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covered with lieatli, and not exceeding two shillings and sixpence per acre, on an average value. The number of Scottish acres contained in the ground, which consisted of two plots or divisions, the Tor-hill, and the Law-park, was sixty one. According to the measurement of Mr. Oman, land surveyor, the medium elevation of the Tor-hill, from the water-level to the lop, is four hundred and twenty-two feet. The ascent in a right line continues at an elevation of twenty-five decrees, to the extent of two hundred and sixty-four feet, from which it continues to the distance of one thousand and eighty-two feet, at an elevation of seventeen degrees. The quantity of ground reduced to a state of culture duringthe first year, was fifteen acres; during the second, twenty-five; and during the third year twenty-one. The ground was ploughed at intervals of leisure during the summer months, and suffered to remain in that condition till after the harvest, when it was manured with lime, in the proportion of twenty bolls of shells to the Scottish acre. The boll of lime contains six Winchester bushels. From the situation of the ground, it vas ploughed with a single furrow, in an oblique direction, from right to left. Small's plough, drawn by two horses, was employed; but in the most elevated parts, where the soil was light and shallow, the small Scottish plough appeared preferable. Shell lime costs Is. 2d. per boll, at the lime-works; but as these are sixteen miles distant, the expense of carriage may be estimated at Is lid. per boll. Lime was preferred to dung as a manure, from the superior facility with which, on account of its inferior weight, it could be carried to so great a height, and spread over the ground. It was brought in carts
to the most accessible part of the "round, and dragged up the ascent by doubling the number of horses, or yoking the horses of two carts to one. It was then brought to the steepest parts of the ploughed ground in a sledge without poles, moved by drai'ropes, and termed a $lipe. The lime was laid upon the ground during the winter, and in the spring the land was ploughed a second time from left to right, and then sown with oats. After being ploughed from right to left, as at first, a second crop of oats was raised upon it. The next crop was of pea«e, raised after ploughing in a straight direction down the hill; and in 1801, the same piece of ground was sown with rough barley, or big, and grass seeds, in order to convert it into pasture. In the oat crops, Mr. Allan sowed at the rate of one boll to the acre, and reaped at an average seven bolls. In the pease crop, he sowed three firlots and two pecks on the acre, and reaped at an average eight bolls. The average expence of manure and labour may be estimated from between three pounds fifteen shillings to four pounds the Scottish acre. By a similar process, Mr. Allan intends to convert the whole piece of ground into pasture. After two crojw of oats, divisions of between thirteen and fifteen acres may be sown with turnips, broad-cast, and eaten on the ground by sheep; by which the process of conversion may perhaps be accelerated. The average value of the laud in this state of improvement, is estimated at the rale of between fifteen and twenty soilings per acre.
The land (sixty-one acre--) which Mr. Allan thus first brought into culture, has ever since remained in grass, aud maintained its estimated value.
Mr. Allan has continued to prosecute the same plan of improvement on the ground adjoining to the parks already mentioned, which, although tlsev appeared equally discouraging, from the ruggedness of the surface, ;:nd their being covered with strong heath, promise a more ample remuneration to his industry, from the circumstance of the declivity being less abrupt, and the soil, on being cleared of stones, proving considerably deeper. He has already broken up a greater extent of this kind of land tlian what is contained in the Tor-hill and Law-parks; and, with that spirit which characterises all his improvements, he has, by way of experiment, sown :in acre with wheat, which now (end of June, 1800) promises equally well with most of the wheat on the lower grounds in that neighbourhood.
jMtthod of curing damp Walls, by the Application of a Composition invented by Mr. Charles Wilson, of Worcester-street, near Union Hall, Borough.
[From the Transaction? of the Society of Arts, &c]
I beg leave to lay before the Society of Arts, &c. .a cement, which, I trust, will be found of great utility in curing damp walls, iu flooring damp kitchens, and for various other purposes, where the prevention of wet is necessary.
This cement, when put in water, will suffer neither an increase nor diminution in its weight; and it has the peculiar advantage of joining Portland stone, or marble, so as to
make them as durable as Ihey were prior to the fracture.
Receipt for making the Cement.
Boil two quarts of tar with two ounces of kitchen grease, for a quarter of an hour, iu an iron pot. Add some of this tar to a mixture of slaked lime, and powdered glass, which have passed through a flour sieve, and been dried completely over the fire in an iron pot; in the proportion of two parts of lime and one of glass, till the mixture becomes of the consistence of thin plaster.
The cement must be used immediately after beiug mixed, and therefore it is proper not to mix more of it at a time than will coat one square foot of wall, siure it quickly be« comes too hard for use, and continues to increase its hardness for tinea weeks. Great care must also be taken to prevent any moisture from mixing with the cement.
For a wall which is merely damp, it will be sufficient to lay on one coating of the cement, about oneeighth of an inch thick; but should the wall be more than damp, or wet, it will be necessary to coat it a second time.
Plaster, made of lime, hair, and plaster of Paris, may be afterwards laid on the cement.
Method of cleansing Silk, Woollen, and Cotton Goods, without Damage to the Texture or Colour. By Mrs. Anne Morris, of Unionstreet, near Middlesex Hospital.
[ From t'.ie same. ]
Take raw potatce?, in the state they are taken out of the earth, wash them well; then rub them on a grater over a vessel of clean water to a fine pulp, past the liquid matter through a coarse sieve into another tub of clear water; let the mixture stand till the tine white particles of the potatoes are precipitated, then pour the mucilaginous liquor from the fecula, and preserve this liquor for use. The article to be cleaned should then be laid upon a linen cloth on a table, and having provided a clean sponge, dip the sponge in the potatoe-liquor, and apply the sponge thus wet upon the article to be cleaned, and rub it well upon it with repeated portions of the potatoe-liquor, till the dirt is perfectly separated; then wash the article in clean water several times, to remove the loose dirt; it may afterwards be smoothed or dried.
Two middle-steed potatoes will be sufficient for a pint of water.
The white fecula which separates in making the mucilaginous liquor, will answer the purpose of tapioca, will make an useful nourishing food with' soup or milk, or serve to make •starch or hair-powder.
The coarse pulp which does not pass the sieve is of great use in cleaning worsted curtains, tapestry, carpets, or other coarse goods.
The mucilaginous liquor of the potatoes will clean all sorts of silk, cotton, or woollen goods, without
hurting the texture of the articles, or spoiling the colour.
It is also useful in cleansing oilpaintings, or furniture that is soiled.
Dirty painted wainscot may be cleaned by wetting a sponge hi the liquor, tben dipping it in a little fine clean sand, and afterwards rubbing the wainscot therewith.
Various experiments were made .by Mrs. Morris, in the presence of a Committee, at the Society's house: the whole process was performed before them upon tine and coarse goods of different fabricks, and to their satisfaction.
A cheap Substitute for Tea, more particularly recommended to the poorer classes of Society.—White Pease, baked in an oven till tbey are brown throughout; grind and boil them as you do coffee, or rather more.—The person who recommendi the above considers it his duty to make it more public, as it has been highly approved of by many of liis friends, who declare they cannot find auy difference between this and real cofFee.—N. B. When they are warm, a small piece of butter is necessary to mix with them, to prevent their burning.
Substitute for Barm, 7rhich may prove generally useful.—To a pint of fresh beer, or porter, put a table spoonful of brown sugar, and as much flour as will convert it to the consistence of a batter; put tfce mixture into a small jar or bottle, corking it close, as it is apt to fly. Shake it well twice a day, for six days, it will then be fit for use. The above will work 14 pounds of flour: —leave about a tea-cup full in the bottle, and add the same quantity of beer, sugar, and flour; it will be fit for use in three days. Leave tbe barm to spunge with the flour some time in the day, make the bread at night, and bake it early next morning. The barm is to be beaten up with a little warm water, to spunge in tbe flour as soon as it is out of the jar, and left for about six hours before the bread is made.
A receipt for curing Butter, preferable to the common method, communicated by a Gentleman of veracity, who has used it for some length of time.—Take one half ouuce of common salt, one fourth ounce of saltpetre, and one fourth ounce of moist sugar; pound them together, and use them in the proportion of one ounce to the pound of butter. On trial, it will be found that butter thus prepared will keep any length of time, and have a much finer flavour than butter sailed in the usual manner.
Milk.—Among the modern improvements in farming, the dairy has, of late years, been very much neglected. So much of the profit of breeders depending upon the facility with which tbe milk of the cow may be reserved during the suckling-time of the calf, the following substitute, used in Germany, for the natural food of the young progeny, may be acceptable to our country readers. Let as much water be heated on the tire as (he calf would be disposed to drink; and, when it boils, throw one or two handful* of oatmeal into it, and after continuing iu that state for one minute, take it off, and let it be cooled to tbe temperature of new milk, vi lien one or two pints of tfciinuud
milk are to be added to it.— With tiiis beverage, the young animal will fatten and thrive prodigiously; the milk of the parent will be applied to the dairy, and the intelligent farmer will immediately discover the great advantage to be derived, in the produce of the dairy, from such an expedient.
Horse Chesnuts.—In Turkey these nuts are ground and mixed with the provender for horse's, particularly for such as are broken-winded or troubled with coughs. After being boiled a little to take, off the bitterness, bruised and mixed with a small quantity of barley meal, they * are good food for rearing and fatteuing poultry.
Oil Cakes given to milch cows, add considerably to the quantity and richness of the milk, without affecting its flavour. Mr. Curwen grinds it, mixes, it in layers, and boils it with the chaff; by which means half the quantity answers better than as much more given in the cake.
Culture of Potatoes.—A member of the Agricultural Society of Greenock made the following experiment :—The first year," he says, "1 cut the potatoes in three pieces, the top, the middle, and the bottom parts, and planted these in three rows. The top plant was ten days * earlier than the middle plant, and a much greater crop; the middle plant was earlier than the bottom and a better crop; the bottom produced but; a very indifferent crop. For some seasons past I have only set the top eyes, and I believe bave the best crop and driest potatoes in the country; nor do I think there is any waste iu doing so; for 1 fiud the potatoe keeps the better by having a cut taken off it."
Parpoutier, a celebrated French 3 K 4 chemist, chemist, has discovered a new species of utility, besides its nutritive powers, in the potatoe ;v and his discovery has been proved in England byslucco-plaslerers. From the starch of potatoes, quite fresh, and washed but once, a fine size, by mixture with chalk, has been made, and in a variety of instances successfully used, particularly for ceilings. This species of size has no smell; while animal size, putrifying so readily, uniformly exhales a most disagreeable and unwholesome odour; the size of potatoes, being very little subject to putrefaction, appears from experience to prove more durahie in tenacity and whiteness, and, for white-washing should always be preferred to animal size, the decomposition of which always exhibits proof of infectious effluvia.
According to a very curious calculation, it has beeu ascertained, that an acre of land planted with potatoes will produce sufficient food for 16,875 healthy nieu for one meal; while an acre of wheat will not feed more than 2,745. The expence of cultivating the potatoes is estimated at 121. is. and that of the wheat at 111. 15s.
In theyear 1806, there were grown on moss-laud, at Castle Head, never before cultivated, carrots, which in one square yard (tried in several parts of the field) weighed 47lb. Half an acre produced, on the average, 9 tons, 4 cwt. 2 qrs. lrjlb. carrots, which, at 4s. per cwt. would amount to 361. 18s. 6d. — The quantity of potatoes growing on four statute acres of the same field was 690 bushels. The rows were tour feet asunder.
Agriculture.—A great improvement has recently been made in the cultivation of the marsh and
moss lands within the townships of Overton, Middleton, Heaton, and Heysham, near Lancaster, from tlie discovery of a bed of sea sand of an unknown depth, lying about three feet below the surface of the earth. The farmers dig pits in the form of marl-pits, and after taking off the soil and a stratum of blue clay, about two feet and a half in thick* ness, they arrive at the sand, which being spread upon the surface of the earth, mixes with and loosens the soil, before too stiff for agricultural purposes, and converts it into the best arable land in the neighbourhood, being capable of bearing four or five successive crops of grain without manure.
M. Leroi, who has made many successful experiments in agriculture, advises persons by no means to procure grain for sowing from a soil north of their own land, but from a country south of it; because he says it is a general rule, that the product of seed improves in going from south to north, and that it decreases in virtue in going from north t« south.
The Fly in Turnips.—Sir J. W. Jcrvis, of Ireland, has tried successfully to prevent this wide-spreading mischief, by sowing flour of sulphur with the seed. This, it is fouud, destroys the ova of the insect, by which the damage is occasioned.
To keep Cows from Corn.—Take a quart of train oil, as much turpentine, and bruised gunpowder; boH them together, and when hot, dip pieces of rags in the mixture, and fix them on sticks in the field. About four are sufficient for an acre of corn.
Receipt for (he management of Sheep, by Mr. Fair, late overseer at Pencaitland.—Immediately after the