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$ VI. Item, si quis in fraud^m creditorum rem suam alicui tradiderit, bonis ejus a creditoribus possessis ex sententia praesidis, permittitur ipsis creditoribus, rescissa traditione, eam rem petere; id est, dicere, eam rem traditam non esse, et ob id in bonis debitoris mansisse.
$ 6. If a debtor deliver anything to some person in order to defraud his creditors, they are permitted, notwithatanding the delivery, to bring an action for the thing, if the possession hath been previously adjudged to them by an order of court: that is, they are allowed to plead, that the-thing was not delivered, and of course, that it continues to be a part of their debtor's goods.
De Serviana et quasi-Serviana, seu hypothecaria.
$ VII. Item Servinia, et quasi Serviana, (quae etiam hypothecaria vocatur,) ex ipsius praetoris jurisdictione substantiam capiunt. Serviana autem experitur quis de rebus coloni, quae pignoris jure pro mercedibus fundi ei tenentur. Quasi Serviana autem est, qua creditores pignorahypothecasve persequuntur. Inter pignos autem et hypothecam, (quantum ad actionem hypothecariam attinet,) nihil interest: nam de qua re inter creditorem et debitorem convenerit, ut sit pro debito obligata, utraque hac appellatiohe continetur; sed in aliis differentia est: nam pignoris appellatione eam proprie rem contineri dicimus, quae simul etiam traditurcreditori, maxime si mobilis sit: at eam, quae sine traditione nuda conventione tenetur, proprie hypothecae appellatione contineri dicimus.
$ 7. Also the action Serviana, and the action quasi-Serviana, (which is also called hypothecary,) take their rise from the praetor's jurisdiction. By the action Serviana, a suit may be commenced for the property of a farmer, bound for rent. The action quasi-Serviana is that, by which a creditor may sue for a thing pledged or hypothecated to him; and, in regard to this action, there is no difference between a pledge and an hypotheque; though in other respects they differ; for, by the term pledge, is meant that, which hath actually been delivered to a creditor, especially if the thing was a moveable; hypothecation means the making anything liable to a creditor by a nude agreement only, without delivery.
Dc actonibus prsetoriis personalibus.
$ VIII. In personam quoque actiones ex sua jurisdictione propositas habet praetor, veluti de pecunia constituta; cui similis videbatur receptitia. Sed ex nostra constitutione, (cum, et si quid plenius habebat, hoc in actionem pecuniae constitute transfusum est,) et ea quasi supervacua jussa est cum sua auctoritate a nostris legibus, recedere. Item praetor proposuit actionem de peculio servorum, filiorumque familiarum; et eam, ex qua quoeritur, an actor juraverit; et alias complures.
$ 8. Personal actions have also been introduced by the praetors, in consequence of their authority; as the action de pecunia constituta; which much resembles that called receptitia, now taken away by our constitution, as unnecessary; and whatever advantageous matter it contained, we have comprised in the action de pecunia constituta. The praetors have likewise introduced the action concerning the peculium of slaves, and the sous of families; and also, the action wherein the question is, whether the plaintiff hath made oath of his debt; and many others.
De constituta pecunia.
$ IX. De constituta autem pecunia cum omnibus agitur, quicunque vel pro se, vel pro alio, soluturos se constituerint, nulla scilicet stipulatione interposita: nam alioqui si stipulanti promiserint, jure civili tenentur.
$ 9. A suit may be brought de pecunia constituta, against any person who hath engaged to pay money, either for himself or another, without stipulation; but, when there is a stipulation, the promise may be inforced by the civil law.
$X. Actiones autem de peculio ^ 10. The praetor hath also given
ided adversus patrem dominumve comparavit praetor, quia licet ex contractu filiorum servorumve ipso jure non teneatur; aequum tamen est, peculio tenus, (quod veluti patrimonium est filiorum filiarumque, item servorum,) condemnari eos.
actions de peculio against fathers and masters, who although they are not legally bound by the contracts of their children and slaves, ought in equality to be bound to the extent of a peculium, which is, as it were, the patrimony, and separate estate of a son, a daughter, or a slave.
An res sua condici possit.
$ XIV. Sic itaque discretis actionibus, certum est, non posse actorem suam rem ita ab aliquo petere, si paret, eum dare oportere: nec enim, quod actoris est, id ei dari oportet; scilicet, quia dari cuiquam id intelligitur, quod ita datur, ut ejus fiat: nec res, quae jam actoris est, magis ejus fieri potest. Plane odio furum, quo magis pluribus actionibus teneantur, effectum est, nt, extra pcenam dupli ant quadrupli, rei rccipiendre nomine, fares etiam hac actione teneantur, si appareat, eos dare oportere: quamvis sit adversus cos etiam haec in
$ Id. Actions being thus either real or personal, it is certain, that a man cannot sue for his own property by a condiction. or a personal action in the following form, viz. If it appear, thal the defendant ought to give it me: for the act of giving implies the conferring of property, and that which is already the property of the plaintiff, cannot by being given to him, become more his own, than it is already. But, in order to shew a detestation for thieves and robbers, and to accumulate the actions to which they are liable, it hath been determined, that, besides the double and quadruple penalty, they may be pursued by a condiction for the thing taken, in the form before recited, if it appear, that they ought to give it. And this, although the party injured may also bring a real action against them, by which he may demand the thing taken, as his own.
De nominibus actionum.
$ XV. Appellamus autem in rem quidem actiones, vindicationes; in personam vero actiones, quibus dare aut facere oportere intenditur, condictiones; condicere enim est denumtiare, priscti lingua: nunc vero abusive dicimus. condictjpnem actionem in personam esse, qua actor intendit dari sibi oportere; nulla enim hoc tempore eo nomine denun tiatio fit.
$ 15. Real actions are called vindications; and personal actions, in which it is intended, that something ought to be done or given, are called condictions; for condicere, in old language was the same with denuntiare to denounce: but condiction is now improperly used for a personal action, by which the plaintiff contends, that something ought to be given to him; for denunciations are not in use.
$ XVI. Sequens ilia divisio est, quod quaedam actiones rei persequendae gratia comparatae sunt, quaedam rxenoe perscquendie, quaedam mistae sunt.
$ XVII. Rei persequendae causa comparatae sunt omnes in rem actiones; earum vero actionum, quae in personam sunt, ex quidem, quae ex contractu nascuntur, fere omnes rei persequendae causa comparatae videntur; veluti quibus mutuam pecuniam, vel in stipulatum deductam, petit actor; item commodati, depositi, mandati, pro socio, ex empto, vendito, locato, conducto. Plane, si depositi agatur eo nomine, quod tumultus, incendii, ruinae, naufragii causa depositum sit, in duplum actionem praetor reddit, si modo cum ipso, apud quem depositum sit, aut cum haerede ejus, de dolo ipsius agitur; quo casu mista est actio.
§ 16. Actions are also farther divided into those, which are given to recover the specific thing in dispute; those, which are given for the penalty only: and mixed actions.
$ 17. All real actions are given for the recovery of the thing in litigation; which is the object also of almost all the personal actions which arise from contract; as the . action for a mutuum, a commodatum, or on account of a stipulation, a deposit, mandate, partnership, buying and selling, letting and hireing. But. when a suit is commenced for a thing deposited by reason of a riot, a fire, or any other calamity, the praetor always gives an action for a double penalty, besides the thing deposited, if the suit is brought against the depositary himself, or against his heir, for fraud; in which case the action is mixed.
De actionibus poense persecutoriis.
$ XVIII. Ex maleficiis vero proditae actiones, aliae tantum poenae persequendae causa comparatae sunt; aliae tam poenae, quam rei persequendae; et ob id mistae sunt. Poenam tantum persequitur quis actione furti; sive enim manifesti agatur, quadrupli, sive non manifesti, dupli, de sola poena agitur: nam ipsam rem propria actione persequitur quis, id est, suam esse petens, sive fur ipse eam rem possi
$ 18. In cases of mal-feasance, some actions are for the penalty only, and some both for the thing and the penalty; which are therefore called mixed actions. But, in an action of theft, whether manifest or not manifest, nothing more is sued for than the penalty, which, in manifest theft is quadruple, and, in theft not manifest, double: for the owner may recover by a separate action what hath been stolen from