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quest: that when the Spanish com..unprovided with proper and suffi.
mander had shewn such symptoms cient means for forcing the barri.
of a disposition to treat, as to ex. cadoes, whereby the troops weru
press a desire to communicate with unnecessarily exposed to destruc-
major-general Gower, the second tion, without the possibility of
in command, upon the subject of making effectual opposition: such
terms, the said lieutenant-general conduct betraying great professi.
Wbitelocke did return a message, onal incapacity on the part of tbe
in which he demanded, amongst said lieutenant-general Whitelocke,
other articles, the surrender of all tending to lessen the confidence of
persons holding civil offices in the the troops in the judgement of their
government of Buenos Ayres, as officers, being derogatory to the
prisoners of war: that the said lieu. honour of his majesty's arms, con.
tenant-general Whitelocke, in ma. trary to his duty as an officer, pre-
king such an offensive and unusual judicial to good order and military
demand, tending to exasperate the discipline, and contrary to the ar.
inhabitants of Buenos Ayres, to ticles of war.
produce and encourage a spirit of Third charge. — That the said
resistance to his majesty's arms, to lieutenant-general did not make,
exclude the hope of amicable ac. although it was in his power, any
commodation, and to increase the effectual attempt, by his owo per.
difficulties of the service with which sonal exertion or otherwise, to co.
he was intrusted, acted in a manner operate with, or support the differ.
unbecoming his duty as an officer, ent divisions of the army under his
prejudicial to military discipline, command, when engaged with the
and contrary to the articles of war. enemy in the streets of Buenos

Second charge. That the said Ayres, on the 5th of July, 1807; lieutenant.general Whitelocke, af. whereby those troops, after having ter the landing of the troops at encountered and surmounted a con. Ensenada, and during the march stant and well directed fire, and from thence to the town of Buenos having effected the purpose of their Ayres, did not make the military orders, were left without aid and arrangements best calculated to en. support, or further orders; and sure the success of his operations considerable detachments, under against the town; and that, having lieutenant colonel Duff and briga. known, previously to his attack dier-general Craufurd, were thereby upon the town of Buenos Ayres, compelled to surrender: such conupon the 5th July 1807, as appears duct on the part of the said lieute.

from his public dispatch of 10th of tenant-general Whitelocke tending · July, that the enemy meant to oce to the defeat and dislionour of his

cupy the flat roofs of the houses, majesty's arms, to lessen the confi. he did nevertheless, in the said at dence of the troops in the skill and tack, divide his force into several courage of their otlicers, being us. brigades and parts, and ordered the becoming and disgraceful to his whole to be unloaded, and no firing character as an officer, prejudicial to be permitted on any account, to good order and military disci.

and under this order, to march into pline, and contrary to the articles ...the principal streets of the town of war.

Fourth Fourth charge.—That the said related to the order, that" columns lieutenant-general Whitelocke, sub. should be unloaded, and that no sequent to the attack upon the town firing should be permitted on any of Ruenos Ayres, and at a time account." The court was " anxi. when the troops under his com. ous that it might be distinctly un.. mand were in possession of posts derstood, that they attached no on each flank of the town, and of censure whatever to the precau. the principal arsenal, with a com. tions taken to prevent unnecessary monication open to the fieet, and firing during the advance of the baring an effective force of upwards troops to the proposed points of at. of 50r3 men, did enter into, and tack; and did therefore acquit lieu. finally conclude, a treaty with the tenant-general Whitelocke against enemy, whereby he acknowledges, that part of the said charge." The in the public dispatch of the 10th of court adjudged, " That the said July, 1807, " That he resolved to lieutenant-general Whitelocke be forego the advantages which the cashiered, and declared totally bravery of his troops had obtained, unfit and untoorthy to serre his and which advantages had cost him majesty'in any military capacity about 2,500 men, in killed, wound. whateter." This sentence was ed, and prisoners ;” and by such confirmed by the king, who gave treaty, he unnecessarily and shame. orders that it should be read at the fully surrendered all such advan. head of every regiment in his ser. tages, totally evacuated the town of vice, and inserted in all regimental Buenos Ayres, and consented to orderly books, with a view of its deliver, and did shamefully abandon becoming a lasting memorial of the and deliver up to the enemy, the fatal consequences to which officers strong fortress of Monte Video, expose themselves, who, in the dis. which had been committed to his charge of the important duties con. charge; and which, at the period fided to them, are deficient in that of the treaty and abandonment, was zeal, judgment, and personal exerwell and sufficiently garrisoned and tion, which their sovereign and their provided against attack, and which country have a right to expect from was not, at such period, in a state officers entrusted with high com. of blockade or siege: such conduct, mands. on the part of lieutenant-general The plan of attack on Buenos Whitelocke, tending to the disho. Ayres adopted by general White. nour of his majesty's arms, and locke, it would appear, was none of being contrary to his duty as an his own contrivance, but one pro. officer, prejudicial to good order posed to him by lieutenant-general and military discipline, and contrary Gower. This was declared by the to the articles of war.

general himself in his defence.* And The court-martial found the ge. general Gower admitted, in his evi. Deral guilty of the whole of these dence, that the basis of the plan charges, with the exception of that adopted by General Whitelocke was part of the second charge, which very much like his.t Indeed, general

• Whitelocke's Trial at Large, p. 541.
+ Ditto, p. 54.


Whitelocke appears, from his trial, end of the trial, public curiosity to have been very undecided and was less excited to know its issue, wavering in his conduct *, and in than the interest or means by which that state of mind which reposes on gencral Whitelocke had obtained the counsels of others. Towards the his important appointment.

* General Craufurd, in his evidence, related to the court the following anecdote. The day after he arrived at Monte Video, general Whitelocke proposed to him to walk round the works with him; and in returning through the town, be desired him to notice the peculiar construction of the houses, their fiat roofs surrounded by parapet walls, and other circunstances, which, as he observed, rendered them peculiarly favourable for defence, and added, that he certainly would not expose his troops to so unequal a contest, as that in which they would be engaged, if led into so large a town as Buenos Ayres, all the inhabitants of which were prepared for its defence, and the houses of which were similarly constructed to those which he then pointed out to him. In the obvious propriety of general Whitelocke's intentions, general Craufurd most heartily acquiesced. Whitelocke's Trial at Large, p. 116.



State of Europe after the peace of Tilsit.-Iur against the Com.' merce of England.--Decrees of Buonaparte blockading all the Ports of Britain, and the British Dominions, in ercry part of the Globe.- Enforced with greater and greater rigour.- Effects of these on English Commerce.-Counteructed by British Orders of Council.- General Christophe, the most poiçerful chief in St. Do. mingo, a friend to the English-his liberal and wise policy. Cap. ture of the Dutch Island of Curaçoa.-Transactions in the East Indies.- Consequences of the Massacre, and Insurrection, at Vel. lore.-Dundie Khan.-Mujor-general Dickens.-His unskilfulness, and wanton dissegard to the lives of the Officers and Privates under his command.

AFTER the battle of Friedland n and peace of Tilsit, all the continent of Europe lay prostrate before Buonaparte. But the island of Great Britain, mistress of the seas, still defied his power, and threatened to harass his extended coasts with never-ceasing aggres.' sion, which she seemed still able to continue by means of the resources opened by her vast commerce. Sweden and Portugal were willing, but not able to maintain their inde, pendence : and Deninark was, above all things, desirous of avoid ing the evils of war, either with France, or England, by a strict and rigid observance of that neutrality which had hitherto protected her, But, the open country of Holstein opposed no barriers for its own

defence, and that of Jutland, while its richness and fertility both in. vited and facilitated the entrance of that army, which had hovered long on its frontie - It was against the commerce of England alone, that Buonaparte had now to make war: and as he could not do this at sea, his fleets having been almost anni. hilated, he conceived the extraya. gant, and almost frantic* design of doing it at land, by shutting it out, not only from the ports of France, Italy, and Holland, but from all the ports of Europe.

The idea of opposing power at land to power at sea, and under. mining the naval greatness of En. gland, by excluding her trade from the great inlets of Europe, occurred to the Directory in 1796.7 In va.

* It was an attempt, in some measure, to wage war with nature, by disputing the prerogatives of the Ocean.- When the fleet of Xerxes was defeated, and destroyed, or dispersed by the Greeks, under the conduct of Themistocles at Salamis, be lashed the Ocean, inhabited and governed, as he supposed, by gods; and seized on all the treasures of the temple of Jupiter, at Babylon ; being offended at the opposition of the god to his schemes of conquest. He melted down the golden images of the deities in the temple, to reimburse him for the expence he had been put to, in an unsuccessful war against Greece. . I Vol. XL. 1798, ILISTORY OF EUROPE. chap. xv. VoL, XLIX.


rious publications issued by autho. in consequence of the decrees rity, the advantages to be expected in their favour, carried their indis. from such a system, were represent. criminate piracies to such a length, ed in glowing colours. But the as wholly to drive away from the impression they produced was very French coasts those neutral vessels feeble, and that confined to the which good policy would have in. states whom the French govern. vited and encouraged, in order to ment had other means of influencing raise the value of the produce than reasoning. But on the 3d of and merchandize of France, and July, 1796, a decree was passed, lower the price of freight and insu. directing Wall French privateers, rance. The French government, and ships of war, to treat the res taught by experience, the folly of sels of neutral nations in the same their piratical system, laid down as manner, in which the ships of those maxims, that the most extended and nations suffered themselves to be unlimited piracy is by no means a treated by the English.” This de genuine source of wealth and procree was notified to the Americans sperity; and that an agricultural þy the French minister at Phila. state, such as France, rich in phy. delphia, 27th of October, in the sical productions, and various in. same year. In consequence of this dustry, which consumes a great decree, numerous captures of Ame. deal, and should export a great deal, rican vessels were made by the is particularly interested in the precruizers of the French republic, servation of all commercial regula. and of some, by, those of Spain. tions, in their greatest extent and On the subject of maritime affairs, security. the Directory, in January - 1798, The Directory having represented issued another decree; “That all these things in a memorial, addresghips, having for their cargoes, in sed to the legislative body, conclu. whole, or in part, any English mer. ded that it was high time to adopt chandize, should be held lawful some marine code, that should be prizes, whoever might he the pro. better suited than the present, to the prietor of that merchandize; which interest and exigencies of the coun. should be held contraband from the try. They declared it to he their single circumstance of its coming fixed opinion, that, in the present from England, or any of its foreign situation of affairs, the liberty of settlements.” It was also enacted, privateering, instead of being far. that the harbours of France should ther encouraged, and extended, be shut against all ships, except in should be restrained and modified. cases of distress, that had so much This memorial respecting the ma, as touched at any English port; rine trade, was referred by the and, to complete the climax of bar. council of Five Hundred to a select . barity, that neutral sailors, found committee. The subject of it was on-board English vessels, should be under consideration, but nothing put to death.— The execution of this determined on, when the Directory

last decree, was prevented by a and legislative councils were super: declaration on the part of Bri, seded at the close of 1799, by the

tain, threatening retaliation.- consular government. A matter of The numerous French privateers such importance did not escape the


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