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De fructuariis et bona fide possessis.

$ IV. De iis autem servis, in quibus tantummodo usumfructum habetis ita placuit, ut, quicquid ex re vestra, vel ex operis suis, acquirunt, id vobis adjiciatur; quod verd extra eas causas consecuti sunt, id ad dominum proprietatis pertineat. Itaque, si is servus haeres institutus sit, legatumve quid ei, aut donatum fuerit, non usufructuario, sed domino proprietatis acquiritur.

$ 4. As to slaves, of whom you have the usufruct only, it hath seemed right, that, whatever they earn by means of your goods, or by their own work and labour, appertains to you: but whatever they earn by other means, belongs to the proprietor: therefore, if a slave be made heir, or legatee, or donee, the inheritance, legacy, or gift, will not be acquired for the usufructuary master, but for the proprietor.


$ V. Idem placet et de eo, qui a vobis bona fide possidctur, sive is liber sit, sive alienus servus: quod enim placuit de usufructuario, idem placet et de bonae fidei possessore. Itaque, quod extra istas duas causas acquiritur, id vel ad ipsum pertinet, si liber est, vel ad dominum, si servus est. Sed bonae fidei possessor,cum usuceperit servum,(quia eo modo dominus fit,) ex omnibus causis per eum sibi acquirere potest. Fructuarius vero usucapere non potest: primum quia non possidet, sed habet jus utendi, fruendi: deinde, quia scit, servum alienum esse. Non solum autem proprietas per cos servos, in quibus usumfructum habetis, vel quos bona fide possidetis, aut per liberam personam, quae bona fide vobis servit, vobis acquiritur, sed etiam possessio. Loquimur autem in utriusque persona secundum distinctionem, quam proxime exposuimus, id est, si quam posses

$ 5. The same rule is observed as to the bond fide possessor of a slave, whether he be a free-man, or the slave of another: for the same law prevails respecting an usufructuary master, and a bond fide possessor; therefore, whatever is acquired, otherwise than by the two causes above-mentioned, either belongs to the person possessed, if he be free; or to the proprietor, if he be a slave. But a bona fide possessor, who hath gained a slave by usncaption or prescription, (inasmuch he thus becomes the absolute proprietor,) can acquire by means of such slave, by all manner of ways. But an usufructuary master cannot prescribe; first, because he can not be strictly said to possess,having only the power of using: and because he knows, the slave belongs to another. We nevertheless may acquire not only property, but also possession, by means of slaves, whom we possess sionem ex re vestra vel ex operis, adepti fuerint.


bona fide, or by usufruct; and even by a free person, of whom we have bona fide possession. But, in saying this, we adhere to the distinction, before explained, and speak of those things only, of which a slave may acquire the possession, either through the goods of his master, or by his own industry.

De reliquis seu extraneis personis.

$ VI. Ex his itaque apparet, per liberos homines quos neque vestro juri subjectos habetis, neque bona fide possidetis, item per alienos servos, in quibus neque usumfructum habetis, neque possessionem justam, nulla ex causa vobis acquiri posse. Et hoc est, quod dicitur, per extraneam personam nihil acquiri posse; excepto eo, quod per liberam personam (veluti per procuratorem) placet non solum scientibus, sed ct ignorantibus, vobis acquiri possessionem, secundum Divi Severi constitutionem; et per hanc possessionem etiam dominium, si dominus fuerit, qui tradidit; vel usucapionem aut longi temporis praescriptionem, si dominus non sit.

$ 6. Hence it appears that you cannot acquire by means of free persons, not under your subjection, or possessed by you bona fide; nor by the slave of another, of whom you have neither the usufruct, nor the jnst possession. And this is meant, when it is said, that nothing■ can be acquired by means of a stranger; except indeed according to the constitution of the emperor Severus, that possession may be acquired for you by a free person, as by a proctor, not only with, but even without your knowledge; and, by this possession, the property may by gained, if the delivery were made by the proprietor; and an usucaption or prescription may be acquired,although the delivery were made by one, who was not the proprietor.

$ VII. Hactenus tantisper admonuisse sufficiat, quemadmodum singulae res vobis acquirantur: nam legatorum jus, quo et ipso singulae res vobis acquiruntur, item fidei commissorum, ubi singulae res vobis relinquuntur opportunius inferiore loco referemus. Videamus ita


$ 7. The observations already made, concerning the acquisition of things, may suffice for the present; for we shall treat more opportunely hereafter concerning the rights of legacies and trusts. We now proceed to shew, how things may be acquired per universitatem, that is, wholly

que nunc, quibus modis per universitatem res vobis acquirantur. Si cui ergo haeredes facti sitis, sive cujus bonorum possessionem petieritis, vel si quem adrogaveritis, vel si cujus bona, libertatum conservandarum causa, vobis addicta fuerint, ejus res omnes, ad vos transeunt. Ac prius de haereditatibus dispiciamus, quarum duplex conditio est; nam vel'ex testamento, vel ab intestato, ad vos pertinent. Et prius est, ut de his dispiciamus, quae ex testamento vobis obveniunt; qua in re necessarium est, initium de testamentis ordinandis exponere.

and in gross by one single acquisition: for example; if you are nominated heir, or seek possession of the goods of another, or arrogate one as your son, or if goods are adjudged to you for preserving the liberty of slaves; in all these cases, the entire inheritance passes to you. Let us therefore inquire into inheritances, which are twofold; for they proceed either from a testacy, or an intestacy. And first of those, which come by testament; and herein it will be necessary to begin by explaining the manner of making testaments.


D. xviii. T. 1. C. vi. T. 23. Nov. 66. 119.


TESTAMENTUM ex eo appel- A testament is so called from teslatur, quod testatio mentis sit. tatio: because it testifies the deter

mination of the mind.

De antiquis modis

$ I. Sed, ut nihil antiquitatis penitus ignoretur, sciendum est, olim quidem duo genera testamentorum in usu fuisse; quorum altero in pace et otio utebantur, quod calalis comiliis appellabant; altero, cum in praelium exituri essent, quod procinctum dicebatur. Accessit de

testandi civilibus.

$ 1. But, lest ancient usage should be forgotten, it is necessary to observe, that formerly there were two kinds of testaments; one practiced in times of peace, and named calalis comitiis; because made in a full assembly of the people; and the other, when the people were going forth

inde tertium genus testamentorum, quod dicebatur per ces et libram, scilicet quod per emancipationem, id est, imaginariam quandam venditionem agebatur, quinque testibus et libripende, civibus Romanus puberibus, praesentibus, et eo, qui familiae emptor dicebatur. Sed ilia quidem priora duo genera testamentorum ex veteribus temporibus in desuetudinem abierunt: quod verd per aes et libram fiebat, licet diutius permanserit, attamen partim et hoc in usu esse desiit .

to battle, and this was the procinctum teslamentum. A third species was afterwards added, called per ces et libram, being effected by emancipation; which was an alienation, made by an imaginary sale in the presence of five witnesses, and the libripens or balance-holder, all citizens of Rome, above the age of fourteen: and also in the presence of him who was called the emptor familice, or purchaser. The two former kinds of testaments, have been disused for many ages: and that, which was made per ces et libram, although it continued longer in practice, hath now ceased in part to be observed.

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to praetoris, signacula testamentis imponerentur: ita ut hoc jus tripertitum esse videatur: et testes quidem, eorumque praesentia, imo contextu, testamenti celebrandi gratia a jure civili descendant: subscriptiones autem testatoris et testium ex sacrarum constitutionem observatione adhibeantur: signacula autem et testium numeros ex edicto praetoris.

subscribed by the witnesses, in obedience to the constitutions. Thus the law of testaments seems to be tripartite: for the civil law requires witnesses to make a settlement valid, who must all be present at the same time without interval: the sacred constitutions ordain, that every testamentmust be subscribed by the testator and the witnesses; and the praetorian edict requires sealing, and settles the number of witnesses.

Solemnitas addita a Justiniano.

$ IV. Sed his omnibus a nostra

constitutione propter testamentorum sinceritatem, ut nulla fraus adhibeatur, hoc aditum est, ut, per manus testatoris vel testium, nomen haeredis exprimatur, et omnia secundum illius constitutionis tenorem procedant.

$ 4. To all these solemnities, wc have enacted in additional security of testaments, and for the prevention of frauds that the name of the heir shall be expressed, by the hand-writing, either of the testator, or of the witnesses; and that every thing shall be done in conformity to the tenor of our constitution.

De annulis, quibus testamenta signantur.

$ V. Possunt autem omnes tes- $ 5. Every witness to a testates et uno annulo signare testamen- ment, according to Papinian, may tum; (quid einm si septem annuli use the same signet: for otherwise, una sculptura fuerint 1) secundum what must be the consequence, if quod Papiniano visum est. Sed seven seals should happen all to bear et alieno quoque annulo, licet sig- the same device 1 It is also allowanare testamentum. ble to seal with the signet of another.

Qui testes esse possunt.

$ VI. Testes autem adhiberi $ 6. Those persons are good wit

possunt ii, cum quibus testamenti nesses, who can legally take by tes

factio est. Sed neque mulier, ne- tament: but no woman or minor un

que impubes, neque servus, neque der puberty, or slave; no person, mad

furiosus, neque mutus, neque sur- mute, or deaf; no interdicted prodi

dus, neque is, cui bonis interdic- gal; nor any whom the laws, have

tum est, neque ii, quos leges ju- reprobated and rendered intestable,

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