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bi acquisierit, ipsi reserventur. Et quamvis bona defuncti non sufficiant creditoribus, iterum tamen ex ea causa res ejus, quas sibi acquisierit, non vaeneunt.

after the death of his patron; for such acquisitions are not to be sold although the goods of the deceased should ever be soinsufficientforthe payment of his creditors.

De suis 1

$ II. Sui autem et necessarii haeredes sunt, veluti filius, filia, nepos neptisve ex filio, et deinceps caeteri liberi, qui in potestate morientis modd fuerint. Sed ut nepos neptisve sui haredes sint, non sufficit eum eamve in potestat". avi mortis tempore fuisse: sed opus est, ut pater ejus, vivo patre suo, desierit suus haeres esse, aut morte interceptus, aut qualibit alia ratione liberatus a patria potestate; tunc enim nepos neptisve in locum patris sui succedit. Sed sui quidem haeredes ideo appellantur, quiadomestici haeredes sunt, et vivo quoque patre quodammodo domini existimantur. Unde etiam, si quis intestatus moriatur, prima causa est in successione liberorum. Necessarii vero ideo dicuntur, quia omnind, sive velint, sive nolint, tam ab intestato quam ex testamento, ex lege duodecim tabularum haeredes flunt. Sed his praetor permittit volentibus abstinere haereditate, ut potius parentis quam ipsorum bona similiter a creditoribus possideantur.

Eredibus.

$ 2. Proper and necessary heirs, are sons, daughters, grand-sons or grand-daughters by a son or other direct descendants, in the power of the deceased at the time of his death. To constitute grand-children proper heirs, it does not suffice, that they were in the power of their grandfather at the time of his decease; but it is requisite, that their father should have ceased to be a proper heir in the life-time of his father, by having been freed, either by death or otherwise from paternal authority; for then it is, that the grandson or grand-daughter succeeds in place of their father. Heirs are called sui or proper, because they are domestic ; and in the very life-time of their father are reputed masters in a certain degree. Hence the children of an intestate are first in succession; and are called necessary heirs, because, willing or unwilling they beeome the heirs of their parent according to the law of the 12 tables, whether under a testament or an intestacy. But when children request it, the praetor permits them to obstain from the inheritance, that the effects of their parents, rather than their own, may be seized by the creditors.

De ex

$ III. Caeteri, qui testatoris juri subject! non sunt, extranei haeredes appellantur; itaque liberi nostri, qui in potestate nostra non sunt, haeredes a nobis instituti, extranei haeredis nobis videntur. Qua de causa et qui haeredes a matre instituuntur eodem numero sunt: quia fceminae, in potestate, liberos nonhahabent. Servus quoque haeres a domino institutus, et post factum testamentum ab eo manumissus, eodem numero habetur.

$ 3> All other heirs, not subject to the power of the testator, are called strangers : thus, children not under the power of their father, but who are constituted his heirs, are strangers in a legal sense: and so are children instituted heirs by their mother, for a woman is not allowed to have her children under her own power. A slave also, whom his master hath instituted by testament and afterwards manumitted is so accounted.

De testame

$ IV. In extraneis haeredibusillud observatur, ut sit cum eis testamenti factio, sive haeredes ipsi instituantur, sive ii, qui in potestate eorum sunt. Et id duobus temporibus inspicitur; testamenti quidem facti tempore, ut constiterit institutio; mortis verd testatoris, ut effectum habeat. Hoc amplius, et cum adit haereditatem, esse debet cum eo testamenti factio, sive pure sive sub conditionehaeres institutus sit. Nam jus haeredis eo maxime tempore in spiciendum est, quo acquirit haereditatem. Medio autem tempore, inter factum testamentum et mortem testatoris vel conditionem institutionis existentem, mutatio juris non nocet haeredi: quia ut diximus, tria tempoTa inspici debent. Testamenti autem factionem non solum is habere videtur, qui testamentum facere potest; sed etiam, qui ex alie&o testamento vel ipse capere potest, vel alii acquirer*, licet non

ti factione.

$ 4. As to strangers, it is requisite, that they should be capable of the faction of a testament, whether instituted heirs themselves, or whether those, under their power, are instituted. And this qualification is required at two several times; at the making of the testament, that the institution may be valid; and at the testators death, that it may take effect; and farther, whether an heir be appoinetd simply or conditionally, yet he ought to be capable of the faction of a testament at the time of entering upon the inheritance; for his right is principally regarded at the time of acquiring the possession. But intermediately between the making of the testament and the death of the testator, or the completion of the condition of the institution, the heir will not be prejudiced by incapacity of change of state; because the three points of time which we have noted, are the times to be repossit facere testamentum. Et ideo furiosus, et mutus, et posthumus, et infans, et filius-familias, et servus alienus, testamenti factionem habere dicuntur. Licet enim testamentum facere non possint, attamen ex testamento vel sibi vel alii acquirere possunt.

De jure deliberandi, et

$ V. Extraneis autem haeredibus deliberandi potestas est de adeunda haereditate vel non adeunda. Sed sive is, cui abstinendi potestas est, immiscuerit se bonis haereditatis, sive extraneus, cui de adeunda haereditate diliberare licet, adierit, postca relinquendae haeredilatis facultatem non habet, nisi minor sit 25 annis: nam hujusmodi aetatis hominibus, sicut in caeteris omnibus causis, deceptis, ita et si temere damnosam haereditatem susceperint praetor succurrit. Sciendum est tamen, Divum Hadrianum etiam majori 25 annis veniam dedisse, cum post aditam haereditatem grande aes alienum. quod aditae haereditatis tempore latebat, emersisset. Sed hoc quidem Divus Hadrianus cuidam speciali beneficio praestitit. Divus autem Gordianus postea militibus tantummodo hoc concessit. Sed nostra benevolentia commune omnibus subjectis imperio nostro hoc

garded. Not only a man capable of willing, is said to have testamenti factionem; but also any person capable of taking for the benefit of himself, or of acquiring by testament for the benefit of another: hence, persons mad, mute, or posthumous, infants, the sons of a family, or slaves not your own, may all be said to have the faction of a testament (in its passive signification.) For, although incapable of making, they are capable of acquiring by testament, either for themselves or others.

de beneficio inventarii.

$ 5. Strangers, appointed heirs, may deliberate 'ere they enter upon an inheritance. But. if one, who has the liberty of abstaining, or a stranger who is permitted to deliberate, should once intermeddle, it will not afterwards be in his power to renounce the inheritance, unless he shall be under the age of twentyfive years: for the praetor, in this as in all other cases, relieves minors who have been deceived, and who rashly take upon themselves an injurious inheritance. Here it must be noted, that the emperor Adrian once gave permission to a person of full age, to relinquish an inheritance when it appeared to be incumbered with a great debt, which had been concealed, until the heir had taken upon himself the administration. But this was granted as a special favour. The emperor Gordian afterwards published a constitution for the indemnification of heirs yet conbeneficium praestitit: et constitutionem tam aequissimam quam nobilissimam scripsit, cujus tenorem si observaverint homines, licet eis adire haereditatem, et in tantuni teneri, quantum valere bona haereditatis contingit, ut ex hac causa neque deliberationis auxilium sit eis necessarium, nisi, omissa observations nostrse constitutionis, et deliberandum existimaverint, et esse veteri gravanini aditionis supponere maluerint.

fined the force of it to those only, who were of the soldiery. But our extended benevolence hath rendered this benefit common to all our subjects, having dictated a constitution just and noble, which, if heirs will observe, they may enter upon their inheritance, and not be chargeable beyond the value of the estate; so that they need not pray time for deliberation, unless they omit to observe the tenor of our ordinance, choosing rather to deliberate, and submit themselves to the risk attending the acceptance under the ancient law.

De acquirenda vel <

$ VI. Item extraneus haeres testamento institutus, aut ab intestato ad legitimam haereditatem vocatus, potest aut pro haerede gerendo, aut etiam nuda. voluntate suscipiendao haereditatis, haeres fieri. Pro hserede autem gerere quis videtur, si rebus haereditariis tanquam haeres utatur, vel vendendo res haereditarias, vel praedia colendo, locandove, et quoquo modo voluntatem suam declaret, vel re, vel verbo, de adeunda haereditate; dummodo sciat, eum, in cujus bonis pro haerede gerit, testatum intestatumve obiissee, et se ei haeredem esse. Pro haerede enim gerere, est pro domino gerere: veteres enim, haeredes pro dominis appellabant. Sicut autem nuda voluntate extraneus haeres fit, ita contraria destinatione statim ab haereditate repellitur. Eum, qui surdus vel mutus natus, vel postea factus est, nihil prohibet

tnittenda hsereditate.

$ 6. A stranger, instituted by testament, or called by law to a sue* cession in a case of intestacy, may make himself accountable as heir, either by doing some act as such j or by barely signifying his acceptance of the heirship. And a man is deemed to act as the heir of an inheritance, if he treat it as his own, by selling any part of it, by cultivating the ground, or by leasing it: or declare his consent to accept it, either by act or speech; knowing that the person, with whose estate he intermeddles, is dead testate or intestate, and that he himself is the heir.: for to act as heir, is to act as proprietor; and the ancients frequently used the term heir, when they would denote the proprietor. But as a stranger may become heir by a bare consent, so on the contrary, by a mere dissent, he may bar himself from an inheritance. And

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