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deat, sive alius quilibet. Eo amplius adversus furem etiam condictio est rei.
De mistis; hoc est, rci
$ XIX. Vi autem bonorum raptorum actio mista est, quia in quadruplo rci persecutio continetur; pcEna autem tripli est. Sed et legis Aquiliae actio, de damno injuria dato, mista est; non solum si adversus inficiantem in duplum agatur, sed interdum etsi in simplum quisque agat; veluti si quis hominem claudum aut luscum occiderit, qui in ec anno integer et magni pretii fuerit; tauti enim damnatur, quanti is homo eo in anno plurimi fuerit, secundum jam traditam divisionem. Item mista est actio contra eos, qui relicta sacrosanctis Ecclesiis, vel aliis venerabilibus locis, legata vel fidei-commissi nomine, dare distulerint, usque adeo ut etiam in judicium vocarentur: tunc enim et ipsam rem vel pecuniam, quae relicta est, dare compelluntur, et aliud tantum pro poena; et ideo in duplum ejus fit condemnatio.
him, if he demand the thing stolen as his own, not only against the thief, but against any other in possession of his property. The thief may also be sued by a condiction for the thing itself.
ct pcenae persecutoriis.
$ 19. An action for goods taken by force, is a mixed action; because the thing taken is included under the quadruple value to be recovered by the action; and thus the penalty is but triple. The action, introduced by the law Aquilia, for damage injuriously done, is also a mixed action; not only when given for double value against a man denying the fact, but sometimes, when the action is only for single value; as when a man hath killed a slave, who at the time of his death was lame, or wanted an eye, but had within the year previous to his decease, been free from any defect, and of great price; for in this case the defendent is obliged to pay as much as the slave was worth at any time within the year preceding his death. (B. 4. t. 3.) A mixed action may also be brought against those, who have delayed to deliver a legacy, or gift in trust, given for the benefit of a church, or any other holy place, until they have been called before a magistrate for that purpose; for then they are compelled to deliver up the thing, or to pay the money bequeathed, and as much more, by way of penalty; and thus they are condemned in a double amount. De mistis; id est, tarn in
$ XX. Quxdam actiones mistam causam obtinere videntur, tam in rem, quam in personam; qualis est familiae erciscundoe actio, quae competit cohaeredibus de dividends haereditate; item communi dividundo, quae inter eos redditur, inter quos aliquid commune est, ut id dividatur; item finium regundorum actio, qua inter eos agitur, qui confines agros habent. In quibus tribus judiciis permittitur judici rem alicui ex litigatoribus ex bono et aequo adjudicare; et, si unius pars praegravari videbitur, eum invicem certa pecunia alteri condemnare.
rem, quam in personam.
$ 20. Some actions, are also mixed as proceeding against the thing as well as against the Person: of this sort is the action familia erciscundce, which may be brought by co-heirs for the partition of their inheritance; the action de communi dividundo, given for the division of any particular things, which, exclusive of an inheritance, are in common: and likewise the action finium regundorum or an action of boundary, which takes place among owners of contiguous estates. And, in these three actions, it is wholly in the power of the judge to give the ground, or thing in dispute, to either of the parties litigant, and then to oblige that party, if necessity so require, to recompense his adversary, by paying him a sum certain, in amends for any inequality in the adjudication.
$ XXI. Omnes autem actiones $ 21. All actions are for the vel in simplum conceptre sunt, vel single, double, triple, or quadruple in duplum, vel in triplum, vel in value of the thing in litigation; for quadruplum; ulterius autem nulla no action extends farther. actio extenditur.
De actionibus in simplum.
$ XXII. In simplum agitur, $ 22. The single value is sued veluti ex stipulatione, ex mutui for, when an action is given upon datione, ex empto, vendito, locato, a stipulation, a loan, a mandate, conducto, mandato, et denique ex the contract of buying and selling, aliis quam plurimis causis. - letting and hireing; and also upon
several other accounts.
$ XXIII. In duplum agimus, veluti furti nec manifesti, damni injuriae ex lege Aquilia, depositi ex quibusdam causis: item scrvi corrupti, quae compctit in eum, cujus hortatu consiliove servus aliemis fugerit, ant contumax adversus dominum factus est, ant luxuriose vivere cceperit, aut denique quolibet modo deterior factus sit; in qua actione earum ctiam rerum, quas fugieudo servus abstulerit, a'stimatio dcducitur: item ex legato, quod venerabilibus locis relictum est, secundum ca, quae supra diximus.
$ 23. The double value is sued for in an action of theft not manifest, of injury, by the law Aquilia, and sometimes in an action of deposit. Also in an action brought, on' account pf a slave corrupted, against him, by whose advice such a slave hath fled from his master, grown disobedient, extravagant, or become in any manner the worse; and. in this action, an estimate is to he made of whatever things the slave hath stolen from his master, before his flight. An action for the detention of a legacy, left to an holy place, is also given for double value, as we have before remarked.
$ XXIV. Tripli verd agimus, cum quidam majorem vera Eestimatione quantitatem in libello conventions inserunt, ut ex hac causa viatores, id est, execu tores litium ampliorem summam, sportularum nomine, exigerent: tune enim id, quod propter eorum causam damnum passus fuerit reus, in triplum ab actore consequetur; ut in hoc triplo etiam simplum, in quo damhum passus est, connumeretur. Quod nostra constituto iutroduxit, quae in nostro codice fulget, ex qua procul dubio certum est, ex lege condictitiam emanare.
$ 24. A suit may be brought for triple value, when any person inserts a greater sum, than is due to him, in the libel of convention, to the intent, that the officers of any court may exact a larger fee, or perquisite from the defendant; in which case the latter may obtain the triple value of the extraordinary fee from the plaintiff, including the fee in the triple value. The fees of officers are regulated by our constitution, and it is not to be doubted, but that the action, called condictio ex lege, may be given by virtue of that ordinance.
$ XXV. Quadrupli autem agi- $ 23. A suit may be commenced tur; veluti furti manifesti; item de for quadruple value, by an action
co, quod motus causa factum sit; deque ca pecunia, quae in hoc data sit, ut is, cui datur, calumnise causa ncgotium alicui faci'ret, vel non faceret. Item ex lege condictitia, nostra ex constitutione, oritur, in quadruplum condemnationem imponens iis executoribus litium, qui contra nostraeconstitutionis normam a reis quicquam exegerint.
for theft manifest, by an action for putting a man in fear, and by an action on account of money, given to bring on a litigious suit against some third person, or on account of money given to desist from it. A condiction ex lege, for the quadruple value, arises also from our constitution against those officers of courts of justice, who demand any thing from the party defendant, contrary to the regulations of the said constitution.
$ XXVI. Sed furti quidem nec manifesti actio et servi corrupti a caeteris, de quibus simul locuti sumus, eo differunt, quod hse actiones omnimodo dupli sunt; at istae, id est, damni injuriae ex lege Aquilia et interdum depositi, inficiatione duplicantur; in coufitentem autem in simplum dantur. Sed ilia,- quae de iis competit. quae relicta venerabilibus locis sunt, non solum inficiatione duplicatur, sed etiam si distulerit relicti solutionem, usque quo jussu magistratuum conveniatur: in ' confitentem verd, antequam jussu magistratuum conveniatur, solventem, simpli redditur.
num in duplum.
§ 26. But an action of theft not manifest, and an action on account of a slave corrupted, differ from the others, of which we have spoken, in that they always inforce a condemnation in double the value; but in an action, given by the law Aquilia for an injury done, and sometimes in an action of deposit, the double value may be exacted in case of denial; but if the defendant confesses, the single value only can be recovered. In an action brought for a legacy to pious uses, due to any holy place or society, the penalty is not only doubled by the denial of the defendant, but also by any delay of payment, which may be adjudged to have given a just cause for citing the defendant before a magistrate; but if the legacy be paid, before any citation issues at the command of the judge, the single value only can be required.
Subdivisio actionum in quadruplum.
$ XXVII. Item actio de eo, quod metus causa factum sit, a ceteris, de quibus simul locuti sumus, eo differt, quod ejus natura tacite continctur, ut, qui judicis jussu ipsam rem actori restituat, absolvatur: quod in caeteris casibus non est ita, sed omnimodo quisque in quadruplum condemnatur; quod est et in furti manifesti actione.
$ 27. An action for putting a man in fear, differs also from other actions in quadruplum, because it is tacitly implied in the nature of this action. that the party, who hath obeyed the command of the judge, in restoring the things taken, may be dismissed; for, in all other actions for the fourfold value, every man must be condemned to pay the full penalty, as in the action of theft manifest.
Divisio quarta de actionibus bonae fidei.
$ XXVIII. Actionum autem quaedam bona: fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonce fidei sunt hae: ex empto, vendito; locato, conducto; negotiorum gestorum; mandati; despositi; pro socio; tutelae; commodati; pigneratitia; familiae erciscundae; communi dividundo; prsescriptis verbis, quae de aestimato proponitur; et ea, quae ex permutatione competit; et haereditatis petitio. Quamvis enim usque adhuc incertum erat, inter bonas fidei judicia connumeranda haereditatis petitio esset, an non; nostra tamen constitutio aperte, eam esse bonae fidei, disposuit.
$ 28. The fourth division is into actions of good faith, and actions of strict right. Those of good faith are the following; viz. actions of buying and selling, letting and hireing; of affairs transacted, of mandate, deposit, partnership, tutelage, Joan, mortgage; of the partition of an inheritance, or the division of any thing or things, which belong in common to several persons; also actions in prescribed words, which are either estimatory, or derived from commutation; and lastly the demand of an inheritance: for although it hath long been doubtful to what class this action belonged; our constitution hath clearly numbered it among actions of good faith.
Dc rci uxoriae actione, in ex stipulatu actionem transfusa.
$ XXIX. Fuerat antea et rei $ 29. The action ret vxorien for
uxoriae actio una ex bonoe fidei judi- the recovery of a marriage portion,
ciis: sed cum, pleniorem esse ex was formerly numbered among the
stipulatu actionem invenientes, om- actions of good faith; but when,
ne jus, quod res uxoria antea ha- upon finding the action of