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though by far the weakest, was privates of the Prussian army, born forced by her situation to sustain in the provinces of southern Prussia, the first shock, by which she lost and new eastern Prussia, were sent the greater part of her states. In home to their friends and families : this disastrous situation, the king re. and the officers and cadets bad his fused to listeo to overtures of peace, majesty's leave to enter into the ser. but magnanimously retired with the vice of the new sovereign of those sad remains of his troops to the ex. provinces. This was an act of patremity of his kingdom, where he ternal consideration and goodness on was joined by his ally. The struggle the part of the king, as the officers was renewed in vain. Peace was and cadets might not so easily as the dictated by the conqueror not far privates have found otherwise, suita. from the frontier of Russia. From ble means of subsistence. Atthe same Memel, July 21, the king of time he both recruited, and carried on Prussia addressed to the subjects of the reforms that he had begun to in the ceded states, the following most troduce into his army in Dec. 1806. affecting proclamation : “Dear in. Having experienced in the late disas. habitants of faithful provinces, dis. trous war, how little dependence tricts, and towns; My arms have was to be placed on foreign adven. been unfortunate; the efforts of what turers in his service, it was decreed remained of my army, have been of that no strangers should thence. no avail. Driven to the outermost forth be admitted into the Prussian bongdaries of ny empire, and seeing army. Another regulation was made my powerful ally conclude an ar- of equal or greater importance. mistice and sign a peace, it only re. Promotion in the army, even to the mained for me to imitate his example. first stations, was opened to persons Peace was concluded necessarily on of distinguished merit of all ranks, terms preseribed by circumstances. without any consideration of birth : It has imposed on me and my house, and punishments were inflicted on it has imposed on the whole country, treachery in both military and civil the most painful sacrifices. The departments. The punishments in, bands of treaties, and of reciprocal ficted on traitors to Prussia, were, love and duty, the work of ages, doubtless, regarded with an evil eye, have been broken asunder.My ef. by him in whose cause the treachery forts have proved in vain.-Fate was committed. The vigour, ordains it, and the father parts with and the magnanimity of the king of his children. I release you com. Prussia, may not, probably, be pletely from your allegiance to my. soon forgotten by the jealous and selfand my house. My most ardent vindictive Buonaparte : to whom, prayers for your wellare will always as to all tyrants, virtue and high attend you in your relations to your spirit must always be an object of new sovereign. Be to him, what suspicion and hatred. In the mean yé have been to me. Neither force time, the French troops remained nor fate shall ever efface the remem. longer than the periods fixed by brance of you from my heart." -- By treaty for their removal, and the another proclamation of the same multiplied exactions, on various pre. date, non-commissioned officers and tences, of the French intendant
Daru, Daru, were an intolerable burthen of your majesty." The king imme. to the oppressed people. The king diately told him, that he wanted to strained every nerve, through the speak with the marshal himself, that intercession of the emperor Alex. they might come to a clear underander, and by all other means he standing respecting the additional could devise, to obtain some miti. article of the armistice of Skatklow, gation of these cruel contributions; and declared his unalterable resolu. and not altogether without success. tion to recognize only the first ar.
The young king of Sweden was mistice. The conversation, after pow the only potentate on the con. this, turned on the general situation tinent of Europe that refused to bend of affairs in France ; the allegiance his neck to the domination of Buo. due by the French to their legitimate Daparte. It has been mentioned king; the virtues and talents of that above, that on the 18th an armistice prince ; and in a word, the principal was concluded between the Swedish topics that are usually insisted on and French generals at Skatklow, by the French loyalists. The king also to be continued till ten days should brought under the marshal's consi. hare expired, after notice of an in. deration the instability of the preteotion to resume hostilities : which sent violent order of affairs in France; term of ten days was afterwards, by spoke of the king's proclamation, in an additional article, extended to which he promised to all the officers thirty. But the king of Sweden, who should return to their duty, having himself assumed the com. the continuance of their rauk, and bard of his army in Pomerania, im. plainly attempted to shake his adhe. mediately declared his intention to rence to Buonaparte, and draw him acknowledge only the first stipulation over to the cause of Lewis XVIII. of a term of ten days. In the mean time, his legitimate sovereign. In this notwithstanding the armistice, the conference, the king displayed Swedish navy held all the ports on extensive information and prompti. the Baltic, in the possession, or tude of understanding, as well as under the influence of France, in the the sublimest sentiments of virtue strictest blockade, and carried on and religion. The French general, bostilities at the mouth of the Trave, though precluded by his situation and against the corps of French from any display of honour, virtue, and Germans, besieging. Colberg. or religion, sustained the part he Remonstrances were made on this bad to act, uniting firmness in his subject, a correspondence ensued own cause, and quick recollection about the meaning and terms of the and good sense, with all due respect armistice, and, at the king of Swe. for the person of his Swedish majesty*. den's request, a conference was held From the first day of the king's between his majesty and marshal arrival at Stralsund, he had been in. Brune, June 4, at Skatklow, which lies defatigable in his exertions for im. within the Swedish territory. The proving the fortifications of Strab. marshal being admitted to the pre- sund, and for the erection of new sence of the king, after a short works on the island of Rugen. His Silence, said, “ I come here by order army at Stralsund consisted of about
* For the wbole conference, ecc Appendix to the Chronicle.
13,000 Swedes, and 4,000 Prus. 2,400 in killed and wounded ; that sians, and he was in expectation of of the Swedes at 1,500. A regi being soon joined by a large force ment of Hollanders was cut in from England.
pieces ; one of Bavarians destroyed Even after the peace of Tilsit, this by a masqued battery. The Swedes heroic prince, too much, alas! in however, were oriven under th the spirit of Charles XII. of Sweden walls of Stralsund ; from whenc at Bender, issued from the fortress they made frequent and rigor at Stralsund, the following address sallies. They performed prodigier to the German nation : “ German of valour: but these apailed no soldiers ! A German prince still against the army under Le Brune, speaks to you, who has never forgot composed of ditferent nations to what is due to honour and duty. the amount of 70.00 men. The Still his voice assails you, to remind Swedish army found itself reduced you that ye are a nation destined to to the necessity of evacuating Stral honour and independence; not to sund, which it did on the i9th of infamy and oppression. Yourprinces August, after destroying their ma. have forgotten the loyalty of their gazines, spiking their cannon, and ancestors. They have forgotten smashing their carriages, and throw. that Germany is but one state, and ing them into the ditches. In the the Germans but one nation. They evacuation of Stralsund, his Swe. have exposed you to the most in. dish majesty shewed a good deal famous destiny ; to promote the ab. of finesse. The king being sen. horred principles and designs of the sible of the impossibility of draw. Corsican Napoleon Buonaparte. ing any more troops, consistently Shake off then, in God's name, the with the safety of the kingdom, ignominious bondage. Never can a from Sweden, and of the necesa more favourable opportunity occur sity there was of strengthening the to turn your arms against the op- defence of Rugen, sent his adjutant. pressors of your unhappy country. general, baron Vegesack, chief in From the ramparts of Stralsund, the command at Stralsund, to the senate only independent burgh remaining and deacons of the corporations of in Germany, and which has bid de Burghers, to ask them if they were fiance to time, thousands will de, determined to stand a siege ; in scend, and unite with you for your which case they might depend on deliverance."-At Putt, a town of all the assistance and protection to Anterior Pomerania, eight miles be expected from the valour of we. SSW. from Stralsund, the Swedes dish troops : or if, in order to wereattacked in their entrenchments avoid the calamities of a siege, by a corps of the grand army of they were inclined, agreeably to a observation under marshal Brune. former petition of their's to the The Swedes, though bearing no pro.. king, to treat with the enemy for portion to the number of the as. peace? They humbly thanked his sailants, made an obstinate, and, majesty for his gracious message; and, to the enemy, a destructive resist of the two options they had given ance. The loss of the French, to them, preferred the last : in conor rather of their German and sequence of which, the fortress of Dutch allies, was computed at Stralsund was on the same day i 3
committed to their care, and mea. see general Peyron at six o'clock sures were immediately taken for in the evening. At that bour, de. conveying the troops and stores to puties from the senate of Stralsund Rogen ; which was eflected in the arrived at the French out.posts, nicht of the 19th and 20th of and in a little time thereafter general August. On the 20th, at three o'. Peyron, who had it in charge to clock in the morning, the king lea. declare in the name of his master the ving Stralsund, went to Altafer, to king of Sweden, that as the fortress give all necessary orders respecting of Stralsund had been wholly given the operations going forward ; and up to the management of the senate, remained there during the passage the king had nothing to do with any of the troops. That the measure military arrangements respecting it; adopted by the Swedes might not be and that he appeared, on the part suspected by the enemy, an aid. of his master, only to see that the de.camp, by orders of the king, pre, terms of capitulation should be just senting himself at the out.posts of and reasonable. Early on the 20th, the French, announced that at any all the troops and stores were safely boor that should be appointed, a landed on the island of Rugen *, Swedish officer, general Peyron, where 8,000 Germans, in British would attend general Brune with pay, had arrived some weeks before, some proposals relating to the for. under the command of lord Cathcart, tress of Stralsund, and that, in the but were by this time employed in mean time, there should be a sus. another part of the Baltic. The pension of hostilities for twenty-four Small Swedish army capitulated early hours. The aid.de-camp was re. in September, and all the islands ceived by general Reille, and it was on the German coast of the Baltic azteed on, that marshal Brune should were included in the capitulation.
Qualities required in a Statesman placed in a new and difficult si
tuation.-Characters of Mr. Charles For and the Marquis of Lan down.- Folly of going to War with France in 1793.- Advantage of Unanimity and Persererance in one Plan or System.-Unstead ness and Vacillation in the Conduct of Great Britain and of Prag siu.-Different Enterprises.- Individual Interests pursued by Allies.- Constant Designs of Russia on the Oltoman Empire.- T1 present Crisis deemed favourable for their completion.- War 5 tween the Russians and T'urks.- Revolution at Constantinople. Fruitless Expedition to the Dardanelles under the Command of 44 miral Sir Thomas Duckworth.- Capture, and subsequent Evacud cuation, by the English, of Alerandria. Unauthorized Expeditio against Buenos Ayres.--General Miranda's Expedition to Carucca -Capture of Monte Video by General Sir S. Auckmufy.- Disastrou and disgraceful Attempt for the Re-capture of Buenos Ayres, un Surrendler of Monte Video to the Spaniards by General John White locke.Trial and Sentence of General Whitelocke.
IN new and difficult circumstances Fox, and such also the late marqui I the affairs of a nation are not to of Lansdown. The marquis was a be conducted prosperously by or. much superior to Mr. Fox in learn dinary precedents, nor o dinary in!, as Mr. 'Fox was to the marqui talents, though united with habits in native rigour of fancy and under of business, and minute calculation, standing. But neither was the mar and all the powers of declamation. quis undistinguished by genius, no Such times require a leader who is Mr. Fox wholly untutored by letter capable of the most profound and Though constantly engaged in eithe comprehensive views : one who has business or pleasure, Fox was not un risen on the steps of history, and a acquainted with writers in history knowledgeof human nature, to anomic politics, and polite literature: an nence whence he can see a great way what he read he readily digested, an around him; who does not lose him. always remembered.He reasone self in the intricacies of defiles and like a philosopher, who enlarged h private paths, but is guided by views by study, and tempered the re those vistas and highways which are finements of study and reflection b opened to the accomplished states. actual observation on the moral an man lay reading, by reflection, and political scenes around him.- The: actual observation on various scenes two eminent statesmen set thei political and moral..Such a states. faces against the precipitation wit man, in noinconsiderable degree,was which we rushed into the war again! the late honourable Charles James France in 1793. They proclaime