I. Sed et servus proprius, testamento cum libertate recte tutor dari potest; sed sciendum est, et sine libertate tutorum datum tacite libertatem directam accepisse videri; et pet hoc recte tut ore m esse: plane, si per errorem, quasi liber, tutor datus sit, aliud dicendum est .

$ 1. A man may by testament assign his own slave to be a tutor with liberty. But note, that if a slave be appointed tutor by testament without mentioning liberty, he seems tacitly to be enfranchised, and is thus legally constituted a tutor; yet, if a testator through error, imagining his

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