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De libertinorum

$ III. Libertinorum autem status tripertitus antea fuerat: nam, qui manumittebantur, modo majorem etjustam libertatem consequebantur, et fiebant cives Romani; modo minorem, et Latini ex lege Junia Norbana fiebant; modo inferiorem, et fiebant ex lege iElia Sentia Dedititii: sed quoniam Dedititiorum quidem pessima conditio, jam ex multis temporibus in desuetudinem abierat; Latinorum vero nomen non frequentabatur; ideoque nostra pietas, omnia augere et in meliorem statum reducere desiderans, duabus constitutionibus hoc emendavit, et in pristinum statum reduxit: quia et a primis urbis Romae cunabulis una atque simplex libertas competebat, id est, eadem, quam, habebat manumissor; nisi quod, scilicet, libertinus sit, qui manumittitur, licet mamunissor ingenuus sit; et Dedititios quidem per constitutionem nostram expulimus, quam promulgavimus inter nostras decisiones; per quas, suggerente nobis Triboniano viro excelso quaestore nostro, antiqui juris altercationes placavimus. Latinos autem Junianos, et omnem, quae circa eos fuerat, observantiam, alia constitutione, per ejusdem quaestores suggestionem, correximus, quae inter imperiales radiat sanctiones; et omnes libertos, (nullo, nec aetatis manumissi, nec domini manumittentis, nec in manumissionis modo, discrimine habito, sicuti antea observabatur,) civitate Romana de

livisione sublata.

$ 3. Freedmen were formerly distinguished by a threefold division. Those, who were manumitted, sometimes obtained the greater liberty, and became Roman citizens; sometimes only the lesser, and became Latins, under the law Junia Norbana; and sometimes only the inferior liberty, and became Dedititii, by the law JSlia Sentia. But, the condition of the Dedititii differing but little from slavery, has been long disused; neither has the name of Latins been frequent. Our piety therefore, leading us to reduce all things into a better state, we have amended our laws by two constitutions, and re-established the antient usage; for antiently liberty was simple and undivided; that is, it was conferred upon the slave, as his manumittor possessed it; admitting this single difference, that the person manumitted became only a Freedman, although his manumittor was a Freeman.

We have abolished the Dedititii by a constitution published among our decisions, by which, at the instance of Tribonian, our Quaestor, we have suppressed all disputes concerning the antient law. We have also, at his suggestion, altered the condition of the Latins and corrected the laws, which related to them, by another constitution, conspicuous among the imperial sanctions; and we have made all the freed-men in general citizens of Rome, regarding neither the age of

coravimus, multis modis additis, per quos possit libertas servis cum civitate Romana, quae sola est in praesenti, praestari.

the manumitted, nor of the manumittor, nor the antient forms of manumission. We have also introduced many new methods, by which slaves may become Roman citizens; the only liberty that can now be conferred.

TITULUS SEXTUS.

QUI ET EX QUIBUS CAUSIS, MANUMITTERE

NONPOSSUNT.

D. xl. T. 9. C. vii. T. 11.

Prius caput legis Mlite, de manumittente in fraudem credi

torura.

NON tamen cuicunque volenti manumittere licet: nam is, qui in fraudem creditorum manumittit, nihil agit: quia lex jElia Sentia impedit libertatem.

Every master may not manumit of will: for if done with intent to defraud bis creditors, it is void. The law JElia Sentia restraining this liberty.

De servo instituto cum libertate.

$ I. Licet autem domino, qui solvendo non est, in testamento servum suum cum libertate haeredem instituere, ut liber fiat, haeresque ei solus et necessarius, si modo ei nemo alius, ex eo testamento, haeres extiterit: aut quia nemo haeres scriptus sit, aut quia is, qui scriptus est, qualibet ex causa haeres ei non extiterit. Idque eadem lege jElia Sentia provisum est, et recte. Valde enim prospiciendum erat, ut egentes homines, quibus alius haeres extiturus non esset, vel servum suum necessarium haeredem haberent, qui satisfacturus esset creditoribus: aut,

§ 1. A master, who is insolvent, may appoint a slave to be his heir with liberty, that thus the slave may obtain his freedom, and become the only and necessary heir of the testator, provided no other person is also heir by the same testament; and this may happen, either because no other person was instituted heir or because the person, so instituted, is unwilling to act. This privilege of masters was for wise reasons established by the lq.wjElia Sentia: for it became necessary to provide, that indigent men, to whom no man would be a voluntary heir, mighthaveaslaveforaneceshoc eo non faciente, creditores res sary heir to satisfy creditors; or haereditarias servi nomine vendant that the creditors should sell the heTie injuria defunctus afficiatur. reditary effects in the name of the

slave, lest the deceased should suffer

ignominy.

De servo instituto sine libertate.

$ II. Idemque juris est, etsi sine libertate servus haeres institutus est; quod nostra constitutio non solum in domino, qui solvendo non est, sed generaliter constituit, nova humanitatis ratione; ut ex ipsa scriptura institutionis etiam libertas ei competere videatur: cum non sit verisimile, eum, qucm haeredem sibi elegit, si praetermiserit libertatis dationem, servum remanere voluisse, et neminem sibi haeredem fore.

$ 2. A slave also becomes free by being instituted an heir, although his freedom be not mentioned: for our constitution respects not only the insolvent master, but, by a new act of humanity, it extends generally; so that the institution of an heir, implies the grant of liberty. For it is highly improbable, that a testator, although he has omitted to mention liberty in his will, could mean that the person instituted, should remain a slave, and himself be destitute of an heir.

Quid sit in fraudem creditorum manumittere.

$ III. In fraudem autem creditorum manumittere videtur, qui vel jam eo tempore, quo manumittit, solvendo non est; .vel qui, datis libertatibus, desiturus est solvendo esse. Prevaluisse tamen videtur, nisi animum quoque fraudandi manumissor habuerit, non impediri libertatum, quamvis bona ejus creditoribus non sufficiant: saepe enim de facultatibus suis amplius, quam in his est, sperant homines. Itaque tunc intelligimus impediri libertatem, cum utroque modo fraudantur creditores; id est, et consdio manumittentis, et ipsa re; eo quod bona ejus non sunt suffectura creditoribus.

$ 3. Manumission is in fraud of creditors, if the master is insolvent, when he manumits, or become so by manumitting. It is however the prevailing opinion, that liberty, when granted, is not impeached, unless the manumittor meant to defraud, although his goods are insufficient for the payment of his creditors; for men frequently hope better, than their circumstances really are. We therefore understand liberty to be then only impeded, when creditors are doubly defrauded: by the intention of the manumittor, and in reality.

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De causa serael probata.

$ VI. Semel autem causa ap- $ 6. A reason once admitted in probata, sive vera sit, sive falsa, favor of liberty, be it true or false, non retractatur. cannot be recalled.

Abrogatio posterioris capitis legis jEliae Sentise.

$ VII. Cum ergo certus modus manumittcudi minoribus viginti annis dominis per legem yEliam Sentiamconsiitutusesset, eveniebat, ut, qui quatuordecem annos expleverat, licet testamentum facere, et in eo sibi haeredem instituere, legataque relinquere, posset, tamen, si adhuc minor esset viginti annis, libertatem servo dare non posset; quod non erat ferendum: nam, cui toto

$ 7. When certain bounds were prescribed by the lawjElia Seiitia to all minors under twenty, with regard to manumission, it was observed that any person who had completed fourteen years, might make atestament, institute an heir, and bequeath legacies, and yet that no person, under twenty, could confer liberty; which was not longer to be tolerated: for can any just cause be assigned, why rum suorum bonorum in testamento dispositio data erat, quare non similiter ei, quemadmodum alias res, ita et de servis suis in ultima voluntate disponere, quemadmodum voluerit, permittimus, ut et libertatem eis possit praestare? Sed cum libertas inaestimabilis res sit, et propter hoc ante vigesimum aetatis annum antiquitas libertatem servo dare prohibebat; ideo nos, mediam quodammodo viam eligentes, non aliter minori viginti annis libertatem in testamento dare servo suo concedimus, nisi septemdecimum amium impleverit, et octodecimum attigerit. Cum enim antiquitas hujusmodi aetati et pro aliis postulare concesserit, cur non etiam sui judicii stabilitas ita eos adjuvare credatur, ut ad libertatem dandam servis suis possint pervenire 1

a man, permitted to dispose of all his effects, by testament, should'be debarred from enfranchising his slaves But liberty being of inestimable value and our ancient laws prohibiting any person to make a grant of it, who is under twenty years of age, we therefore make choice of a middle way, and permit all, who have attained their eighteenth year, to confer liberty by testament. For since, by former practice, persons at eighteen years of age were permited to plead for their clients, there is no reason, why the same stability of judgment, which qualifies them to assist others, should not enable them to be of service to themselves also, by having the liberty of enfranchising their own slaves.

TITULUS SEPTIMUS.

DE LEGE PUSIA CANINIA TOLLENDA. C. vii. T. 3.

LEGE Fusia Caninia, certus modus constitutus erat in servis testamento manumittendis; quam, quasi libertates impedientem et quodammodo invidam, tollendam esse censuimus: cum satis fuerat inhumanum, vivos quidem licentiam habere totam suam familiam libertatem donare, nisi alia causa impediat libertatem; morientibus autem hujusmodi licentiam adimere.

By the law Fusia Caninia, masters were limited in manumitting by testament; we have thought proper to abrogate this law as odious and destructive of liberty; judging it inhuman, that persons in health should have power to manumit a whole family, if no just cause forbid, and that the dying should be prohibited from doing the same.

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