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Ratio superioris divisionis.
$ 10. Nor is it an inelegant division of the law, into written and unwritten: which seems to have taken rise from the peculiar customs of the Athenians and Lacedemonians. For the Lacodemonians trusted chiefly to memory, for the preservation of their laws; but the laws of the Athenians were comdarent: Athenienses verd ea, quae mitted to writing.
$ X. Et non ineleganter in duas species jus civile distributum esse videtur; nam origo ejus ab institutis duarum civitatum, Athenarum scilicet et Lacedaemoniorum, fluxisse videtur. In his enim civitatibus, ita agi solitiun erat, ut Lacedaemonii quidem ea, quae pro legibus observabant,m emoriae man
in legibus scripta sent, custodirent .
Divisio juris in immutabile et mutabile.
XI. Sed naturalia quidem jura, quae apud omnes gentes peraeque observantur, divina quadam providential constituta, semper firma atque immutabilia permanent. Ea
$11. The laws of nature, observed by all nations, inasmuch as they are the appointment of divine providence, remain fixed and immutable. But the laws, which every city has veto, quae ipsa sibi quaeque civitas constituit, saepe mutari solent, vel tacito consensu populi, vel alia postea lege lata.
enacted for itself, suffer frequent changes, either by tacit consent of the people, or by some subsequent law.
De objectis juris.
$ XII. Omne autem jus, quo $ 12. All laws, relate to persons,
utimur, vel ad personas pertinet, things, or actions. First then of per
vel ad res, vel ad actiones. Et sons; for it would be of little pur
prius de personis videamus: nam pose to study the law, while ignor
parum est jus nosse, si personse, ant of persons, for whose sake the
quarum causa constitutum est, ig- law was constituted. norentur.
DE JURE PERSONARUM.
D. 1. T. 5.
Prima divisio personarum.
SUMMA itaque divisio de jure The first general division of perpersonarum haec est: quod omnes sons, in respect to their rights, is homines aut liberi sunt, aut servi. into freemen and slaves.
$ I. Et hbertas quidem (ex qua $ 1. Freedom, from which we
etiam liberi vocantur) est naturahs are denominated free, is the natu
facultas ejus, quod cuique facere li- ral power of acting as we please,
bet, nisi quid vi aut jure prohibe- unless prevented by force, or by the*
$ II. Servitus autem est consti- § 2. Slavery, is when one man is
tutio juris gentium, qui quis do- subjected to the dominion of anoth
minio alieno contra naturam sub- er, according to the law of nations,
jicitur. though contrary to natural right .
De ingenui definitions
INGENUUS est is, qui statim, A Freeman is one who is born
ut natus est, liber est; sive ex free, by being born in matrimony,
duobus ingenuis matrimonio editus of parents, who are both free, or
est, sive ex libertinis duobus, sive both freed; or of parents, one free,
ex altero libertino, et altero ingenuo. the other freed. But one born of a TITULUS QUINTUS.
Sed et, si quis ex matre nascitur libera patre vero servo, ingenuus nihilominus nascitus: quemadmodum, qui ex matre libera et incerto patrenatusest: quoniam vulgo conceptus est. Sufficit autem, liberam fuisse matrem eo tempore, quo nascitur, licet ancilla conseperit: et, e contrario, si libera conceperit, deinde ancilla facta pariat, placuit eum, qui nascitur, liberum nasci: quia non debet calamitas matris ei nocere, qui in ventre est. Ex his illud quaesitum est, si ancilla praegnans manumissa sit, deinde ancilla postea facta pepererit, liberum an servum pariat 1 Et Martianus probat, liberum nasci: sufficit enim ei, qui in utero est, liberam matrem vel medio tempore habuisse, ut liber nascatur; quod et verum est.
De erronea ingenui
$ I. Cum autem ingenuus aliquis natus sit, non officit ei, in servitute fuisse, et postea manumis sum esse: saepissime enim constitutum est, natalibus non officere manumissionem.
free mother, altho' the father be a slave, or unknown, is free: notwithstanding he was conceived discreditably. And if the mother is free at the time of the birth, although a bond-woman when she conceived, the infant will be free. Also if a woman, free at conception, becomes a slave and is delivered, her child, is nevertheless free born; for the misfortune of the mother ought not to prejudice her unborn infant. It has been a question, whether the child of a woman, who is made free during pregnancy, but becomes bond before delivery, would be free born? Martianus proves the affirmative; for he deems it sufficient to the unborn child if the mother hath been free at any time between conception and delivery; and this is true.
$ 1. It will not injure a man born free to have been in servitude, and afterwards manumitted: for it hath been often settled that manumission shall not prejudice free birth.
Definitio et origo libertinorum et manumissionis.
LIBERTINI sunt, qui ex justa Freed men are those, who have servitute manumissi sunt. Manu- been manumitted from just servimissio autem est de manu datio: tude. Manumission, manu-dalio,
quamdiu aliquis in servitute est, manui et potestati suppositus est: et manumissus liberatur a domini potestate: quae res a jure gentium originem sumpsit; utpote cum jure naturali omnes liberi nascerentur; nec esset nota manumissio, cum servitus esset incognita. Sed, postquam jure gentium servitus ingenuitatem invasit, secutum est beneficium manumissionis: et, cum uno communi nomine omnes homines appellarentur, jure gentium tria hominum genera esse coeperunt: liberi; et his contrarium, servi; et tertium genus, libertini; qui desierant esse servi.
implies the giving of liberty; for whoever is in servitude, is subject to the hand and power of another; but whoever is manumitted, is free from both.
Manumission took its rise from the law of nations; for all men by the law of nature are born free; nor was manumission heard of while servitude was unknown. But when servitude, under sanction of the law of nations, invaded liberty, the benefit of manumission became then a consequence. For all men at first were denominated by one common appellation, 'till, by the law of nations, they began to be divided into three classes, viz. into liberi, or freemen, servi, or slaves, and libertini, freed-men who have ceased to be slaves.