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rum, quae alienatae sunt, putaverint, sibi quasdam competere actiones. Nostra autem divina constitutio, quam nuper promulgavimus, etiam de iis, qui a nostra vel venerabilis Augustae domo aliquid acceperint, haec statuit, quae in fiscalibus alienationibus praefatae Zenonianae constitutionis continentur.

who claim either as proprietors or mortgagees of the things aliened, may bring suit against the treasury, at any time within four years. Our own sacred ordinance, lately promulged in favour of those, who receive any thing, from the private possessions either of our-self, or of the empress, adopts the regulations, contained in the above mentioned constitution of the emperor Zeno, concerning fiscal alienations.

TITULUS SEPTIMUS

DE DONATIONIBUS.
D. xxxix. T. 5. et 6. C. viii. T. 54. Nov. 162.

De donatione.

EST et aliud genus acquisitionis, Donation or gift, is another mode donatio. Donationum autem duo of acquiring property; it is of two sunt genera; mortis causa, et non kinds; on account of death: and mortis causa. , not on account of death.

De mortis cai

$ L Mortis causa donatio est, quae propter mortis fit suspicionem; cum quis ita donat, ut si quid humanitus ei contigisset, haberet is, quiaccipit: sin autem supervixisset is, qui donavit, reciperet: vel si eum donationis poenituisset, aut prior decesserit is, cui donatum sit. Hae mortis causa donationes, ad exemplum legato rum redactae sunt per omnia: nam, cum prudentibus ambiguum fuerat, utrum donationis,

3a donatione.

$ 1/ A donation mortis causa, is made under apprehension of death; as when anything is given upon condition, that, if the donor dies the donee shall possess it absolutely; or return it, if the donor should survive; or should repent, of having made the gift; or if the donee should die before the donor. Donations mortis causa, are now reduced, as far as possible, to the similitude of legacies: for, when it was much

an legati instar eam obtinere oporteret, (et utriusque causae quaedam habebat insignia,) et alii ad aliud genus eam retrahebant, a nobis constitutiun est, ut per omnia fere legatis connumeretur, et sic procedat, quemadmodum nostra constitutio eam formavit. Et in summa mortis causa donatio est, cum magis se quis velit habere, quam eum, cui donat; magisque eum, cui donat, quam haeredem suum. Sic et apud Homerum Telemachus donat Pi

T830.

doubted by our lawyers, whether a donation mortis causa ought to be reputed as a gift, or as a legacy, inasmuch as, in some things, it partakes of the nature of both, we then ordained, that it should be considered in almost all respects as a legacy; and be made as our constitution directs. In short, a donation, mortis causa, is then said to be made, when a man so gives, as to demonstrate, that he would rather possess the thing given himself, than that the donee should possess it; and yet that the donee should possess it, rather than his own heir.

The donation which Telemachus makes to Pirceus in Homer is of this species.

He (when Pirceus ask'd for slaves, to bring

The gifts and treasures of the Spartan king)

Thus thoughtful answer'd :—those we shall not move,

Dark and unconscious of the will of Jove.

We know not yet the full event of all;

Stabb'd in his palace, if your prince must fall,

Us, and our house, if treason must o'erthrow,

Better a friend possess them, than a foe.

But on my foes should vengeance heav'n decree,

Riches are welcome then, not else, to me;

'Till then, retain the gifts.—

Pope's Odyss. lib. 17.

De simplice inter vivos donatione.

$ II. Aliae autem donationes $ 2. Donations, made without ap

sunt quae sine ulla mortis cogitatio- prehension of death, called dona

ne fiunt, quas inter vivos appella- tions inter vivos, admit of no com

mus, quae non omnio comparantur parison with legacies: for, when

legatis: quae, si fuerint perfectae, once perfected, they cannot be rash

temere revocari non possunt. Per- ly revoked: they are esteemed per

ficiuntuT autem, cum donator suam feet, when the donor hath manifest

voluntatem scriptis aut sine scriptis ed his will either in writing or oth

manifestaverit. Et, ad exemplum erwise. And it is appointed by our De donatione ante nuptias vel propter nuptias.

veuditionis, nostra constitutio eas etiam in se habere necessitatem traditionis voluit, ut, etiamsi non tradantur, habeant plenissimum et perfectum robur, et traditionis necessitas incumbat donatori. Et, cum retro principum dispositiones insinuari eas actis intervenientibus volebant, si majores fuerant ducentorum solidorum, constitutio nostra eam quantitatem usque ad quingentos solidos ampliavit, quam stare etiam sine insinuatione statuit: sed et quasdam donationis invenit, quae penitus insinuationem fieri minime desiderant, sed in se plenissimam habent firmitatem. Alia insuper multa ad uberiorem exitum donationum invenimus, quae omnia exnostris constitutionibus, quas super his exposuimus, colligenda sunt. Sciendum est tamen, quod, etsi plenissittiae sint donationes, si tamen ingrati existant homines in quos beneficium collatum est, donatoribus per nostram constitutionem licentiam praestitimus certis ex causis eas revocare: ne illi, qui suas res in alios contulerint, ab his quandam patiantur injuriam vel jacturam, secundum enumeratos in constitutione nostra modos.

constitution, that a donation inter vivos shall, like a sale necessarily inforce a delivery; for when things are given, they become fully vested in the donee, and it is incumbent upon the donor to deliver them: and, although it is enacted by our predecessors, that donations, to the value of two hundred solidi, shall be formallyregistered, our ordinance enlarges this sum to five hundred solidi, and permits donations of less value to be binding without insinuation or inrollment; and it notices some donations, which are of full force without inrollment. We have also, for the enlargement of donations, enacted many other rules, which may be collected from our constitutions, on this subject. It nevertheless must be observed, that, a donation, validly made may be revoked on account of ingratitude in the donee in some particular cases: and this, lest a man should in any of the instances enumerated in our constitution, suffer injury or damage from those upon whom he hath bestowed his property.

$ III. Est et aliud genus inter vivos donationis, quod veteribus quidem prudentibus penitus erat incognitum; postea autem a junioribus Divis Principibus introductum est, quod ante nuptias vocabatur, et tacitam in se conditionem habebat, ut tunc ratum esset, cum ma

$ 3. There is another kind of donations inter vivos, introduced by later emperors, and wholly unknown to the ancient lawyers, termed donation before marriage, containing the tacit condition, that it should take effect, when the marriage was performed; these donations were proideo

que ante nuptias vocabatur, quod ante matrimonium efficiebatur; et nunquam post nuptias celebratas talis donatio procedebat . Sed primus quidem Divus Justin us pater noster, cum augeri dotes et post nuptias fuerat permissum, si quid tale eveniret, et ante nuptias augeri donationem, et constante matrimonio, sua constitutione permisit: sed tamen nomen inconveniens remanebat, cum ante nuptias quidem vocabatur, post nuptias autem tale accipiebat incrementum. Sed nos pianissimo fini tradere sanctiones cupientes, et consequentia nomina rebus esse studentes, constituimus, ut tales donationes non augeantur tantiun, sed etiam constante matrimonio initium accipiant: et non ante nuptias, sed propter nuptias, vocentur: et dotibus in hoc exaequentur, ut quemadmodum dotes constante matrimonio non solum augentur, sed etiam fiunt, ita et istae donationes, quae propter nuptias introducte sunt, non solum antecedant matrimonium, sed eo etiam contracto augeantur et constituantur.

perly called ante nuptias, they could never be constituted after the celebration of matrimony. But, inasmuch as it was permitted by the ancient law, that portions might be augmented after marriage, the emperor Justin, our father, hath enacted by his constitution, that donations called ante nuptias might also be augmented at any time during matrimony: but, as it was improper, that a donation should be still termed ante nuptias, when it had received an augmentation post nuptias, and we being desirous, that our sanctions might be as perfect as possible, and that names should be properly adapted to things, have ordained that such donations may not only be augmented, but may commence also at any time during matrimony; and that for the future, they shall not be called donations ante nuptias, but donations propter nuptias; and thus they are made equal with portions; for as portions may be augmented, and even made, during matrimony, so donations, introduced on account of matrimony, may now not only precede marriage, but be augmented, or even constituted, after the celebration of it.

$ IV. Erat olim et alius modus civilis acquisitionis per jus accrescendi, quod est tale; si, communem servum habens aliquis cum Titio, solus libertatem ei imposuerit, vel vindicta. vel testamento, eo casu pars ejus amittebatur, et socio accrescebat. Sed, cum pessimum fuerat exemplo, et libertate servum

Oe jure accrescendi.

$ 4. There was formerly another manner of acquiring property by the civil law; namely by accretion j as, if Primus holding a slave in common with Titius had infranchised him, either by the vindicta or by testament, then would the share of Primus in that slave be lost, and accrue to Titius. But, inasmuch as TITULUS OCTAVUS.

defraudari, et ex eo humanioribus quidem dominis damnum inferri, severioribus autem dominis lucrum accedere, hoc, quasi invidia plenum, pio remedio per nostram constitutionem mederi necessarium duximus; et invenimus viam, per quam manumissor, et socius ejus, et qui libertatem accepit, nostro beneficio fruantur, libertate cum effectu procedente, (cujus favore antiquos legum latores multa etiam contra communes regulas statuisse manifestum est,) et eo, qui eam libertatem imposuit, suae liberalitatis stabilitate gaudente, et socio indemni conservato, pretiumque servi secundum partem dominii, quod nos definivimus, accipiente.

it affords a bad example, that a man should be defrauded of his liberty, and that the most humane masters, should suffer loss, while the most severe receive emolument, we have thought it necessary, to administer a humane remedy to this grievance; and have devised means by which the manumittor, his co-partner, and the freed person, may all partake of our beneficence: for we have decreed, (and clearly our ancient legislators have often set aside the strict rules of law in favour of liberty,) that freedom, although granted by one partner only, shall immediately take effect: so that the manumittor shall have reason to be pleased with the validity of his gift, if his co-partner be indemnified by receiving his share of the worth of the slave.

QUIBUS ALIENARE LICET, VEL NON LICET.

De marito, qui, licet fundi dotalis dominus sit, alienare

nequit.

ACCIDIT aliquando, ut, qui dominus rei sit, alienare non possit: et contra qui dominus non sit, alienandae rei potestatem habeat. Nam dotale praedium maritus, invita muliere, per legem Juliam prohibetur alienare; quamvis ipsius sit, dotis causa ei datum: quod nos, legem Juliam corrigentes, in meliorem statum deduximus. Cumenim lex in solis tantummodo rebus

Sometimes the proprietor of a thing may not alien it, while one who is not proprietor, may: for example, by the law Julia, a husband is forbidden to alienate lands, which came to him in right of his wife, without her consent; although given to him. as a marriage portion. But, in this respect, we have corrected and amended the law Julia; for, as this law regards only posses

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