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DE HIS, QUI SUI VEL ALIENI JURIS SUNT.
SEQUITUR de jure personarum alia diviso; nam quaedam personae sui juris sunt, quaedam alieno juri subjectae. Rursus carum, quae alieno juri subjectae sunt, abac sunt in potestate parentum, aliae in potestate dominorum. Videamus itaque de his, quae alieno juri subjectae sunt; nam, si cognoverimus, quaenam istae personae sunt, simul intelligemus, quae sui juris sunt; ac prius inspiciamus de his, quae in potestate dominorum sunt.
We now proceed to another division of persons; for some are independent, and some are subject to the power of others. Of those, who are subject to others, some are in the power of parents, others of their masters. Let us then inquire, who are in subjection to others; for, when we shall ascertain these, we shaU at the same time discover, who are independent. And first of those, who are in the power of masters.
De jure gentium in servos
$ I. Jin potestate itaque dominorum sunt servi, quae quidem potestas juris gentium est; nam a pud omnes peraeque gentes animadvertere possumus, dominis in servos vitae necisque potestatem fuisse: et, quodcunque per servum acquiritur. id domino acquiri.
$ 1. All slaves are in the power of their masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for it is observable among all nations, that masters have always had the power of life and death over thenslaves, and that whatever the slave acquires, is acquired for the master.
De jure civium Romanorum in servos.
$ II. Sec hoc tempore nullis ho- § 2. All our subjects are now for
minibus, qui sub imperio nostro sunt, licet, sine causa legibus cognita, in servos suos supra modum saevire. Nam, ex constitutione divi Antonini, qui sine causa servum suum occiderit, non minus puniri jubetur, quam si alienum servum occiderit. Sed et major asperitas
bidden to inflict any extraordinary punishment upon their slaves, without legal cause. For, by a. constitution of Antoninus, whoever causelessly kills his own slave, is to be punished equally as if he had killed the slave of another. The too great severity of masters is also restrained
dominorum, ejusdem principis constitutione, coercetur: nam Antoninus, consultns a quibusdam praesidibus provinciarum de his servis, qui ad aedem sacramvel statuamprincipum confugiunt, pruecepit, ut, si intolerabilis videatur saevitia dominorum, cogantur servos suos bonis conditionibus vendere, ut pretium dominis daretur; et recte: expedit enim reipublicae, ne sua re quis male utatur. Cujus rescripti, ad iElium Martianum missi, verba sunt haec. Dominorum quidem potestatem in servos illibatam esse oportet, nec cuiquam hominumjus suum detrahi. Sed et dominorum iuteresl ne auxilium contra sa3vitiam,vel famem, vel intolerabilem injuriam, denegelur iis, qui juste deprecantur. Ideoque cognosce de querelis]'eorum, quiex familiaJuliiSabiniadsacram slatuam confugerunt; et, siveldurius /uibitos, quam aquum est, vel in/ami injuria affectos esse, cognoveris, venire jube; ita ut in potestatem domini tum revertanlur: quod si mece conslitutioni fraudem fecerit sciat, me hoc admissum adversus se severius executurum.
by another constitution of Antoninus who being consulted by certain governors of provinces concerning slaves, who take sanctuary either in temples, or at the statues of the emperors, Ordained, that if the severity of masters should appear excessive theymightbe compelled to make sale of their slaves upon equitable terms, so that the masters might receive the value; and properly; inasmuch as it is for the public good that no one should be permitted to misuse even his own property. The words of this rescript, sent to Jehus Martiansus, are these.— The power of masters over their slaves aught to be jrrotected: nor might any man to be deprived of his just right. But it is for the interest of all masters, that relief against cruelties, the denial of sustenance, or any other insufferable injury, should be granted to those who justly implore it. Therefore look into the complaints made by the family of Julius Sabinus, whose slaves took sanctuary at the sacred statue; and, if proof be made that they have been too hardly treated, or greatly injured, order them to be forthwith sold, so that tkey be no longer subject to their former master: and, if Julius Sabinus attempt to evade our constitution, let him know, that I shall put it in force against him with more severity.
DE PATRIA POTESTATE.
IN potestate nostra sunt liberi Our children, begotten in lawful nostri, quos ex justis nuptiis pro- wedlock, are under our power. creavimus.
$ I Nuptiae autem, sive matri- $ 1. Matrimony is a connection
monium, est, viri et mulieris con- between a man and woman, imply
junctio, individuam vitae consuetu- ing a mutual and exclusive cohab
dinem continens. itation during life.
Qui habent in potestate.
$ II. Jus autem potestatis, quod in liberos habemus, proprium est civium Romanorum; nulli enim alii sunt homines, qui talem in liberos habeant potestatem, qualem nos habemus.
$ 2. The power which we have over our children is peculiar to the citizens of Rome; for no other people have the same power over their children, which we have over ours.
Qui sunt in potestate.
$ III. Qui igitur ex te et ex uxore tua nascitur, in tua potestate est. Item qui ex filio tuo et uxore ejus nascitur, id est, nepos tuus et neptis, aeque in tua sunt potestate: pronepos, et proneptis, et deinceps carteri. Qui autem ex filia tua nascuntur, in potestate tua non sunt; sed in patris eorum.
$ 3. The child of you and your wife, is under your power. The issue of your son and son's wife, that is, your grand-sons or grand-daughters are equally so; so are your great grand-children, &c. But children born of a daughter are not in your power, but in the power of their father or grand-father.
Qui possunt nuptias contrahere.
JUST AS autem nuptias inter se cives Romani contrahunt, qui secundum praecepta legum coeunt, masculi quidem puberes, foeminae autem viri potentes; sive patres familiarum sint; sive filii familiarum; dum tamen, si filii familiarum sint, consensum habeant parentum, quorum in potestate sunt: nam, hoc fieri debere, et civilis et naturalis ratio suadet, in tantiun, ut jussus parentis paecedere debeat. Unde qaesitum est, an furiosi filia nubere, aut furiosi filius uxorem ducere, possit? Cumque super filio variabatur, nostra processit decisio, qua permissum est ad exemplum fiilae furiosi, filium quoque furiosi posse, et sine patris interventu, matrimoniiun sibi copulare, escundum datum ex nostra constitutione modum.
The citizens of Rome contract valid matrimony, when they follow the precepts of the law; males, when they arrive at puberty, and females, when they attain to a marriageable age. The males, whether patres familiarum, fathers of a family, or filii familiarum; sons of a family; but, if they are sons of a family, they must first obtain the consent of the parents, under whose power they are. For reason, both natural and civil, convinces us, that the consent of parents should precede marriage; hence arose the question, whether the son of a madman could contract matrimony? But opinions being various, we decided that the son as well as the daughter of a madman, may marry without intervention of the father, provided the rules of our constitution are observed.
Quae uxores duci possunt vel non. De cognatis, ac primum de parentibus et liberis.
$ 1. Ergo non omnes nobis uxo- $ I. We may not marry any wo
res ducere licet: nam a quarundam man; for with some, marriage is
nuptiis abstinendum est inter eas forbidden. Matrimony must not be
enim personas, quse parentum libe- contracted between parents and their
rorumve locum inter se obtinent, children, as between a father and
contrahi nuptiae non possunt; veluti daughter, a grandfather and his
interpatrem et filiam, vel avum et grand-daughter, a mother and her
neptem, vel matrem et filium, vel a- son, a grand-mother and her grandDe fratris et sororis filia vel nepte.
viam et nepotem, et usque in infinitum: et, si tales personae inter se coierent, nefarias atque incestas nuptias contraxisse dicuntur: et haec aded vera sunt, ut, quamvis per adoptionem parentum liberorumve loco sibi esse coeperint, nonpossunt inter se matrimonio jungi; in tantum, ut etiam, dissoluta adoptione, idem juris maneat. Itaque eam, quae tibi per adoptionem filia vel neptis. esse cceperit, non poteris uxorem ducere, quamvis eam emancipaveris.
son; and so on (in a right line ) in, infinitum. And, if such persons cohabit, they are truly said to have contracted a criminal and incestuous marriage; inasmuch as those, who only hold the place of parents and children by adoption, cannot intermarry; and the same law remains even after the adoption is dissolved. You cannot therefore take to wife one who hath been either your adopted daughter or granddaughter, although you may have emancipated her.
$ II. Inter eas quoque personas, quae ex transverso gradu cognationis junguntur, est quaedam similis observatio, sed non tanta. Sane enim inter fratrem sororemqme nuptiae prohibitae sunt, sive ab eodem patre eademque matre nati fuerint, sive ab altero eorum. Sed, si qua per adoptionem soror tibi esse cceperit, quamdiu quidem constat adoptio, sane inter te et eam nuptiae consistere non possunt; cum vero per emancipationem adoptio sit dissoluta, poteris eam uxorem ducere: sed et si tu emancipatus fueris, nihil est impedimento nuptiis. Et ideo constat, si quis generum adoptare velit, debere eum antea filiam suam emancipare: et si quis, velit nurum adoptare, debere eum antea filium suum emancipare.
$ 2. Matrimony is also prohibited between collaterals, but not so extensively. A brother and sister are forbidden to marry, whether they are the children of the same father and mother, or of either. And if a woman becomes your sister by adoption, so long as that subsists, no marriage may be contracted between you. But, when the adoption is destroyed by emancipation, you may take her to wife. Also, if you should be emancipated, there will then remain no impediment, although your sister by adoption is not so. Hence if a man would adopt his son-in-law, he should first emancipate his daughter, and whoever would adopt his daughter-in-law, should previously emancipate his son.
$ III. Fratris verd vel sororis $ 3. It is unlawful to marry the filiam uxorem ducere non licet: sed daughter or grand-daughter of a