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and which, in the eyes of posterity, resorted to only in just retaliation of would be an indelible stain, such a the barbarous system adopted by tyranny was allowed to be established England, which assimilates its legis into principles, and consecrated by lation to that of Algiers, shall cease usage, the Euglish would avail then- to have any effect with respect to selves of it to assert it as a rigiit; as all pations who shall have the firmness they have availed themselves of the in- to compel the English goveroment tolerance of governments to establish to respect their fiag. They shall couthe infainous principle, that the flag tinue to be rigorously in force as long of a nation does not cover goods, and as that government does not returu to give to their right of blockade an to the principle of the law of nations, arbitrary extension, and which in- which regulates the relations of civifringes on the sovereignty of every lized states in a state of war. The state; we have decreed, and do de- provisions of the present decree shall cree, as follo«s:

be abrogated and null; in fact, as “ART. I. Every ship, to whatever soon as the English abide again by nation it may belong, that shall have the principles of the law of nations, submitted to be searched by an En- which are also the principles of jus. glish ship, or to a voyage to England, tice and of honour. or that shall have paid any tax what "All our ministers are charged soever to the English government, with the execution of the present deis thereby, and for that alone, de- cree, which shall be inserted in the clared to be denationalized, to have bulletin of the laws. forfeited the protection of its king, (Signed) “NAPOLEON. and to have become English pro “By order of the Emperor, the perty.

Secretary of State. "II. Whether the ships thus dena (Signed) “H. B. MARET." tionalized by the arbitrary measures of the English government, enter into our ports, or those of our allies, Circular Letter, addressed by the or whether they fall into the hands Minister of the Interior to the of our ships of war, or of our pri Chamber of Commerce. vateers, they are declared to be good and lawful prizes.

“ You are not unacquainted, gen“III, The British islands are de- tlemen, with the late acts of the clared to be in a state of blockade, British government, that last stage both by land and sea. Every ship of the oppression of the commerce of whatever nation, or whatsoever of the world; you kuow that it bas the nature of its cargo may be, that resolved to destroy the feeble resails from the ports of England, of mains of the independence of the seas. those of the English colonies, and of It now thinks proper, that bencethe countries occupied by English forth no ship shall navigate the seas troops, is good and lawful prize, as without touching at its ports, without contrary to the present decree; and a tribute to its pretended sovereignty, may be captured by our ships of and without receiving from it an igwar or our privateers, and adjudged nominious licence. to the captor.

“ Thus the ocean is benceforward “IV. These ineasures, which are only the field of slavery: the usur

pation of the most sacred of the that neutral ships will elude the vigirights of nations is consumiuated, lance of the English cruizers. The and this tyrannic yoke is to press upon immense extent of the coast of the them until the day of vengeance; or empire will favour and protect their until, brought to a due sense of mo- enterprizes. . ;i: 1 deration, the English government « These resources ought not to be will itself calm its rage, and break undervalued, nor counted for nothat sceptre to which the nations of thing. France will subunit to a temthe continent will never consent to porary situation, which can only submit.

change with time, and with new ex"I am calling our common atten- ertious; but her enemy shall not tion to the important circumstances deprive her of the main basis of her which inust powerfully induce us to prosperity, her internal communicaawaken your patriotism and your tion, her relations with the continent, wisdom. One would have imagined where she no longer sees any but that every obstruction and restraint friends and allies; her soil will not that clogged the course of the com- be less fertile, ber industry will not merce on the continent had been ex- maintain itself the less, though dehausted; still, however, they are prived of some materials which it is going to be aggravated by the mea- not impossible to replace. sures lately adopted by England; “To this last proposition I am ra. but they will find our minds made up ther anxious, gentlemen, to direct to struggle against, and to overcoine, your attention. You have advice to This new jpode of oppression.

give, and examples to hold out to “We must not shut our eyes to commerce. You must already forethe consequences. Importation and see the effect of the privation of cerexportation, already so much re- tain materials, more especially of stricted, will soon be much more so. cotton, and of ingredients for dying Every thing connected with maritime cotton, of which a quantity has been commerce, every thing that depends stored up in France. That which we upon it, will now be liable to more shall derive from the Levant, and that difficulties, to more uncertainty. which, at a more distant period, we There are, however, two channels shall reap from our indigenous culthat still remain open.

ture, not unsuccessfully essayed, will “The power of attacking every suflice to support, in a great mea-, ship that renounces the independence sure, our manufactures; but in the of its nalional flag, by a shameful expectation that some of them may submission to the Britisi sovereignty, experience privations, we must have or by navigating under a British recourse, as far as possible, to hemp licence, wil open a wide field to the and flax, in order to provide occuhopes of our commanders. Such a pation for those manufacturers who resource will not prove ineffectual; would no longer be employed with and French, commerce will not de- articles of coiton. It were desirable vole itself uselessly to that sort of that we could circumscribe our conwarfare which never lets courage, sumption within the products of the dexterity, and decision, go unre- materials the growth of our soil, and warded.

restrain the unhappy efircts of habits i.“We have, moreover, to hope and taste contracted for manufac.

tures,

tures, that would render us dependent taste, their habits, and their industry. upon foreign countries.

The commerce of Europe will soon, “ The materials for dyeing may no doubt, be rescued from oppresbecome scarce, but nany of them sion. The interests of uations, the may be replaced by the productions honour of sovereigns, the magoamiof our soil. We will dispense with mous resolutions of the most powerthe rest by a slight sacrifice of some erful of the allies of France, the colours, which may please from their power and wish of the hero who apparent greater beauty, without rules over us, the justice of a cause adding any thing to the intrinsic good- to which Heaven will grant its proness of the article. Besides, no sinall tection,, every motire concurs to dereliance is to be placed on the ge- cide the contest; nor can its issue nius of our manufacturers ; it will remain uncertain. triumph over those difficulties.

“ Accept, gentlemen, the assu“ The channels which, in spite of rance of my sincere esteemi. these usurpations, will remain open (Signed) “ CRETET." to importation, may not suffice for the consumption of sugar and coffee. These objects of a secondary utility Decrees of Buonaparte. may become scarce; but the great inass of the nation will not suffer

Milan, Dec. 19, 1807. from this temporary privation; habits We, Napoleon, by the grace of of indulgence, too widely carried, God, and the constitution of the emwill be counteracted and restrained pire, emperor of the French, and by the rise in the price.

king of Italv, decree as follows:“ And besides, is it to be supposed Article 1.---We adopt for our son, that the great nation will allow itself prince Eugene Beauharnois, archto be intimidated by the privation of chancellor of state of our empire of some futile enjoyments?-Herarmies · France, and viceroy of our kingdom have endured, without a murmur, of Italy. tlie most pinching wants; that great II.-The crown of Italy shall be, example will not have been held out after als, and in default of our chilin vain; and when we liave in view dren and male legitimate descendants, to re-conquer the independence of hereditary in the person of prince the seas—when we have in view to Eugene, and his direct legitimate derescue and redeem commerce from scendants from male to male, by orthe ruinous acts of piracy that are der of primogeniture, to the perpetual juridically exercised against it ; exclusion of women and their de when we have in vicw the vindica. scendants. tion of the national honour, and the III.-In default of our sons, and breaking down of those furcæ Can- male descendants, and the sons and dine which England is attempting male descendants of prince Eugene, to erect upon our coasts, the French the crown of Italy shall devolve to people will support, with the dignity the son and nearest relative of such and the courage thiat belong to their of the prioces of our blood, as shall great character, the momentary sa• then reign in France. crifices that are imposed upon their IV.-Prince Eugene, our son,

shral!

thall enjoy all the houours attached ly and prosperity, lave decreed, and 10 our arloption."

do decree as follows: . V.-The right which our adop- " Title I. Art. 1.-The kingdom tion gives hiin shall never, in any of Westphaliais composed of the fol. tase, authorise hiin or his descend- lowing states, viz. the territory of ints to urge any pretensions to the Brunswick Wolfenboltel, the part of prown of France, the succession to the Altmark which lies on the left which is invariably fixed.

bank of the Elbe, the part of the (Sigoed) NAPOLEON. district of Magdeburg wbich lies ou

the left bank of the Elbe, the terriA decree of the 20th confers upon tory of Halle, the district of Hilde. prince Eugene Napoleon, the title of sheim, and ihe town of Goslar, the prince of Venice.

lands belonging to Halberstadt, HoAnother decree confers upon“our bienstein, and Quedlinbourg, the earlwell-beloved grand daughter, prin- dom of Mansfield, Eichtield, wilb cess Josephine, as a mark of our sa- Treffurth, Mulhausen, Nordhausen, tisfaction with our gourd city of Pue the 'earldom of Stolberg, Wernilogna," the title of princess of Bo gerode, the territory of Hesse Cassel, logna.

with Rintelu and Schaumbourgh, nut Another decree declares the chan- including Hanau, and Katzenelbocellor Melzi, duke of Lodi.

gen on the Rhine, the territory of Corvey, Gottingen, and Grubeuhaa gen, with the lauds which lie sur.

rounded by Hohenstein and ElbinWestphalian Constitution.

gerode, the bishopric of Osnabruck,

the bishopric of Paderborn, Niinden, “ Cassel, Dec. 15, 1807. and Ravensberg, the earldom of “Atlecree of the 71h instant pub- Rietberg-Kaunitz. lishes the constitution of the king “l. --We reserve to ourselves one dom of Westphalia. The following moiety of the allodial domains of the is the tenor of the principal parts princes, to be applied in furnishing

the recompences we have promised “ Napoleon, by the grace of God to the officers of our arinies, who

and the constitution, emperor have rendered us the greatest ser of the French, king of Italy, vice in the present war. Possessiin protector of the confederacy of shall be taken of these estates withi the Rhine :

out delay by our intendants, and the “ Wishing to give a prompt exe proces verbal sball be drawn up con. eulion to the 19th article of the trea- jointly with the magistrates of the ty of Tilsit, and establish for the countries before the 1st of Decemkingdom of Westphalia fundamental ber. constituijons, which inay assure the “IlI.-The extraordinary militafelicity of the vations that consti- ry contributions, which have been tute it, and at the same time furvish depanded in these countries, shald the sovereign, as member of the con- be paid, or security for the payment federacy of the Rbine, with the means given, before the Ist of December. of concurring with the general safe. “IV.-On the first of December

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the king of Westphalia shall be put “And in default of these, to ise in possession of the sovereignty of lawful descendants of prince Loos his territory, by commissioners whom Napoleon, king of Holland. we will nominate,

“And in default of these latter, to “ Title II. Art. V.- The kingdom the lawful descendants of prince Joof Westphalia forms a part of the achim, grand duke of Berg aun confederation of the Rhine: its con- Cleves. tingent shall be 25,000 men, viz. “ VII.---The king of Westphalia 20,000 infantry, 3,500 cavalry, and and his family are subject, in all that 1,500 artillery.

respects thein, to the dispositions of “ During the first year there shall the law respecting the imperial fabe raised only 10,000 infantry, 2000 mily. cavalry, aud 50 artillery; the 12,500 “VIII.-In case of minority, the others shall be furnished by France, regent of the kingdom shall be poand shall be garrisoned at Magile. minated by us, or our successors, in burgh.---These 12,500 shall be paid, our quality of chief of the imperial maintained and clothed by the king family. of Westphalia.

“He shall be chosen from among “ Title III. Art. VI.--The king the princes of the royal family. dom of Westphalia shall be heredi- «The ininority of the king shall ..tary in the male heirs of the body of, terminate at the age of 18.

prince Jerome Napoleon, in the or., “IX.-The king and royal famider of primogeniture, and to the ly shall have for their support a reperpetual exclusion of the females venue apart, entitled, “Revenue of and their descendants.

the crown,' amounting to the sum of “ In default of legitimate descen- five niillions of francs yearly. dants of prince Jerone Napoleon, “ The revenue arising from the the throne of Westphalia shall de- domain forests, and a part of the dovolve upon us and our heirs and de- main lands, is appropriated to this scendants, either of our body or by purpose. In case the domains should adoption.

be inadequate, the surplus shall be "And in default of these, to the paid monthly out of the public tres: lawful descendants of prince Josepha sury." Napoleon, king of Naples and Sicily..

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