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<Jie titles to their property, but, in fact, to augment his own domains. Is it not incontestible, after enjoyiug an estate ten, twenty, or thirty years, that one ought to be admitted as the real proprietor? Dessalines was not ignorant of this: but had persuaded himself, that even his fellow-citizens had lost their titles in the late disturbances. He wished to avail himself of this to satisfy his cupidity. Some little farmers were hurried away from their dwellings, and sent, without regard to ape or sex, to the plantations to which they formerly belonged. If any particular situation, or any view of the general interest, could authorise that measure which appears to have been adopted by preceding governments, at least it would have been but justice to have granted an indemnification to those against whom it was exercised.

"Commerce, the source of plenty and prosperity to states, languished in apathy under this ignoraut man, the chief causes of which were the vexations and the horrors -exercised upon strangers. Cargoes violently seized, bargains broken as soon as they were contracted, banished far from our ports the ships of all countries. Tlie assassination of Thomas Thuat, an English merchant, who had long resided in this country, where he was respected on account of his blameless .conduct and his virtues, excited general indignation; and why was he murdered? Thomas Thuat was rich; this was his sole crime. The Haytian merchants were not better treated. The advantages which it was affected to allow them, were only calculated upon the profits which it was expected to extract from them.

_" Always swayed by his vicious disposition, the chief of the govern

ment, in his last tour, disorganized the army. His cruel avarice suggested to him the idea to transfer tlie troops of one corps to another, for the purpose of bringing them nearer to their native place, in order that they should require no subsistence, although he exacted from them the most assiduous service. The soldier was deprived of his pay, of his subsistence, and appeared every where almost naked; while the public treasure furnished, in profusion, annual stipends of 20,000 dollars to each-of bis mistresses, of which he kept twenty at least, to support their boundless extravagance, which was both a disgrace to the government and an insult to the general misery.

"The Jews were not more respected. A constitution was framed by order of the emperor, solely for the advancement of his private interests, dictated by caprice and ignorance, put into form by his secretaries, and published in the name of the generals of the army, who not only never approved or signet) this misshapen and ridiculous document, but never had the least .knowledge of it until it was published and promulgated. The regulating laws, formed without plan or combination, and rather with the intention of satisfying a passion than regulating the in-' terests of the inhabitants, were always violated and tnxldcn under foot by the monarch himself. No protecting statute shielded the people from the barbarity of the sovereign; his supreme pleasure sent a citizen to death, and none of his friends or relatives could tell why. No restraint, in fact, arrested the ferociousness of this lyger thirsting for tlie blood of his fellows; no representation had any effect upon his savage heart, not even tlie entreaties of his amiable wife, whose excellent qualities we all admire.

"The ministers, whose duties were defined by. the constitution, if that act can be so named, could never exercise it for the happiness of the people. Their plans and representations were always laughed at, and rejected with disdain; their zeal for the public good in general, and that of the army in particular, was always, of course, rendered ineffectual.

"Cultivation, that first branch of public and private wealth, was not encouraged, and the orders of the chief only tended to diminish the number of unhappy planters. Was it wise, in fact, to snatch from cultivation trie hands which promoted it, for the purpose of unnecessarily augmenting the number of troops, who were neither paid, cloathed, nor subsisted, while the army was before on a respectable footing?

"Such crimes, such enormities, such vexations, could no longer remain unpunished. The people and the army, tired of the odious yoke which he imposed upon them, have re-assumed their courage and their energy, and, by one great spontaneous effort, have broken.jt. Yes, we have burst our chains. Soldiers, you will be paid and clothed. Labourers, you will be protected. Proprietors, you will be secured in the possession of your estates. A wise constitution will shortly fix the rights and the duties of all.

"Until the moment shall arrive when we shall be able to establish it, we declare, that concord, brotherhood, and friendly intercourse, being the foundations of our union, we will never lay down our arms before we shall have struck down the tree of our slavery and debasement, and placed at the head of tke govern

ment a man whose courage aud virtues we have long respected, and who, like us, has been the object of the insults of the tyrant. The people and the army, whose voice we speak, proclaim general Henry Christophe, provisional chief of the government of Hayti, until the constitution shall have definitively conferred on him that august title. (Signed) Gekin,

Petion, &c. &c. ice."

Address of Kosciusko to the Poles.

"Brave Countrymen, "The din of arms with which Poland once more resounds, summons Kosciusko to join you. They are not barbarians hungering, for pillage, who now advance into your plains. They do not resemble those ferocious men who came to divide your territory, and to insult your weakness, after having fattened on your misfortunes and your blood. On the contrary, you will, by their valour and their triumphs, by that thunder-bearing eagle which hovers in their front, recognize the approach of those unconquerable legions, whose victories have rendered the four quarters of the world illustrious—who have in oue campaign extinguished the united power of two vast empires—and who have in one week levelled with the dust a throne raised by an age of successes, the great work of Frederick, shaded by all the laurels of his old generals. Tlfus has it been willed by the destiny of Napoleon, who creates or destroys kings, who overthrows hostile armies with the rapidity of lightning, and who can, by the force of his arm, and the conceptions of his genius, elevate those nations which


bend under the yoke of an atrocious policy. Poles, there are thousands among vou who have followed the first general of Europe through the defiles of Italy. Your battalions are already united wiih the army of the bra\e. Now Na;>ol»-oii marches to )ou. His eve observes you. He leads into the heart of Poland those Frenchmen, among whom we have found a second country; who have collected the wrecks of our own legions in their camps; who have treated us as brothers; who lave covered our misfortunes with their laurels; — those French generals, among whom your Kosciusko has ceased to consider himself proscribed; before whom he could raise, vuth a sentiment of consolation, and perhaps of pride, his head, which, though humbled b\ defeat, never lias been dishonoured; and among u lioin he has been permitted to cherish tiie love of his country, and the hope of its future freedom.

"Dear countrymen, you who, banished from your paternal soil,have siill remained Poles in a foreign land, and you who, on the contrary, though rendered foreigners in the midst of Poland, have still remained faithful to your country and your brethren, I summon you all to arise —the lime of your deliverance is come! the great nation is beside you —Napoleon beholds you, Kosciusko calls to you. Look around you, and Europe, shaken to her ancient foundations, is ha-stening at thecaii of genius to re-construct the social edifice, and to immortalize the nineteenth century by new creations and new claims to future glory.— Behold how the yoke of the tyrant of the seas, of the enemy of the repose of Europe, is breaking on every tide. The people, of all countries

are elevating themselves under the authority of governments constituted by law. Oppressed nations are every where advancing to their independence. Poles! « hat more is necessary to be said to animate you, to induce you to become again yourselves? Doubtless, you are still the children of the hero who delivered Europe from the Mussulman yoke; your hearts arc still inflamed with that ardour which formerly made your enemies at once esteem arid dread you. "Though your territory has been divided, are vou not still united by blood, by language, by misfortune, and by all that is dear among men? If Poland has been effaced from the political map, she still exists entire in the hearts of her children. If without the help of France, without any support but a consciousness of our own rights, and our valour, we were abie to make fortune balance between us and the three empires which united to oppress us, what doubt can you have of triumphing, when the conqueror of the triple alliance has passed your fron-» tiers—when the man of destiny directs iiis views towards you 7 Do not you observe the armies of your enemies iremble at his approach! See you not the shades of the heroes who died in combating for you, press around him, and implore hi* vengeance] Listen to their sighs;'' listen to the voice of your country. which calls upon you to restore her ancient glory and independence.— Poles! escaped by a .miracle from the steel of your assassins, and the chains of your tyrants, I collected and carried with me the last siglis of my expiring country. Now, full of confidence, 1 breathe my last wishe* among you. Soon shall I tread again ou that dear paternal laud which my


arm has defended, which my blood has dyed, and which, when I behold again, I shall salute with kisses, and bathe with my tears. Unfortunate friends, whom I was prevented from following to the grave—dear, brave Countrymen, whom I was compelled to leave under the yoke of an usurper,— I have lived only in the hope of avenging you—I come to break your chains. Sacred remains of my country, I salute you with a holy enthusiasm; I rejoin you, never more to part. I shall shew myself worthy of tire great man, whose arm is raised to protect us, and worthy of the people, who answer to my call. I shall assist in emancipating my country, and in establishing its future prosperity on stable bases. But if f shall find that the dear name of our country is with you now only an empty sound, I shall then escape from the common shame, and from my own misfortunes, by burying my. self under the noble ruins of Poland. But it cannot be so. The glorious day of Poland redawns—fate has not conducted Napoleon and his invincible troops to the banks of the Vistula without an object. We are tinder the &gis of that monarch, who overcomes difficulties by prodigies. The re-establishment of Poland is a deed too glorious not to have been reserved by tbe Eternal Director of all things for him to atchieve.

(Signed) "Kosciusko.

Paris, Nov. 1, 1806."

Proclamation issued hy the Emperor of Russia.

"Alexander, Emperor, &c.

"Our manifesto of the 30th of

August (see vol. XLVIII. p. 798.)

declared the situation of our affairs

with the French government. At

that period of our hostile situation, Prussia still formed a barrier between us and the French, who tyrannized over various parts of Germany. But, soon after, the tire of war blazed out in Prussia also; after various disasters and important losses on her part, our own dominions on the frontiers are now threatened by "the flume. To Russians, accustomed to love the glory of their country, and to sacrifice every thing to it, it is unnecessary to explain how unavoidable these events have made the present war. Honour unsheathed our sword for the protection of our allies; how much more justly must it be drawn for the defence of our own safety! Before these events could approach our frontiers;, we took, at an early period, every measure to be ready to meet them. Having, in good time, ordered our army to move beyond the frontier, we have now commissioned our general field marshal Kameuskoy to command it, and to act against the enemy with all the forces intrusted to him. We are assured, that all our faithful subjects will join us in fervent prayers td the Almighty, who directs the fate of states and the issue of battles, that he may take our righteous cause under his all-powerful protection; that his victorious strength and blessing may direct the Russian armies employed in repelling the general foe of Europe. We are confident that our faithful subjects of lingo verument on the frontier will, ia (he present circumstances particularly, redouble tlie proofs of their attachment, and their zeal for the common good; and that, unshaken by fear or delusive promhes, they will tread with firmness the same path in which, under the protection of the laws and of a mild go venuncntk

tbejr they have hitherto enjoyed tranquillity and undisputed property, and shared in the universal prosperity of the "whole empire. Lastly, we are confident that all the children of the land, relying on the help of God, on the valour of our troops, and on the known experience of their leader, will spare no sacrifice, no efforts, which patriotism and the safety of our country may demand.

St Petersburg!!, Nov. £8, 1806.

Proclamation of his Prussian Majesty to the Inhabitants of Silesia.

"Brave Inhabitants of Silesia.

■* Among the mournful events which have taken place during the course of the present war, there is nothing that has so much filled with grief the heart of his majesty, as to see a considerable part of his provinces and faithful subjects oppressed by the weight of sufferings, which must be the inevitable consequence of a war, in which the enemy, by his manner of making war, unusual in our time, entirely exhausts the country through which he passes, by forced requisitions of every kind, and by the large bodies of marauders who swarm round his disciplined armies, and who, incapable of sparing, treat the armed warrior aud the unhappy peaceable inhabitant with the same cruelty, and every where leave behind them traces of the grossest barbarity, desarts, and ashes; even where, through fear of violence, the unarmed inhabitants have shewn the greatest submission in the reception of those destroying hordes.

"His majesty perceives that his faithful Silesiau provinces are now

threatened with the same wretched fate.

"It sensibly grieves his majesty that he is prevented by the situation of affairs, which renders his presence necessary at other points, from hastening in person to the aid of bis faithful Silesians, who have at all times, and under all circumstances, rewarded the paternal care of their monarch for the welfare and prosperity of their country, by the mostunshaken attachment to the house of Prussia,

"The enemy boasts—favoured by fortune, so liable to change, and not less favoured by the treachery of basetraitors—that he has already annihilated the whole force of the Prussian monarchy.

"But he knows not that his majes- ■ ty is at this moment at the head of a formidable army, which burns with eagerness to engage the oppressors of the couutry.

"He knows not, or appears not to wish to know, that the monarch of Prussia finds himself surrounded by a guard, which no force, no misfortunes, no talisman, can subdue—the unalterable love of his people.

"He knows not that every day thousands of volunteers offer themselves, with arms in their hands, to set bounds to his progress, and that the Silesians display no less activity and energy in defence of their king and country, than to defend their property from unexampled rapacity.

"He flatters himself with the doubts he is anxious to disseminate of the promised aid of Russia.

"But he deceives himself in his hopes; the most sacred and inviolate fulfilment of all treaties entered


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