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had an oratory at Somerset House, fects of such open practice of the for her private devotions at those Rourish faith becaine afterward times when she kept her court there. very alarming, and rendered bot. It was not so with Henrietta, who the qucen and her mother extremely was not only a bigot in herself, but obnoxious to the community, a had a deeper game to play.
many persons of quality. rank, aki ". The principal circumstance, consequence, bad actually been naiz however, on which I ground my proselytes at different times t. Gurmise that the chapel was built “ The growing interests, there by Henrietta-Maria, and not by Anne fore, of those who dissented from of Denmark, arises from a passage both religions were not without thez in an account of the visit which use in the hands of providence ; inMary de Medicis, the queen dow- somuch thal, had not the eruptions ager of France, made to her daugh- of puritanism appeared almost at the ter Henrietta, the queen consort of moment, the fever of Romanisa England, in the year 1638. The might have returued upon us. author was Mons de la Serre, his “ The queen's court seems to have toriographier of France, wlio attend been very different from that of the ed in the suite of the queen dow: King; the former being kept at ager, and wrote at the moment from Denmark House, as we will call it, personal knowledge. Speaking of while the latter was kept at WhiteSomerset House as a palace appro- hall. The royal apartments were priated to the queen of Great Bri- open daily, al particular hours, to tain for her peculiar residence, he persons of certain rank and descripmentions her having built there a tion; and, as far as we can at premagnificent chapel, and founded an sent judge, resembled our modern establistunent of Capuchin friars, the levees, and the late queen Caroline's expences of which she defrayed out drawing-rooms, wbich last were of her privy purse.
held in au evening. Henrietta, “ If Henrietta-Maria fonnd any like her predecessor Anne of Denchapel within the walls of Somerset mark, sometimes, no doubt, enterHouse, it was probably much too tained the king and his courtiers at small for ber ecclesiastical establish- this her palace; and we find thai ment, that tended, as far as possi- their majesties both resided here, ble, to the revival of her own re- for a short time, in the vear 1641, Jigion, which had nearly expired in on the arrival of the prince of England *.
Orange (the father of king Willian “ This new arrangement, under III.), who had his first interview the toleration which she so exten- with the princess Mary at this louse, sively enjoyed, and with the hopes previously to their marriage. The of making converts, would therefore queen-mother of France, Mary de claim her early attention. The ef- Medicis, being then in England, and
* In the biograpbical dictionary it is said that Inigo Jones built queen Catharine's chapel at St. James's. Q. If this be the chapel in the friars?"
+ Instances of such conversions, during the queen's first residence in England, when queen-consort, may be seen in Dr. Harris's life of king Charles, p. 198, et seq. 1772. 2d edition."
lodged at St. James's, there was no to touch the hearts of the nobility, royal house at liberty for the recep- to procure us an order of the house tion of the prince of Orange, who of peers, to exercise our devotions was therefore entertained by the earl at Somerset House chapel; which of Lindsey * at Arundel House. was the cause, not only of the drivSoon after this marriage was com- ing away the anabaptists, quakers, pleted, the prince returned to Hol- and other sects that had got in there, land; and was, not long afterwards, but also hindered the pulliny-down followed by the princess, accom- of Somerset House ; there having panied by the queen, who took this been an order, from the late usuropportunity prudently to withdraw ped powers, for selling the said from England, where it may be said house; but we prevailed so far that she never resided again till after the we still got order to exempt the chaJestoration. At this period the gates pel from being sold, which broke of Denmark House seem to have the design of those who liad bought been closed till the re!urn of king the said house, who thought, for Charles II.; notwithstanding which, their improvement, to have made something occurred in the interreg- a street from the garden through the num necessary to be observed." ground the chapel stands on, and
In 1650, several tenements in the so up the back yard to the greatest Strand, which had belonged to street of the Strand, by pulling down Charles I, and his queen, were sold the said chapel.” for the payment of the army: on Our ingenious antiquary now goes this subject we have the following on as follows: citation from Mr. Walpole's anec- “ Though the parliament, soon dotes of painting, vol. ii.
after the late king's execution, dis“ Somerset House had a narrow posed by sale of many tenements escape, during that history of des- which had been erected on such of tructions, of which an account is pre- the ground obtained by the duke of served in a very scarce tract, inti- Somerset as was not comprehended tuled, “ an essay on the Wonders of within the scale of his own house; God, in the times that preceded yet nothing was attempted tending Christ, and how they met in him; to deface or lessen the principal ediwritten in France, by John D'Es- ficę, which remained to our time in pague, minister of the gospel (who the state it was found at the restoradiel in 1650), and now published tion of king Charles II. when the in English, by his executor, Henry palace reverted to the possession Browne. London, 1662," 8vo. In of his mother, the queen-dowager ihe preface the editor tells us that Henrietta-Maria, so long as she the author preached at the French lived, and was resumed by her when church in Durbam House, where she returned to England, in Novemhis sermons were attended by many ber 1660. On this occasion Cowa of the nobility and gentry. That ley wrote a copy of verses in honour dernolished, he says, it pleased God of this house. Amid the general VOL. XLIX.
* « This earl, 11 Charles I. was constituted lord high admiral of Englaod; and killed at the battle of Edge bill, 1642."
joy, however, on account of the wonder, considering what she had king's restoration, this palace was suffered by the king's ignominiou opened with scenes of mourning: death, added to the hardships which tirst, on the death of the king's bro. she had endured abroad, in an erile ther the duke of Gloucester, whose of nineteen years, that she should body lay in state here till the fune. rejoice at her return; and it is said ral, in September 1660; and, soon that, on re-entering Somerset House, afterwards, in the December follow- she penitentially exclaimed, “ If i ing, on the decease of the king's had known the temper of the Eassister, Mary, princess of Orange, lish some years past, as well as I do who came into England to felicitate now, I had never been obliged to her brother king Charles on his leave this house." Both her retora happy return. Her corpse reposed and her declaration were, however, for a few days at Somerset House; in bishop Kennett's opinion, but after which it was interred in the mere copies of the queen's real seiroval vault at Westminster."-Eliza. timents aod design, which ultimately beth, eldest daughter of James I. pointed at two favourite objects. dowager of Frederick, count Pala- The first of these was the union of line of the Rhine, died at Leicester her daughter Henrietta-Maria with House, Thursday, Feb. 13, 1661, Philip duke of Orleans, and brother and was thence, the Monday follow to Louis XIV.; and the second was, ing, conveyed to Somerset House, the marriage of her son king Charles early in the morning; and thence II. with an Infanta of Portugal, in the evening, conveyed by barge thereby firmly to strengthen the into Westminster abbey, being accom- terests of the church of Rome: in panied to her sepulchre by her son, which proceedings, to use the biprince Rupert, and many of the shop's own words, her majesty nobles; and privately interred in “shewed herself more a daughter the same vault, in Henry VII.'s cha- of France than a queen-mother of pel, with her elder brother, prince England." llenry.”
« The residence of the queen “ As soon as this palace was re- dowager in this kingdom was but paired for the queen's accommoda- of short duration, not exceeding tion, she resided in it, with the same four years, wben, ostensibly on ac. establishment as she retained when count of the plague, and possibly she left it. Her majesty's jointure with a desire of visiting her daughwas 30,000l. a year, to which the king ter the duchess of Orleans, or, peradded a pension of equal annual value haps (which is more probable), on from the exchequer; and she seems finding herself overpowered by the now (for the moment) in the reign protestant cause, her majesty volunof her son to have felt an attach- tarily retired into France, in 1665, ment to this country, which she so where she died in 1669, and was much detested in the reign of her interred at St. Denis, with the hohusband: The queen dowager hav- nours usually paid to a queen-motber ing long been a stranger to her for- of France. mer state and magnificence, and “ The house was now again un. Tiaving seen many errors in her con- inhabited by any of the royal faduct as queen consort; it is no wily, though destined as a jointare
house for Catharine of Portugal con- ceptable to the English; and, as she tingently; an event which afterwards had been treated with the coldest took effect.
' neglect by king Charles, who had « The first occasion that occu- peopled his court with illegitimate pied it, after the death of queen issue by mistresses who resided unHenrietta-Maria, was the funeral der the queen's eye, a longer resiobsequies of George Monk duke dence in England could not be very of Albemarle, &c. who died with- flattering to her, who was childless, in a few months after the queen and without agreeable inducements. mother, and whose interment was To this we may add, that she had solemnized with niore pomp than lived here long enough to be a witever was known to have been con- ness to the overthrow of her own ferred upon a subject. The whole religion. She retired to Portugal, expence was defrayed by the king; therefore, soon after the revolution and the ceremonial has been pre had fully taken place, in the year served in a great number of large 1692, where she died in 1705; and engravings; but what brings it for though she was a rigid papist, ward to us is, that the body was, and resided within the pale of the " by his majesty's command, re- church of Rome, she was complimoved to Somerset House, and there mented, during her life, with being placed for many weeks in royal state, prayed for by name in our liturgy as attended with all the ceremonies of a part of the royal family. pompous mouruing."
« Thus this queen dowager had, “ The vext opportunity we have the ostensible occupation of Somerof observing this palace to have been set House during the whole reigns of made use of was on an occasion king James 11. and king Williain, till very different in itself, and most iin- the third year of queen Anne. It is portant in the event; for it became but justice to her meniory, however, the residence of William prince of to add what bishop Burnet says of Orange, afterwards king William III. this queen after she took leave of when he came hither to espouse the England and returned to Portugal, princess Mary, 1677. It may be where, during the bad state of that presumed that it was the place of king's health, his lordship says, “our their joint residence after the mar. queen dowager was set at the head riage for the few weeks they re- of their councils; ber administration maiued in England, before they em- much commended; and that she was barked for Holland.
very careful of the English, and all “ After the demise of king Cliarles their concerns t." II. this palace became the property, during life, of the queen dowager Ca- “ April 10, 1775, a message from tharine of Portugal; and here she the king was delivered to both houses kept her court* till ber secession into of Parliament, that “ his majesty, her native country. The manvers of desirous that a better and more suitCatharine' were far from being ac- able accommodation should be made
3 L 2
for • « At this period, we learn by one of Bagford's MSS, both the benedictine monks at St. James's, and the capuchins at Somerset House, bad good libraries.”
t" Own Times, sub anno 1704."
for the residence of the queen, in the Thames by a noble terrace, is case she should survive him, and occupied by the navy office and being willing that the palace in which stamp office. his majesty now resides, called the “ The west wing contains the navy Queen's House, inay be séltled for pay office aud victualling office; and that purpose, recommends to both at the northern end of this wing, till bouses to take the same into consi- lately, was the sick and wounded deration, and to make provision for office, wbich has very recently heen settling the said palace upon her ma incorporated with the transport ofjesty, and for appropriating Somerset fice in Dorset-square, and the old House to such uses as shall be found office has not yet been appropriated. most beneficial to the public."- Behind this wing is a street, bounded “ An act was consequently passed, to the west by the treasurer of the May 26, 1775, intituled, “ An act navy's house, and by houses approfor seltling Buckingham House ou priated to the commissioners. The the queen, in lieu of Somerset salt oftice, formerly in this wing, is House.”
now consolidated with the excise “In 1779, the stately front of the office. new building, now called by its old “ In the east wing is the tax office; name Somerset Place, was com- the offices of the duchies of Cornpleted." .
wall and Lancaster; the office of the • The royal academy, instituted auditor of imprest ; the pipe otfice; in December 1768, and first opened comptroller of the pipe,and clerk of the January 2, 1769, originally held estreats: behind all which is a street, their meetings in Pall-Mall, where, bounded to the east by ground not on the 26th of May, they had yet built on. their first exbibilion of paintings; “ The surveyor also under the sur. but in 1779 removed to Somerset reyor of the board of works has House, where they occupy the west apartments for his residence, but not wing of the north front, and where an office here." they first held their annual exhibition, May 1, 1780. On the groundfloor of this wing is their exhibition Extract from a Journal, during the room for sculpture, and the bawkers late Čampaign in Egypt. By and pedlars office.
Captain C. B. Burr. “The royal society first held their meeting in Somerset House, Nov.30, [From the Asiatic Researches, Vol. VIIH) 1780; and the society of antiquaries on Thursday, Jau. 11, 1781. The About three miles to the westaparlments of these two learned so- ward of Ginnie, on the opposite side cieties occupy the greatest part of of the Nile, are situated the ruins the east wing of the north front; on of the ancient temple of Isis, now the ground-floor is the library of the better known to the Arabs by the society of antiquaries; behind which name of Dendra ; being a corruption are the privy seal and signet offices, of Tentyris, which name was once the lottery office, and the hackney borne by a city, of which the present coach office.
temple is all that remains to denote “ The south front, separated from its former splendour. That part which