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or exchange, for fish, rice, and apt to grow mad, by too much feed Dus sorts of sınall grain.
ing on them. th. The ripe fruit, as well as the Bassia obovata, Forster's prod. No pe, is eaten by the poor, as other 200: a native of the isle of Tanna, ts. Of the unripe, the skin is ta. in the South Sea. Of this species, I off, and after throwing away the possess no other account than the pe kernel, boiled to a jelly, and definition, which corresponds with n with salt and capsicum.
the habit of the genus. If Forster th. The leaves are boiled with has left us no account of the uses of er, and given as a medicine, in the tree, it may be worth while to ral diseases, both to men, and to make enquiry, when an opportunity le.
offers. ith. The milk of the green fruit, Park's Shea, or butter tree of Af1 of the tender bark, is also ad- rica, we have reason, from his descripvistered as a inedicine.
tion, and figure, as well as from anaToth. The bark is used as a reme. .logy, to suppose a species of this same for the itch.
genus. At page 352 (of his travels Tith. The wood is as hard and in the interior of Africa) he says, rable as teak wood, but not so ea- “ The appearance of the fruit evi. wrought, nor is it procurable of dently places the Shea tree in the nah a length for beams, and planks, tural order of Sapotæ, (to which the former; except in clay ground, Bassia belongs,) and it has some rejere the tree grows to a consider- semblance to the Madhuca tree (Basle height; but, in such a soil, it sia latifolia), described by Lieuteoduces fewer branches, and is less nant C. Hainilton, in the Asiatic Reutful, than in a sandy, or mixed searches, Volume I, page 300. il, which is the best suited for it. “ The pe: ple were every where
a saudy soil, the branches shoot employed in collecting the fruit of It nearer to the ground, and to a the Shea trees, from which they preeater circumference, and yield more pare a vegetable butter, mentioned nit. These trees require but little in the former part of this work *. teption; beyond watering them du- These trees grow in great abundance ng the first two or three years, in all over this part of Bambarra. They le dry season. Being of so great are not planted by the natives, but se, we have here whole groves of are found growing naturally in the lem, on high, and sandy grounds, woods; and in clearing woodland bere no other fruit trees will grow. for cultivation, every tree is cut down
121h. We may add, that the owls, but the Shea. The tree itself very quirrels, lizards, dogs and jackals, much resembles the American oak, ake a share of the flowers; but the and the fruit, from the kernel of ulgar belief is, that the latter, es- which, first dried in the sun, the butsecially in the time of blossom, are ter is prepared, by boiliug the kernel
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* This commodity, Shea toulou, which, literally translated, signifies Tree-butter, is xtracted, by means of boiling water, from the kervel of the nur, has the consistence and appearance of butter; and is in truth an admirable substitute for it. It forins an important article in the food of the natives, and serves also for every domestic purpose in which oil would otherwise be used. The demand for it is therefore great Park's Travel in Africa. Page 26.
in water, has somewhat the appear. The same sample, which I got fa ance of a Spanish olive. The kernel Captain Hardwicke, in January 18 is envelopeit in a sweet pulp, under a I have still by me. It remains p thin green ridd ; and the butter pro- fectly sweet, both in taste and se duced from it, besides the advantage Its flavour is that of cloves ; bare of its keeping the whole year without I presume, been perfumed with the salt, is whifer, firmer, and to my pa. spice, previously to its falling into la late, of a richer favour, than the best hands, a practice mentioned in butter I ever tasted made of cows following narrative. At this insta milk. The growth and preparation of the thermometer is at ninetit this commodity, seem to be amongst and for these six weeks, it has suren the first objects of African industry, been below ninety, and has oftru in this and the neighbouring states; risen to one hundred, or more, yet and it constitutes a main article of continues about as firm as butter their luland conimerce." Park's Tra- in England during winter. vels in Africa, page 202-3.
Mr. Gott's account of the tree Tii the following account of the and its product, is as follows:Bassia Butyracea, by Mr. Gott, we The tree producing a fat-like sak. find the people of Alniorah eat the stance, known in this country by Il dregs, left after the finer parts have name of Phulwah, is a native of the been extracted; consequently there Almorah hills, and know there to can be little doubt of the wholesome- the same name. The tree is scara, ness of the pure vegetable butter its grows on a strong soil, on the decis self. The thick oil of the Bassia vilies of the southern aspects of the latifolia, and longifolia, the natives hills below Almorah, generally attailof various parts of India either use ing the height, when full grown, alone, or mixed with glee (clarified fifty feet, with a circumference of .butter) in their diet.
The bark, of such specimens as I har On Captain Hardwicke's depar- been able to obtain, is inclined :: ture for England, in the beginning of smoothness, and speckled; it dower: 1803, he gave me a small quantity in January, and the seed is perk of the above-nientioned substance, about August, at which time the observing, that the only account he tives collect them, for the purpose or could give me of it was, that it was extracting the above substance. OL reported to him to be a vegetable opening the shell of the seed or not, product from Almorah, or its neigh- which is of a fine chesnut colour, bourhood, where it is called Fulwah, smooth, and brittle, the kernel anor Phulwarah. In consequence of pears of the size and shape of a this information, I applied to Mr. blanched almond : the kernels are Gott, (who is stationed in the vici- bruised, on a sniooth stone, to the nity of that country,) to make the consistency of cream, or of a fire necessary inquiries; and from him I pulpy matter; which is then put into procured an abundance of well pre- a cloth bag, with a moderaie weight served specimens, at various times, in laid on, and left to stand, till the ou. leaf, flower, and fruit. From these, or fat, is expressed, which becomes and that gentleman's account of the immediately of the consistency of tree, and its product, the foregoing hog’s-lard, and is of a delicate white description was taken. . . .colour. Its uses are in medicine ;
ng highly esteemed in rheumatism, Additional Remarks by the same, in
contractions of the linibs. It is also consequence of a few Queries transch esteemed, and used by natives mitted to Mr. Gott. rank, as an unction, for which pose it is generally mixed with an It is supposed there might be an
of some kind. Except the fruit, nually procured from twenty to thirty ich is not much esteemed, no other maunds, at the price of fourteen or t of the tree is used.
fifteen rupees the maund. This tree is supposed to bear a 1st. It is never taken inwardly as ing affinity to the Mawa, (Mad- a medicine, nor is it used in diet; a, or Bassia latifolia ;) but the further than that the dregs, after the
or fat, extracted from the seeds, purer fatty substance is expressed, are fers very materially. The oil from eaten, as a substitute for ghee, by the
Mawa, is of a greenish-yellow peasants, or labourers, who extract our, and seldom congeals. That the fat. m the Phulwah congeals inme- 2d. I have some pure, which has tely after expression, is perfectly been by me ten monthis, and it has ourless; and, in the hottest wea neitheracquired colour, nor bad sinell. T, if melted by art, will, on being 3d, After it is imported into Rotto cool, resume its former consis, hilkhund, it is scented with Utr, (an icy. The oil from the seed of the essential oil,) and a little of the flour 'zva, if rubbed on woollen cloth, of the Indian corn (Zea Mays ) is Ives as strong a stain as other oils added, to increase its consistency.
animal fat. The fatty substance N. B. This flour is added on account om the Phulwah, if pure, being of its peculiar wbiteness. bbed on woollen cloth, will leave 41h. If it is clean, and free from trace behind.
dirt, it never undergoes any purificaThe oil of Mawa is expressed in tion; if the contrary, it is heated, insiderable quantities, about Cawn- and filtered through a coarse clotki. jor, and Furruckabad, and being 5th. The flowers are never used. ived with, is sold as ghee.
The pulp of the fruit is eaten by some; This fatty substance very rarely it is of a sweet, and flat taste. mes pure from the bills, and re- The timber is wbite, soft, and po
ives more and more adulteration, roos; and is never made any use of by adding the purest ghee,) as it by the natives. It is nearly as light asses down to the lower provinces : as the Semul, or cotton tree.( Bomse gives it the firmness of pure tallow. bax heptaphyllum ).
1 List of Plants in Bloom, at Market Bosworth, in Leicestershire, and its Vicinity, from the 1st. to the 31st. of January, 1807 ; demonstra. tive of the remarkable mildness of that Season.
[ From Mr. Power's Calendar of Flora. )
Officinal ditto common yellow jasmine Pield ditto
Common rosemary 3 H 3
Red Red valerian
Wild chervil, or cow weed Dardask rose Lamb's lettuce, or corn sa- Common Parsley Chinese rose Spring crocus [lad Cow parsnip
Common raspberry Annual meadow-grass Lauristinus
Ditio, fruit ripe Cultivated oat, in bloom Guelder rose
Common brainble Ditto, sced ripe Jan. 2d Common chickweed Wild strawberry Fuller's teasel
Virginian spider-wurt Wood ditto
Common soowdrop Chili ditto
Close-grass cinque' Goose-grass, or cleavers Ora:ige-flowered Aletris Gieat-flowered dito Sweet-scented wood-roof Leek
Branching larkspar Cretan Lugloss Niczereon
Variegated nonksi? Comirey-leaved hound's- Hairy daphne
Common fennel-flusu Venus navel-wor! (tougue Spurge laurel
Daurian rhododendron Pheasant's eye Cora pimpernel
Box leaved Andromeda Pile-wort
Garden llydrangea Coin noi ditto
Siinking hellebore, or bra Mountain jasione Carnation
Common columbine 21
Cominon lavender Willow-leaved box horn Cuckow flower
Ground ivy, or Gill Black currant
Great stiich-wort White archangel
Sweet scented mignionette Purple ditto
Hemp leaved dead-ne!
Common wbite ditto Great yellow violet Common myrtle
Common mother-Wort Common ivy Nectarine
Golden flowered fig-mary- Common eye-bright Common fennel
Scarlet ditto (gold Bell-fiuwered chelone Common carrot Shewy ditto
Scarlet ditto Spotted hemlock
Striped Aowered ditto Common snap dragog Fool's parsley
Commun drop-wort Ivy-leaved ditto
• “ I am informed, by lady Elcho, that she left a profusion of this plant in bloon, i the 15th of January, at lord Elcho's seat at Beanstone, in East Lothian,"
hrec leaved snap-dragon Curled-leaved mallow New England star-wort ruom- Icaveil dito Vervain mallow
Late-flowering ditto unnon yellow ditto Tree ditto
Woolley-leaved Cineraria riental Celsia Althæa frutex
Red-leaved ditto luuntain Eriuus. Bladder Ketmia
Ilybrid ditto pring whitlow-grass. Glaucous fumitory Marsh ditto iarden cress Common furze
Common daisy hepherd's purse Yellow lupine
French marygold urple candy-cutt Kiducy-bean
African dilto weel alysson
Tuberous-rooted bitter- Red Zinpia tock ditto
Sweet pea (vetch Indian Chrysanthemum Common honesty Garden bcan
Great-flowered Tutsan Garden ditto
Ox-tongue Picris. Common chamomile Brompton stock
Common sow-thistle Corn chamomile Ten-week stock
Common dandelion Stinking ditto Dame's violet
Orange-flowered hawk Lavender cotton milfoil Tower wall-cress
weed Sweet inaudlin ditto
Coinnion yarrow Charlock
Cultivated artichoke Many-flowered sun-flower White mustard
Common carline thistle Purple Rudbeckia Garden raddish
Purple-stalked Eupato- Cut-leaved ditto Horse-shoe crane's-bill Common tansey (riuin Whorl-lcavel tick-seeded Scarlet ditto Fan-leav'd ditto
sun-flower Hooded ditto
Annual Xeranthemum Blue-botile Cyanus
Wave-leaved ditto , Scabious ditto
Common groundsel Common passion-flower Herb-Robert Purple ditto
Cominon nettle Ilolly-hock
Flax-leaved star-vort Nut tree Cominon marshmallow Savory-leaved ditto Common yev Common mallow
Great-flowered ditto Prickley butcher's broom Whorl-flowered ditto New Holland ditto Officinal pellitory.
“ In the preceding list no plant be fonnd so situated; it may therehas been inserted which was sheltered fore be necessary to observe, that they in any store, green-house, or frame; werė, for the niost part, the surplus miany were observed in the fields and of an over-stocked green-house, which hedges in their native places of growth; had been planted in the borders to but by far the greater part were the take their chauce; and as no frosts ornamental inhabitants of the par- of consequence occurred till the first terre : the nectarine and apricot may week in January, they continued to certainly be considered as forced. It flourish and bloom, with unabated may appear singular that so many vigour, till cut off by rather severe natives of the Cape, and of still warmer frost in the early part of the month; climales, which are in this country a great variely, of the Cryptogamia usually considered as iubabitants of class, usually blooming at this season, the greed-house or dry stove, should are oniitted, as not offering any de
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