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ted to us by different travellers, respecting the manners and liabits of life of the animals which constitute this interesting tribe; and from what has been said, it appears that they have a nearer alliance than any other quadruped (in the general conformation of their bodies ) to the human race. They, consequently, have the art of imitating human actions better than any others, since they arc able-rv> use their fore-feet as hands. From the general organization of the monkies, they are likewise capable of an education nearer allied to that of man, than any other animal. Some naturalists have attributed infinitely too much sagacity to them, whilst others have certainly not allowed enough. The monkies seem to do those things which mankind do before their reason is matured byage; and in this respect there is no other quadruped which bears any resemblance to them. Most animals seem at times to be actuated by the spirit of revenge: by the different means that are employed to gratify this passion, we may in a measure judge of the different degrees of their instinct; and every one knows how greatly the monkey exceeds all other brutes in its vindictive malice. There appears, in some measure, an analogy even betwixt the vices (if we may so call them ) of the monkies, and the disgusting brutality too often observable in the vicious and degraded part of mankind.
The animals of the monkey tribe differ very essentially from each other in their general manners and habits of life. The oran otan is susceptible of more considerable attainments than any of the others. The short muzzled monkies, with long tails, such as the greater part of the guenons, sapajovs, and sagoitts, are for
the most part exceedingly tractabk. and receive a certain degree of itstruction without much difficulty But some of the apes, and baboon', with long muzzles, are so savage and ferocious as to be incapable of an> education whatever.
The monkies of the new continent, as might naturally be supposed, differ (at least in some degree) in their habits of life from those of the oM world. The Great Author of Nature has assigned to them several characteristics that are peculiar to themselves: such, amongst others, are flic situation and separation of the nao! orifices; and the presence of tvo additional grinders in each jaw. We, likewise, are acquainted with no species of monkey, belonging to the ancient world, that has a prcbeusHe tail, or the bony pouch observable in tW throat of the preacher monkey and the arabata, ( Simiti beclzebvl and Sitnia senicnlus of Linnaeus).
In some countries, monkies, ervn in their wild state, are rendered «erviceable to mankind. It is said, that in districts where pepper and cocoa grow, the inhabitants, availing themselves of the imitative faculties, and the agility of the monkies, are able to procure an infinitely greater quantity of these articles than they cotihl do by any other means. They mount some of the lowest branches of tlie trees, break off'the extremities where the fruit grows, and then descend and carefully range them together on the ground. The animals afterwards ascend the same trees, strip the branches all the way to the top, and dispose them in a similar manner. After the monkies have gone to rest, the Indians return and carry off the spoil. In some places it is this inclination to imitate human actions which leads to their destruction. The In• • dial* dtaru carry in their hands vessels filled with water, and rub their faces with it, iu the presence of the luonkies; then substituting a kind of t»ltie instead of water, leave the vessels behind them, and retire. 'The observant creatures seize the vessels, and do the same; when the glue, adhering strongly to their hair and eyelids, completely blinds them, and prevents every possibility of their effecting an escape.
In other places, the natives take to the habitations of the ruoukies a kind of boots, which they put on and pull off* their legs several times successively. These are then rubbed over in the inside with a strong glue; and when the inonkies attempt to do the tame, they are unable to disengage themselves, and, consequently, are caught without difficulty.
Sometimes the inhabitants carry in their hands a mirror, and appear to amuse themselves by looking at it in different attitudes. In place of these they leave a kind of traps, not unlike the glasses in external appearance, which, when the animals take them up, seize and secure them by the paws. The inhabitants of St. Vincent le Blanc catch inonkies in several kinds of traps and snares. Sometimes, when they have caught the young ones, they put them into a cage, and appear to teaze and torment them, in order that they may likewise catch the parents. The hunters of some countries place near the haunts of inonkies vessels containing strong and intoxicating liquors. The animals drink *f them, and iu a short time become so drunk as to lie down on the spot and fall asleep.
'Some of the Indians ascend to the .summits of the mountains in which the animals breed, and construct there a pile of wood, round the base of Vol. XLIX.
which they spread a quantity of maize. They place on the pile some substance, which, on being exposed to heat, explodes with tremendous noise. This is contrived to explode during tfie time that the inonkies are employed in devouring the maize, and, iu the terror and astonishment, the old animals scamper off on all sides with the utmost rapidity, leaving their young ones a prey to the hunters.
The dexterity of inonkies is such, that, although burthened by their offspring cliusing to their backs, they can leap from tree to tree, if the distance is not very great, and secure their hold among the branches with the greatest certainty. Wlieu they perceive any peiion taking aim at them, either with a gun or bow, they cry out and grind their teeth sometimes in the most horrible manner. They are often able to avoid the arrows that are shot at them, and sometimes they even catch them in their hands. When any one of their community is shot, and falls to the ground, all the rest set up a dismal and tremendous how I, which makes all the adjacent mountains aud woods re« sound. If a monkey is wouc.led, and does not fall, it frequently hailpens that his companions will seize and carry it off far beyond the reach of their enemy: and miserable is the fate of that hunter who is imprudent enough to venture near their haunts during that same day. When the animals re-ascend the trees, they each carry a stone in their hands, and generally another in their months ; and, in such rase these are thrown at their adversary with a correctness of aim that is truly astonishing.
The inhabitants of several coun«
tries derive a means of subsistence
from the flesh of these animals. We
arc assured by Condainiue, that in
3 I Cayenne Cayenne the monkies are the kind of game that is more frequently pursued than auy other; and ti,at the Indians of the country bordering on the river of the Amazons are peculiarly fond of iheir tiesh. Their fat is esteemed a sovereign remedy for stiffness in the joints. In tlie Portuguese settlements, in South America, powdered inoukies' hones are considered an excellent sudorific, and likewise as anti-venereal. In the gall-bladder of one or two of the Indian species (but particularly of the dork and wunderu\ a kind of gall-stone is sometimes found. These, savs Tavernier, the natives, have been known to sell for as much as a hundred crowns each. They will not, in general, permit them to be exported out of their country as Articles of commerce, but' chiefly preserve them as an invaluable present to foreign ambassadors rest* ding amongst them. They are considered to possess all the properties that hare been attributed to the most precious of the bezoar stones. Christ Church, Feb. 1, 1807.
In the neiijhbourhood of Halifax, a great natural csoosity lias excited the admiration of maiTV scores of people, who have gone to see it:. it is a white sky-lark I the particular division and tribe of birds to which it belongs, is sufficiently identified by its figure and note. It was last eprmg taken out of a nest of larks, distinguished from its companions only by its colour. This singular bird has shed its feathers, and is now a shining milk white. It is in the possession of John Whitehead, at Brockwell Bank, on tlie old ro:id to liochd;ile.
In the evening of Monday, the 12ti hist, the following phoenomena were distinctly seen from Stob's Castle, Roxburghshire:
The Comet Ijecame visible immediately after twilight, at a considerable elevation in the heavens, nearly due west, and set about one-half past ei-.'iit o'clock, within a few degrees of northwest. The nucleus, or star, wbeo viewed through a small telescope, appeared about the size of a star of the first magnitude, but less vivid, and of a pale dusky colour. The atmosphere of the Comet, owingto the limited power of the telescope, was barely perceptible. The tail, daily increasing in magnitude and splendour, as the Comet approaches the sun, appeared svmelieies extremely brilliant, seeming to be a vibration of luminous particles, somewhat resembling the aurora borealis, and at other times almost to disappear. From the arch described by the Comet in the heavens, in the short space of two hours, its velocity must be immense. By the nearest computation which circumstances and situation allowed, supposing the Cornet as far distant as the sun, or about 12,000 diameters of the earth, it must be moving in the present stage of its perihelion. «* the amazing velocity of-nearly a million of miles an hour, "or upwards of 16,000 miles a minute! Such astonishing rapidity is indeed almost inconceivable ;: but! the velocity of the Comet, observed at Palermo, in 177°. by Mr, Brydone,' was still more remarkable, which, in 24 hoars, described an arch in the heavens of upwards 6f 50 degrees in length, and was computed by that ingenious geo» tleman to be moving at toe rate of sixty millions of milt* iu a day, or "". - ■ upwards upwards of 40,000 utiles in a minute.
The comets belonging to our solar system are supposed to amount to about 450; but the elements or periodical times of a small number only of these have been precisely calculated. From the many accurate observations made by Sir Isaac Newton, on the great Comet of l6"80, they were first discovered to be a kind of planets moving iu very eccentric elliptical orbits, and with accelerated velocity as they approach their perihelion. That remarkable Comet was supposed to be the same which had appeared in liou, in the lime of Henry I.—in the year 531, in the consulship of Laiupadius— and in the year 44, B. C. before Julius Caesar was murdered. Its next appearance will be in the year 2255, about four centuries hence. v %
The Comet which appeared in 1759 was pretty accurately predicted by the learned Dr. Halley, and may again be expected to appear about the year 1S35. The best astronomers are generally agreed, that comets are opaque bodies, enlightened by the sun; but* the precise nature of their substance, which is capable of sustaining the most violent degrees of heat, cannot be determined by the limited faculties of man. The illustrious Newton calculated, that the heat of the great Comet of 10'SO, in its near approach
to the sun, must have been 2000 times greater titan that of red-hot iron; consequently, if we suppose that Comet to he of the same dimensions with the earth, and to cool no faster than red-hot iron, it would require upwards of a hundred millions of years to cool; and from its periodical revolution iu the short space of 575 years, must remain for ever in a state of the most violent ignition.
This Comet, according to Halley, "in passing through its southern node, came within the length of the sun's semidiameter of the earth's orbit."— Had the earth been then in that part of ber orbit nearest to that node, the mutual gravitation of two such large bodies, with so rapid a motion as that of this Comet, must not only have deranged the plane of the earth's orbit, but by coining in contact with the earth (a circumstance by no means deemed improbable by the most enlightened philosophers), the shock must have reduced this beautiful frame to its original chaos, or transported it beyond the limits of the Georgium Sidus, into the boundless depths of infinite space.
But language sinks beneath content plation so sublime, and so well calculated to inspire the most awful sentiments of the wisdom, providence, and power, of the Great Creator of the universe!
October 26, 1807.
Lists of Patents for Inventions, Ifc. granted in the year 1307.
[Chiefly from the Repertory of Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture.]
JOSEPH MOSELEY ELLIOT, of the parish of St. James, Clerkrnwell, in the county of Middlesex, watchmaker; for a new or improved method of making and constructing repeaters, or repeating watches, and time-pieces. Dated October 30, 1806.
Robert Vazie, of the parish of St. Mary Rotherhilhe, in the county of Surrey, civil engineer: for improvements in tin' measure;), and in the machinery to he used in making bricks and earthen-ware, and also for improvements in the carriages for removing the said articles. Dated November 6, 1806".
James Royston, of Halifax, in the county of York, card-maker; for an improvement on the system of cardmaking, by a method of cutting teeth for carding wool and tow. Dated November 6, 1806*.
John Win. Lloyd, late of Brook«lreet, Grosvenor-square, in the county of Middlesex, but now of I'.i-hop Wearmouth, in the county of Durham, esq; for anti-friction rollers •i- wbe«K t* assist all aorta of «ar
riage-whecls. Dated November •:• 1806.
James Henckell, of the city of London, merchant; for certain improvements on a machine for dressing coffee or barley, or any other corn, grain, pulse, seed, and berries. Communicated to him by a certain foreigner residing abroad. Dated November 20, 1806\
Williarii Nicholson, of Soho-square, in the county of Middlesex, gentleman; for various improvement* in the application of steam to useful purposes, and in the apparatus required to the same. Date* November 22, 1806'.
James Frederick Matthey, of Suffolk-street, Charing-cross, in the city of Westminster, lieutenant in D< Meuron's regiment; for various improvements upon fire-amis and guns of all descriptions. Dated December 4, 1806.
, Samuel Williamson, of KnuUford. in the county of Chester, weaver; for an improvement in weaving colton, silk, woollen, worsted, and uohair, and each of them, and even two or more of.them, by loomsDated December 4, 1806'.
William Hyde Wollaston, of the parish of St. Mary-la-bonne, in the county of Mkldlcsex, gentleman: for an instrument whereby any person