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evening, with an interval of only one hour for refreshment. The minister of Abernethey himself is a silent auditor: but, when all the strangers have done, he mounts the pulpit, and recapitulates to the audience the substance of their sermons, adding ex Imitations of his own. An equal or greater number of ministers continue the work of preaching in a tent on the Muckle Dinn for an equal length of time.
"Oil Friday, there is a cessation of preaching. On Saturday it is resumed, but not till about cue o'clock; it is continued, however, till about eight. On the dismissal of the congregations, I mean that within aod that without doors, such of the intended communicants as had not been furnished with tickets, which they rail tokens, for the communion table, receive them now from the ministers and elders. On Saturday evening, the voice of some one who has retired for secret prayer, is heard here and there, behind a hillock or a furze-bush, or in the thickest part of the standing corn. A dog here and there stands barking at a noise, which indicates that some stranger is near, though he cannot see him.
•' At last the occasion Sunday itself arrives. Tlie church is crowded more than it is easy to imagine. Even the little black gallery, on which penitent olVenders against chastity sit, allied the cutty stool, is crammed full: there is no disgrace in sitting in this seat on this occasion. Pregnant women faint. For their iccovery, sympathetic females loosen or cut the laces of their stays, and move them for air to the windows. But the windows are beset with dense columns of people, eager to catch some of the words of the minister, who is serving at the communion table; nor is it with
out much difficulty that they can be persuaded to fall back even for a minute or two.
"In the mean time, tlie work of preaching, praying, and singing psalms, goes forward at the tent. I have heard, that in the time of old Culfargie, it was sometimes necessary to have two tents, as no human voice could extend to the whole multifile which resorted to the occasion at Aberuethey in those days; but I never saw more than one.
"The space occupied by the multitude in front, on either wing, and at the back too of the tent, may be, including the booths and beer-stand* of publicans, about three quarters of a mile in circumference. When a very popular preacher holds forth, the bearers sit fast, or seize the moment when they think that they have been wrought into a suitable frame of mind, to repair to the church, and press forward, as soon as they are able, to the communion table. When it is the turn of one lest gifted to fill the tent, as they call it, they beckon to their acquaintance, and retire in crowds to booths or beer-barrels to take a refreshment. From about two o'clock in the afternoon to about six or seven, when there is an interval of an hour, the people passing to and fro, between the preaching tent, the church, aud the booths of the su I tiers, forms the whole, when viewed at a distance, into one compacted scene.
"This scene is secu to great advantage of) the north, and opposite banks of the Erne, near the Rhynd. The white linen caps and red cloaks, or red or striped plaids of the women of the lower and most numerous classes; the silk cloaks aud hats of others; aud the blue bonnets or tlie hal* of the :nen, make altogether a very striking as well as motley ap|war
auce. nee. The singing of psalms by so vat a multitude, with Stentorian oices, to the number of twelve housand, reverberated from the hill, i heard at a great distance, like the inn of bees. Had this scene been iewed by the Danes encamped on lie eastern slope of the hill of Monrieff, they would, beyond all doubt, ave mistaken It-for the camp of the neinv, engaged in some awful ilimitations.
"The Monday after the sacranent is a thanksgiving-day. There re two preachers, botb in the church nd at the tent;- but the whole serice is over by four o'clock, when all be ministers and elders repair to the ninister's house, and enjoy a very ilentiful, though perhaps I dare not enturelo call it, a very hearty diner; for even now the intensity of he religious tone is not wholly reaxed. Immediately after dinner, nhich is preceded by a very long ;race, there is again singing of isalnis, and a very long prayer.
"The pilgrims who had come to bis holy city, after visiting, that is, jking a near view of Culfargie, the evidence of their first and great iniister, return to their respective ouuties ami parisltes. Travellers 'bo meet them on their return, as ravellers in an opposite direction ad done before, inquire at the first in they alight at, " What the deuce an be the meaning of so many peole here and-there all along 1 tie road sr so many miles, as silent and owucast as if they were going- to le gallows ?"—" Oh! it has been ;ie sacrament at Abernelliey."
From the bridge of Erne our traeller crossed the country, northward » Perth, which he represents as a ery beautiful and flourishing, but emarkably inhospitable place, aud
w here, as it was long the capital of Scotland, he recollects some striking passages in the Scottish history. He passes on through the Carse of Gowlie, the Campus frumrnto nobilis of the celebrated Bnchannan, stretching along the left bank of the Tay, to Dundee: from Dundee, by Arbroath, and the promontory of the Redhead, a most stupenduous rock, to Montrose: from Montrose up to the banks of the South E>k, to Brechin; from Brechin, by Stonehaven, to Aberdeeu: from Aberdeen, round by Peterhead and Fyvie, to Bailiff: from Bamff, by Portsoy, to Fochabers. And now, having arrived at the banks of the Spey, where he formerly, before his coining to England, passed seven years, in the course of which he made many excursions to different places; he proceeds to describe objects, and relate matters of fact, without troubling his readers, in every instance, with the circumstance of time, or the particular s|>ot from whence he set out to another. His excursions extend to different parts in the interior, and mountainous parts of Bamffihire and Aberdeenshire, and over the whole course of the Spey, on both sides, almost up to its source, and into some of the straths (vallies) and glens that discharge tlu-ir waters in that -parlous and rapid river. The circumstances, character, and modes of life of the inhabitants are described, and illustrated by particular examples. Natural objects too are describe.t, with some curious phenomena and facts in natural history. On a fine day.'our traveller went to climb Bclrhtnis, a high mountain bordering on the valley of the Spey, about twenty miles from the Murray Frith. It rises 3000 feet above the level of the sea; and is liie first land
that that is seen by mariners coming from the Northern Ocean. "Though the day was extremely clour before I reached the top, I found myself enveloped in a cloud, whence I could see any object distinctly only at a few yards distance. Perceiving a fine breeze, as I was ascending, I hoped the cloud would disperse, and therefore, though I felt it extremely cold, and myself extremely hungry, having foolishly put nothing in my pocket, I resolved to remain there some time. But, to my astonishment, while I was steppiug about to keep myself warm, on the top of the hill, I perceived something of an uncommon appearance through the mist at a distance. I approached it, indeed, not without fear, and at length found it to be a phalanx of wedders, or sheep three years old, on the top of the bill, ready to defend themselves from every attack. They were arranged in a line, form> ing a blunt wedge, with an extremely large one in the middle, having a large black forehead, and a pair of tremendous horns. There were about a hundred in front, and about fifty on each side of him. A number of weaker ones were in the rear, and not one of them eating, but looking sternly at me. I was not afraid,knowing them to be sheep; yet I was not quite easy, as, if any fox had appeared at this time, in attacking him and even chasing him, they might have killed me. These wedders are sent up into the hill in the eud of April, or early in May, and the proprietors never look after them till about ibe end of October. It is well known they never sleep all at a time, but, as is the case with crows, geese, and other gregarious animals, there is always one at a distance on the k>ok out. They never rest in a hol
low, even in the most stormy night, but upon a rising ground, where they can see all around; and when they are atla< ked l>\ a fox, or dogs, their assailants never fail to be killed. When furiously altark< ■!, they f«>rm themselves into a circle, tl.tir head* all outward, and the ueakcr ones ia the centre; and if, as it sometimes happens, that a fox. takes a spring, and leaps in among them, tliey instantly turn, and boxing him with their head, and stamping linn with their feet, and tossing him with their horns, never fail to kill him; his ribs being generally all broken. When domesticated, animals generally leave their protection (o man; but, when left to themselves, both instinct and experience teaches iberu how to defend themselves. When these sheep on the top of the bill saw me* retire, they grew more careless, and did not keep their ranks so straight; but whenever 1 turned, and was approaching them, they looked more steadily at me, and stood closer together, and formed their ranks more regularly; and I verily believe, had I attempted to attack titem, they would have resisted. I had once a mind to try it, but I confess I was afraid, as I observed them seemingly bending their knees, to
make a spring at me.
I began to be so extremely hungry, that I would have given five shillings for a halfpenny roll; and it being about four in the afternoon, 1 had thoughts of descending; when, all at once, as I was looking towards the east, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, the clouds went off from the mountain, and fields, bills, rivers, and other objects, thirty miles distant, all at once appeared to view. The sight was grand in the extreme, and called up immediately to my mind that omnipotent being who makes the clouds his chariot, and rides'on the wings of the wind. Instead of the srusations of hunger and faturue, which the moment before made me iinensv, I perceived a secret enjoyment, a calm satisfaction, and a glow of love to God and to llse creatures of his hand, which no laniruage can express. When I saw Peterl>ead on the east, at the distance of near sixty miles, and thousands of variegaJed intervening objects; on the north, the wide extended ocean, as far as the eye could reach; and tow ards the west, Inverness, the hills of Lovat, Urquluirt, and all the beautiful county of Murray, with villages and towns scattered here and there; shearing no more than small specks, astonishment seized n|>on my mind, and I stood long motionless admiring the grandeur of the scene."
Not many miles from Castle Grant, Mr. H. found a gentleman alio was not displeased that a couple of eaglrs, whose nest Mr. H. went to see regularly every summer, built one on a rock in a hill, not far from the gentleman's house. There was a stone witbin a few yards of it, about six feet long, and nearly as broad, and upon this stone, almost constantly, but always when they had younsr, the gentleman and his servants found a number of inuir fowl, partriilues, hares, rabbits, ducks, snipes, ptarmacans, rats, mice, &c. and sometimes kids, fawns, and lambs. When the young eagles were able to hop the length of this stone, to which there was a narrow road hanging over a dreadful precipice, as a cat brings live mice to her kittens, and teaches them to kill them, so the eagles, I learned, often brought hares, rabbits,
&c. alive; and, placing them before their young, taught them to kill and tear them to pieces. As the eagles; kept what might be called an excellent larder, when any visitors surprized the gentleman, he wHs absolutely in the babit, as he told me himself, of sending his servants to see what their neighbours had to spare; and that they scarcely ever returned without something very good for the table. It is well enough known, that game of all kinds is not the worse, but the better for being kept for a very considerable time.
Mr. H. pursues his journey by Rothes, Elgin, and Forres, to Inverness, At fort Augustus, he crossed Lochness, and landed ou the north side at castle Urquhart, once the seat of the Cuminings, situated on a promontory of solid rock, jutting into the lakfl. From thence he proceeded to Cromarty, Dornoch, and by Wick and Thurso, to Cape Wrath, the north-west point of Scotland, through a country, of which, among otbeT observations, lie says, that " Were the British legislature to enact that delinquents from the parish of St. Giles, in London, and other parts, to be transported there instead of Botany Bay, it would be an improvement in our code of laws." The hardiness of the people in the most northerly counties of Scotland, and the hardness of their fare will scarcely appear credible to any other than a Scotchman. At Cape Wrath they have a foot post, who, weekly, summer and winter, though it be near sixty miles, runs between the cape and Thurso: which he often does, wading to the middle in snow.
"The people of Caithness," says Mr. H. "are stunted creatures with
sharp visages, indicative of both intelligence and want. I was at pains to inquire into ihe diet of these poor people.'' Breakfast, meal and bree, that is water-gruel, not the substantial porridge of (lie l<owlamlcrs.
"Dinner, rural and bree kail, or a kind of soup meagre, in which there is boiled, peihaps some barlev or grits, with some kail, and a scanty allowance of barley-cakes. Supper, meal and bree: or, in place of this, sowens, a kind, of frum.nly, made from the husks of grits, or oatmeal. On Sundays, or other festivals, they have, after their meal and bree, some milk, or perhaps two epg«. If any farmer is reported to eat flesh; the laird considers this as a fraud on him. "I must look sharp after this man: he has his farm too cheap. They tell me he eats flesh-meat.
"It is a common thing for labourers, or farmers' servants, to stipulate with .their masters, that, besides their meal and bree, or soup meagre for dinner, they shall have a certain number of stocks of kail to be cateu with bread and salt. This must appear to an Englishman wholly incredible; as being altogether insufficient to keep soul and body together. Nevertheless, there is nothing more
certain, and I dare to appeal for tbc truth of it to any one acquainted with Caithness."
Mr. H. leaving Cape Wrath, aa immense iotk, but i.ol quite »o stupendous as the Ited-head in Angus, vent ba k to Tlmr-n; and from the lire crossing the IVnlland Kriili to the Oikneys, and took up his head quarters at the house of his old acquaintance, the Rev. Mr. Allison, minister of St. Andrews, and Deeruess. He did not go to the Shetland?:, hut an account of the present stale of these islands, was communicated to him by a minister of a parish there; which, indeed, forms II* most iuterestiug and. valuable part of his publication. Leaving the Orkneys, he set sail to the Hebrides; where he found a class of mortals railed ScoHags, a kiud of predial slaves, in a condition still more wretched than that of the labouring class of people in Caithness. From the liebrides he set sail for Fort William. From thence he went to Invenrr, and from Inverary by Lochlomond and Dunbar ton to Glasgow. From Glasgow he went up the course or valles of the Clyde, as far as 1 anark, and from thence returned to Edinburgh.