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nec neptem fratris vel sororis quis ducere potest, quamvis quarto gradu sint: cujus enim filiam ducere non licet, neque ejus neptem permittitur. Ejus vero mulieris, quam pater tuus adoptavit, filiam non videris prohiberi uxorem ducere: quia neque naturali, neque civili, jure tibi conjungitur.

brother, orasister; although tlie last are in the fourth degree. For when we are prohibited to take the daughter of any person in marriage, we are also prohibited to take his grand-daughter. But it does not appear that there is any impediment against the marriage of a son with the daughter of her, whom his father hath adopted; for they bear no relation to each other, natural or civil.

De consobrinis.

$ IV. Duorum autem fratrum vel sororum liberi, vel fratris et sororis, conjungi possunt.

De amita, matertera, amita

$ V. Item amitam, licet adoptivam, ducere uxorem non licet; item nec materteram: quia parentum loco habentur. Qua ratione verum est, magnamquoque amitam, et materteram magnam, prohiberi uxorem ducere.

§ 4. The children of two brothers (Patrueles) or two sisters, (sobrini) or of a brother and sister, (Consobrin i) may be joined in matrimony. (Such are cousins.)

magna, matertera magna.

$ 5. A man may not marry his aunt either on the father's or the mother's side, although she is only so by adoption; because they are regarded as [representatives of parents. For the same reason no person may marry his great-aunt either on his father's or mother's side.

De affinibus, et primum de privigna et nuru.

$ VI. Affinitatis quoque veneratione, a quarundam nuptis abstinere necesse est: ut ecce privignam aut nurum ducere non licet: quia utraeque filiae loco sunt: quod ita scilicet accipi debet, si fuit nurus aut privigna tua. Nam, si adhuc nurus tua est, id est, si adhuc nupta est filio tuo, aha ratione uxorem eam ducere non poteris: quia eadem duobus nupta esse non potest.

$ 6. We must abstain from certain marriages, through regard to affinity; as with a wife's daughter, or a son's wife, for they are both in the place of daughters: and this rule must be so understood as to include those who have been, our daughtersin-law. For marriage with a son's wife, while she continues so, is prohibited on another account, viz. because she can not be the wife of two

Item si adhuc privigna tua est, id at the same time. And the marriest, si mater ejus tihi nupta est, age of man with his wife's daughideo eam uxorem ducere non pote- ter, while her mother continues to be ris, duia quas uxores eodem tem- his wife, is also prohibited, because pore habere non licet . it is unlawful to have two wives at

once.

De socru et noverca.

$ VJJ. Socrum quoque et novercam prohibitum est uxorem ducere: quia matris loco sunt: quod et ipsum, dissoluta demum affinitate, procedit: alioquin, si adhuc noverca est, id est, si adhuc patri tuo nupta est, communi jure impeditur tibi nubere, quia eadem duobus nupta esse non potest. Item si adhuc socus est, id est, si adhuc filia ejus tibi nupta est, ideo impediuntur tibi nuptiae, quia duas uxores habere non potes.

$ 7. A man is forbidden to marry his wife's mother, and his father's wife, because they both hold the place of mothers; and this, although the affinity is dissolved: besides a father's wife, while she continues to be so, may not marry, because no woman can have two husbands at the same time. Nor can a man marry his wife's mother, her daughter continuing his wife, because it is against the law to have two wives.

De comprivignis.

$ VAIL Mariti tamen filius ex $ 8. The son of a husband by a alia uxore, et uxoris filia ex alio former wife, and the daughter of a marito, vel contra, matrimonium wife by a former husband, and eamrecte contrahunt: licet habeant tra, (the daughter'of an husband by fratrem sororemve ex matrimonio a former wife and the son of a wife postea contracto natos. by a former husband) may lawful

ly contract matrimony, even though a brother or sister is born of such second marriage between their respective parents.

De quasi privigna, quasi nuru, et quasi noverca.

$ IX. Si uxor tua post divorti- $ 9. The daughter of a divorced

um ex alio filiam procreavit, haec wife by a second husband, is not

non est quidem privigna tua: sed daughter-in-law to the first hus

Julianus ab hujusmodi nuptiis absti- band. But Julian says we ought to

neri debere ait: nam constat, nec abstain from such nuptials. It is

sponsam filii nurum esse, nec patris also evident, that the espoused wife

sponsam novercam esse: rectius ta- of a son, is not a daughter-in-law to

men et jure facturos eos, qui ad hujusmodi nuptiis abstinuerint.

his father; and that the espoused wife of a father, is not a step-mother to his son: but it is right to abstain from such nuptials.

De servili cognatione.

Illud certum est, serviles $ 10. It is clear that servile cognation is an impediment to matrimony; as when a father and daughter, or a brother and sister, are manumitted.

quoque cognationes impedimento nuptiis esse, si forte pater et filia, aut frater et soror, manumissi fuerint.

De relinquis prohibitionibus.

$ XI. Sunt et aliae personae, quae prompter diversas rationes nuptias contrahere prohibentur, quas in libris digestorum seu pandectarum, ex jure veteri collectarum, enumerari permisimus.

§ 11. There are other persons also, who, for diverse reasons, may not intermarry: we have caused these to be enumerated in the digests collected from the old law.

De poenis injustarum nuptiarum.

$ XII. Si adversus ea, quae diximus, aliqui coierint, nec vir, nec uxor, nec nuptiae, nec matrimonium, nec dos intelligitur. Itaque ii, qui ex eo coitu nascuntur in potestate patris non sunt: sed tales sunt (quantum ad patriam potestatem pertinent) quales sunt ii, quos mater vulgo concepit. Nam nec hi pattem habere intelliguntur, cum et iis pater incertus sit; unde solent spurii appellari, nay* rijv gnoQxv et anxioQeg; quasi sine patre filii. Sequitur ergo, ut, dissoluto tali coitu, nec dotis, nec donationis exactioni locus sit . Qui autem prohibitas nuptias contrahunt, et alias pcenas patiuntur quae sacris constitutionibus continentur.

$ 12. If persons cohabit in contempt of the rules thus laid down, they shall not be deemed husband and wife, nor shall their marriage, or any portion given on account thereof, be valid; and the children, born in such cohabitation, shall not be under the power of the father. For, in respect to paternal power, they resemble the children of a common woman, who arc looked upon as having no father, because it is uncertain who he is. They are therefore called in Latin spurii, and in Greek apatores; i. e. without a father: hence, after the dissolution of such a marriage, no portion, or gift, propter nuptias, can legally be claimed. They who contract such prohibited matrimony, must undergo the farther punishments set forth in onr constitutions.

De legitimatione.

$ XIII. Aliquando antem evenit, ut liberi, qui statim, ut nati sunt, in potestate parentum non siuit, postea redigantur in potestatem patris: qualis est is, qui dum naturalis fuerat, postea curiae datus, potestati patris subjicitur: nec non is, qui a muliere libera procreatus, cujus matrimonium minime legibus interdictum fuerat, sed ad quam pater consuetudinem habuerat postea, ex nostra constitutions detalibus instrumentis compositis, in potestate patris efficitur. Quod et aliis liberis, qui ex eodem matrimonio fuerint procreati, similiter nostra constitutio praebuit.

$ 13. It sometimes, happens, that children who at their birth were not under the power of their parents, arc reduced under it afterwards. Thus a natural son, who is made a Decurion, becomes subject to his father's power: and he who is bom of a free-woman, with whom marriage is not prohibited, will likewise become subject to the power of his father, as soon as the marriage instruments are drawn, as our constitution directs; which allows the same benefit to those, who are born before marriage, as to those, who are born subsequent to it.

TITULUS UNDECIMUS.

DE ADOPTIONIBUS.
D. 1. T. 7. C. viii. T. 48.
Continuatio.

NON soliim autem naturales li- It appears from what has been beri, secundum ea, quae diximus, said, not only that all natural (lein potestate nostra sunt; verum gitimate) children are subject to etiam ii, quos adoptamus. paternal power, but those also,

whom we adopt.

Divisio adoptionis.

$ I. Adoptio autem duobus mo- $ 1. Adoption is made two ways,

dis fit, aut principali rescripto, aut either by imperial rescript or autho

imperio magistratus. Imperatoris rity of the magistrate. The imperial

auctoritate adoptare quis potest eos, rescript impowers us to adopt per

casve, qui, quaeve, sui juris sunt, sons of either sex, who are sui juris;

quae species adoptionis dicitur arro- (i. e. independent) and this species Qui possunt adoptare filium-familias, vel non.

gatio. Imperio magistrates adoptamus cos easve, qui quaeve in potestate parentum sunt; sive primum gradum liberornm obtineant, qualis est filius, filia; sive inferiorem, qualis est nepos, neptis, pronepos, proneptis.

of adoption is called arrogatiom. But it is by the authority of the magistrate, that we adopt persons actually under the power of their parents, whether they are in the first degree, as sons and daughters; or in an inferior degree, as grand-children or great grand-children.

§ II. Sed hodie, ex nostra constitutione, cum filius-familias a patre naturali extraneae personae in adoptionem datur, jura patris naturalis minime dissolvuntnr; nec quicquam ad patrem adoptivum transit, nec in potestate ejus est: licet ab in testa to jura successionis ei a nobis tributa sint. Si vero pater naturalis non extraneo, sed avo filii sui matemo; vel si ipse pater naturalis fuerit emancipatus, etiam avo vel proavo simili modo paterno vel materno filium suum dederit in adoptionem: in hoc casu, quia concurrunt in unam personam et naturaha et adoptionis jura, manet stabile jus patris adoptivi, et naturali vinculo copulatum, et legitimo adoptionis modo constitutum, ut et in familia et in potestate hujusmodi patris adoptivi sit.

$ 2. But now, by our constitution, when the son of a family is given in adoption by his natural father to a stranger, the power of the natural father is not dissolved, neither does any thing pass to the adoptive father, nor is the adopted son in his power, although we allowsuchson, the right of succession to his adoptive father dying intestate. But if a natural father should givehis son in adoption, not to a stranger, but to the maternal grandfather of such son; or if a natural father, who has been emancipated, should give his son, begotten after emancipation to his paternal or maternal grandfather or great-grandfather, in this case, the rights of nature and adoption concurring, the power of the adoptive father is established both by natural ties and legal adoption, so that the adopted son would be not only in the family, but under the power of his adoptive father.

De arrogatione impuberis.

§ III. Cum autem impubes per principale rescriptum arrogatur, causa cognita, arrogatio fieri permittitur: et exquiritur causa arrogationis, an honesta sit, expediatque

$ 3. When any one, not arrived at puberty, is arrogated by the imperial rescript, inquiry is first made, whether the arrogation be justly founded, and expedient for pupil

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