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$ XIV. Ex contrario si debitor creditori suo, quod debet, legaverit, inutile est legatum, si nihil plus est in legato, quam in debito: quia nihil amplius per legatum habet: quod si in diem, vel sub conditione, debitum ei pure legaverit, utile est legatum propter representationem. Quod si vivo testatore dies venerit, vel conditio extiterit, Papinianus scripsit, utile esse nihilominus legatum, quia semel constitit: quod et verum est. Non enim placuit sententia existimantium, extinctum esse legatum, quia in eam causam
$ 14. On the contrary, a legacy by a debtor to his creditor of the money, which he owes him, is ineffectual, if it amount merely to the value of the debt; for the creditor receives no benefit. But, if a debtor bequeath simply to his creditor a sum of money, which was to be paid at a day certain, or which he owed upon condition, the legacy will take effect on account of the representation, i. e. because it becomes due before the debt. But, according to Papinian, if the day of payment should come, or the event of the
pervenerit, a qua incipere non po- condition happen in the lifetime of test . the testator, the legacy would never
theless be effectual, because it was once good; which is true. For we are not satisfied with the opinion that a legacy once good, may afterwards become extinct, by falling into a state, from which it could not have taken a legal commencement
De dote uxori legata.
$ XV. Sed, si uxori maritus dotem legaverit, valet legatum: quia plenius est legatum, quam de dote actio. Sed, si, quam non accepit, dotem legaverit, Divi Severus et Antoninus rescripserunt, siquidem simpliciter legaverit, inutile esse legatum; si vero certa pecunia, vel certum corpus, aut instrumenta dotis in praelegando demonstrata sunt, valere legatum.
$ 15. If a man bequeath to his wife her marriage portion, it is valid; for the legacy is more beneficial than the action she might maintain for the recovery of her portion. But, if he bequeath to his wife, her marriage portion, never actually received, the emperors Severus and Antoninus have declared by their rescript that if it be left simply without any specification of a sum'certain, the legacy is void; but if any sum or thing be specified, or if the instruments, in which the exact value of the portion is mentioned, be referred to, the legacy is valid.
De interitu et mu
§ XVI. Si res legata sine. facto haeredis perierit, legatario decedit. Et, si servus alienus legatus sine facto haeredis manumissus fuerit, non tenetur haeres. Si vero heredis servus legatus sit, et ipse eum manumiserit, teneri eum, Julianus scripsit: nec interest, sciverit, an ignoraverit, a se eum legatum esse. Sed et, si alii, donaverit servum, et is, cui donatus est, eum manumise
itione rei legatse.
$ 16. If a thing bequeathed should perish before delivery without fault of the heir, the loss falls upon the legatee. And, if the slave of another, who is bequeathed, should be manumitted the heir not being privy to the manumission, he can be subject to no action. But, if a testator bequeath the slave of his heir, who afterwards manumits that slave, it is the opinion of Julian, that the De interitu quarundam ex pluribus rebus legatis.
rit, tenetur haeres; quamvis ignoraverit, a se eum legatum esse.
heir is answerable; whether he knew of the legacy or not. Also if the heir hath made a present of a slave bequeathed, and the donee hath manumitted him, the heir is liable although ignorant of the bequest.
$ XVII. Si quis ancillas cum suis natis legaverit, etiamsi ancillae mortuae fuerint, partus legato cedunt. Idem est, et si ordinarii servi cum vicariis legati fuerint: quia licet mortui sint ordinarii, tamen vicarii legato cedunt. Sed, si servus fuerit cum peculio legatus, mortuo servo, vel manumisso, vel alienato, peculii legatum extinguitur. Idem est, si fundus instructus, vel cum instrumento, legatus fuerit; nam, fundo alienato, et instrumenti legatum extinguitur.
$ 17. If a testator bequeath his female slaves and their offspring, although the slaves die, their issue becomes due to the legatee: and so, if ordinary slaves are bequeathed together with vicarial; for although the ordinary slaves die, yet the vicarial slaves will pass by virtue of the bequest. But, where a slave is bequeathed with his peculium, and afterwards dies, or is manumitted, or aliened, the legacy of the peculium becomes extinct . The consequences will be the same, if apiece of ground is bequeathed with the instruments for improving it; for, if the testator aliens the ground, the legacy of the instruments of husbandry is of course extinguished.
De grege legato.
$ XVIII. Si grex legatus fuerit, et postea ad unam ovem pervenerit quod superfuerit, vindicari potest. Grege autem legato etiam eas oves, quae post testamentum factum gregi adjiciuntur, legato cedere Julianus ait . Est autem gregis unum corpus ex distantibus captibus, sicut aedium unum corpus est ex cohaerentibus lapidibus.
$ 18. If a flock is bequeathed, and afterwards reduced to a single sheep, that sheep is claimable; and if a flock receive an addition, after it hath been bequeathed, this addition will also according to Julian enure to the legatee. For a flock is deemed one body, consisting of separate members, as a house is reckoned one body, composed of materials, joined together and adhering.
De aedibus legatis.
$ XIX. jEdibus denique legatis, $ 19. And lastly, when an house
columnaset marmora, quae post tes- is bequeathed, the marble or pillars
tamentum factum adjecta sunt, le- which are added after the bequest
gato decimus cedere. is made, will pass under the general
$ XX. Si peculium legatum fue- $ 20. When the peculium (of a
rit, sine dubio quicquid peculio ac- slave) is bequeathed, it is certain,
cedit vel decedit, vivo testatore, that the increase or decrease of it in
legatarii lucro vel damno est. Quod the life of the testator, becomes the
si post mortem testatoris ante adi- loss or gain of the legatee. And, if
tam haereditatem aliquid servus ac- the peculium of a slave be left to
quisierit, Julianus ait, siquidem ip- him with his liberty and he increase
si manumisso peculium legatum fu- the peculium subsequent to the death
erit, omne, quod ante aditam haere- of the testator, and before the inhe
ditatem acquisitum est legatario ce- ritance is entered upon, it is the opi
dere; quia hujusmodilegati dies ab nion of Julian, that the increase
adita haereditate cedit: sed, si ex- will pass to him as legatee: for such
traneo peculium legatum fuerit, non a legacy does not become due, but
cedere ea legato, nisi ex rebus pe- from the day of the acceptance of
culiaribus auctum fuerit peculium. the inheritance: but should the pe
Peculium autem, nisi legatum fue- culium of a slave be bequeathed to
rit, manumisso non debetur: quam- a stranger, an increase, acquired
vis, si vivus manumiserit, sufficit, within the period above-mentioned
si non adimatur: et ita Divi Seve- will not pass under the legacy, un
rus et Antoninus rescripserunt. Ii- less the acquisition were made, by
dem rescripserunt, peculio legato, means of something appertaining to
non videri id relictum, ut petitio- the peculium; for the peculium of
nem habeat pecuniae, quam in ra- a slave does not belong to him, af
tiones dominicas impendent. Ii- ter he is manumitted by testament,
dem rescripserunt, peculium vide- unless expressly given; although,
ri legatum, cum rationibus red- if a master in his life-time manumit
ditis liber esse jussus est, et ex eo his slave, his peculium will pass to reliqua inferre. him of course, if not excepted : and
such is the rescript of the emperors Severus and Antoninus; who have also declared, that when a peculium is bequeathed to a slave, it does not seem intended that he should have the right of demanding what he may have expended for the use of his master. The same princes have farther declared that a slave seems intitled to his peculium, if his liberty be left him on condition, that he will bring in his accounts, and supply any deficiency out of the profits of his peculium.
De rebus corporalibus et incorporalibus.
$ XXI. Tam autem corporales $ 21. Things incorporeal may be res legari possunt, quam incorpo- bequeathed as well as things corporales; et ided, quod defuncto debe- real: and so therefore may a debt, tur, potest alieni legari, ut actiones due to the testator; and the heir be suas haeres legatario praistet; nisi obliged to transfer his right of acexegerit vivus testator pecuniam: tion to the legatee: unless the tesnam hoc casu legatum extinguitur. tator in his life-time received the Sed et tale legatum valet; damnas money due to him; for in this case esto hceres mens domum illius reft- the legacy would become extinct. cere: vel ilium cere alieno liberare. Such a legacy as this, is also good;
/ command my heir to rebuild the house of Titius: or to free him from his debts.
De legato generali.
<5, XXII. Si generaliter servus, §22. If a testator bequeath a vel res alia, legetur, electio legatarii slave, or else some particular thing est, nisi aliud testator dixerit. disjunctively, the right of election is
in the legatee, unless the testator hath declared otherwise.
De oplione legata.
$ XXIII. Optionis legatum, id $ 23. An optional legacy, is when est, ubi testator ex servis suis vel a testatordirectshis legatee to choose