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they wish to convince; and although their own personal character-withevery accusation may be short of out feeling the claims of their anthe truth, yet a reformer, and espe- cestry, But if a family of the cially a Christian reformer, will fail religious world can suffer spiritual to hem in the world by the violences decay, and finally become re-abof censure. The party he attempts sorbed into the mass whence the to surround, will be violent in self- grace of God originally delivered it, defence. Undique recalcitrat tu. churches, which are only collections tus." It will be, indeed, a false of individuals and families, may pass safety; but it will spurn away a through the same process. The reprover, who, had he come with discerning spirit of Milner, in his stronger indications of good-will remarks on the degeneracy of the and sympathy, might have prevailed, church of Sardis, finds a parallel and imparted unknown blessings. to such a state of things in modern

Let not Mr. Irving accuse us of times. He writes, “ The love of kicking against the whole of his in- the world increases with the abatedictment; the language of which is ment of persecution. Lively Chris. frequently more severe than the tians are removed by death; their substance. We think him to be juniors, inferior in all solid godliness, perfectly justified in supposing any superior only in self-estimation, redegree of deviation, however great, duce the standard of Christian grace from the faith, in some one or other lower and lower: what was once expeof the various divisions of the church. rimentally known, becomes matter The transition from good to evil is of barren speculation ; sensual and too natural; being the regular course worldly objects allure the carnal of human kind, in the things most mind with success : lucrative spenearly affecting their happiness. We culations in commerce devour the may observe this in the gradual spirit of godly meditation; the seadecline of religious families. The sons of religious duty are jostled grandfather was a decided and con- out by the throng of business; and sistent Christian, and bequeathed to excuses of necessity are easily adhis son the knowledge, and perhaps mitted. Men find a pleasure in the profession, of serious religion; being no longer reputed fanatics and the profession, by the Divine and professors will now ask leave of blessing on a parent's prayers and the world, how far it will permit example, might eventually be sin- them to proceed in religion, with

In the third generation, the out offence.” This is a plain stateforms, and possibly the opinions of ment; and if it cannot be confirmed, religion, had become hereditary; and accurately exemplified in the but these were followed by nothing present age of the church, we may better than a support of the popular ask, by what process has the human institutions of the age, as by a kind heart of the nineteenth century lost of traditionary duty performed out- the stigmata of all previous time. wardly ; while the affections are Are the brand-marks worn out? secretly placed upon the world. We know what the church was, in

This species of degenerate family what are called its earliest and best religion is deeply injurious to the days; and it inight be a useful exChristian cause. "Its touch is pollu- ercise of the imagination to carry tion, and the more detrimental, be- ourselves back, for example, to an cause of its being connected with open committee or general meeting the veneration due to the family of the Corinthian church, convened name, from the remembrance of for the purpose of considering the what it once was; as, in another rela- first of St. Paul's Epistles. It is tion, we cannot look at the descend- easy to fancy the impatience, the ants of a Marlborough or Sully- irritation, and, as the world calls it, whether worthy or unworthy in the wounded pride, which would be

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discovered under these circum. sionate one. There is an address, stances. Consciousness of guilt, a delicacy, and gentleness combined mingled with something approach with whatever severity he used, as ing to the feelings of the fallen one commissioned from above, to spirit, described by Milton as “high shew the Corinthian converts the disdain from sense of injured merit," ingratitude and danger of their would agitate the bosom of many a conduct *. In the example of Mr. member of the lapsed church. There Irving, we may find what we will would be attempts to re-criminate, concede to be fidelity of reproof, and to lower the authority of the however deformed and weakened accuser ; and beneath the shelter by unchastised language; but we of the confusion thus created, to look must we say it? we say it hide guilt, and to escape, for the grieving-in vain for that spirit of time, from the upbraidings of con. sympathy, self-condemnation, and science. . We have no occasion, remembrance of the cause of the indeed, to imagine these things. difference between the elect and They are written for our instruction; others, which breathes throughout and, with all the emphasis of fact, the writings, and the most stern in the inspired records of the church. exercise of St. Paul's authority. It Let any one carefully read the will be also recollected, that the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Wesleys, and others of their age, and he will observe that St. Paul whom Mr. Irving has incidentally uses,

if

we may so speak, all his mentioned with somewhat of a con. address, and all the innocent arts temptuous feeling, confessed in their of self defence, in order to find spiritual maturity, how much, in the shelter for the truth; while, at the early period of their zeal, they neg, same time, he conciliates a party lected to temper their exhortations which bad evidently resisted apo- and alarms to a wicked world with stolic and inspired authority. An expressions of tenderness for its instructor, thus disparaged, was guilt and misery, Christ wept over driven to self-commendation; or Jerusalem at the very time when he rather, to assert his real claims, declared that its last days were apbecause they were disputed by fac- proaching; and, according to this tious disciples, and by individuals perfect example, there is no incon. striving to shun punishment. He sistency in lamenting over a city in, says,

“I am become a fool in glo- evitably doomed to destruction. rying; ye have compelled me: for I Mr. Irving's plan, like all schemes ought to have been commended of of a headlong character, betrays you; for in nothing am I behind him into many curious anomalies. the very chiefest Apostles, though One of these appears to be his high I be nothing. I fear, lest when I notion about the enormity of discome, I shall not find you as I would, and that I shall be found unto you, or St. Paul's character, than that his ex

Nothing more raises our veneration as ye would not; lest there be

treme sensibility of heart, and his rare debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, delicacy, in consulting the feelings of back-bitings, whisperings, swellings, others, is never exercised at the expense

of his integrity. There are many upright tumults; and lest, when I come

minds, whose honesty is yet somewhat again, my God will humble me disfigured by a harsh among you, and that I shall bewail too conscientious to censure unjustly; many which have sinned already, but, knowing the censure to be merited, and have not repented of the un

they have rather a pleasure in inflicting

the correction. And though they are not cleanness, and fornication, and las- glad the offender deserves it, they are not civiousness which they have com sorry it is their duty to impart it. St. mitted."

Paul never severely reproved another, that

he did not inflict a wound on his own But if St. Paul was a faithful re

feelings."-Mrs. H. More's Essay on St. prover, he was equally a compas. Paul. Vol. II. ch. xiii.

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sent from either of the established pared to aver, that his treatment of churches of Great Britain. Now our religious societies might, for its when it is considered that one of indiscriminate and unkind hostility, these communions is Episcopal and have issued from a Papal or SoLiturgical, and the other Presby- cinian partisan. He is, indeed, the terian and Anti-liturgical; to say Ishmael of the Christian world, his nothing of what is called the ultra- hand being against every man : and Calvinism of the Scotch Confession, if the parallel reach farther

, he has and of its other points of discre himself extended it, by provoking pancy from the Thirty-nine Articles all hands against himself; for it is and external discipline of the south difficult to say what class has esern establishment, and its unmea. caped the edge of his cimeter. Has sured denunciation of that establish- Mr. Irving yet to learn the distincment in its official documents, it is tion between the principles, regucertainly an effort to draw matter lations, and general management of of consistent accusation from these any given institution, and the imvarious and distant sources. They do perfection or inconsistency of cernot rise, like Bruce's springs of the tain among its agents ? His rule, Nile, within a few yards of each if applied to the two establishments other, and by a speedy confluence fro

from which, with all their varieties uniting in the same stream ; but in doctrine and discipline, it seems from fountains bubbling up in dif- to be equally criminal to dissent, is, ferent regions, and supplying waters in its own nature suicidal. For, cerof distinct qualities, while the rivers, tainly, he brings such heavy accuthus originated, flow separately, and sation against the ministers of these are regarded as the boundaries of sister, or lialf-sister churches, as tribes by no

means disposed to would practically snap the links form alliances, but rather engaged which now bind him and his folin endless warfare ; for we suppose

lowers to either communion ; each that Episcopalians and Presbyte- of them, by his own account, being rians would be considered a sort of very badly administered. But this natural foes,--the French and En- it is to be an impetuous reformer ; glish of the ecclesiastical world. to pull down a building, in the act We should, indeed, be ourselves of repairing it. Mr. Irving is too exceedingly happy to witness the well acquainted with the history of final close of such hostilities; and his own church not to be aware of would that peace were restored in the spiritual decay and desolation our spiritual Zion : but we cannot to which it was lowered, even so very clearly understand Mr. Irving's lately as the days of Witherspoon *; anxiety to make the same man faith and why did not that excellent man, ful to two sides ; fitting to the same and such as he, desert it? But if head, the quaint cap of John Knox intolerance be too hard a word to and the mitre of a bishop; investing designate our author's character, it the same arms with lawn sleeves of shall be softened down to dissatisone colour, and stuff ones of ano faction; an emotion by no means ther; and, thus arrayed, proceeding confined to men of his excitability, to join the masked multitudes under In such a world as this, how few the character of a reformei; frown things cross our way, but what we ing reproof alternately upon the wish, in some points, to be altered right and the left hand groupes, as to the pattern existing in our own they severally smiled at his array imagination ! There is an ideal and angry bearing. But Mr. Irving's element is we

* See his Ecclesiastical Characteristics, were going to say-intolerance. If and Serious Apology for that performance; we have faltered in making this date, but written, we believe, about the

both published in his works without a assertion, we are nevertheless pre- middle of the last century.

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perfection in every mind, which ru- of fashionable resort, that it would minates on the infinitely diversified not have been any disparagement imperfection discernible all around; to his diligence or talents, if, enand as no two minds will quite grossed in the more pressing duties agree in their estimates of the evil of his important sphere, he had not done, or the good which might be been able to find either leisure or done, a wise man will soon be cured inclination for devoting himself to of expecting much beyond a general the service of the church by means gratification in what is actually of the press. We have understood achieved. He will never be able that his ministerial labours have to crane up even the best of man been greatly blessed of God, to the kind, when acting in masses, to his spiritual benefit of many of his audiwishes; and he will, on the other tors, stated and fluctuating; that his hand, be checked by reflections on efforts have proved highly

beneficial the wide interval stretching between for the promotion of the great relihis own theories, and the theorist's gious institutions which adorn our practical consistency. Now Mr. age and country; and that his zeal Irving seems to be always beating and piety in opposing thegaieties and the bushes, to start a fresh object of immoralities of a luxurious Bethesda, dissatisfaction. He is, for example, especially the race-course, have in highly displeased with the revival numerous instances been productive of sound divinity in the Glasgow of much good. To these local editions of theological works; be- services in the work of his Divine cause they are prefaced by some Master, he has added the publicaof our living, popular writers tion of the present volume of disthough recommendations of this courses, in addition to those which kind were one of the mischievous have before issued from his pen. novelties of the day. Mr. Irving Considering the influence which cannot surely be ignorant that long Mr. Close's station affords him over before he or his reviewers were born, the minds of many

who may

attend such things were in being; and flou- his ministry, during a temporary rerished on either side of the Tweed, sidence either for health or amuse-, and in the comparatively infant ment in his vicinity, we cannot churches of America.

regret that he has availed himself (To be continued.)

of the wide diffusion of the press, to address his occasional, as well as his parochial hearers, in a volume

so full of sound and valuable ChrisMiscellaneous Sermons preached in tian instruction as that before us.

the Parish Church of Cheltenham, Many such persons, we would hope, By the Rev. FRANCIS Close, will be induced to read and medi. A. M. Perpetual Curate. 1 Vol. tate upon these excellent discourses, 8vo. London, 1829.

and thus, by the blessing of God,

for ever have reason to be grateful Mr. Close's name is so intimately for an occasional sojourn in a spot connected with the active pastoral of public resort, where; while they and public labours of a parochial sought, perhaps, only the balmy minister in one of our gayest scenes air, the invigorating waters, or the

volatile recreation's of the place, • P. 478. Did Mr. Irving forget that they heard words which, by the his revered friend, Dr. Chalmers, added

influence of the Holy Spirit, weaned his name to those of Wilberforce, Mont- them from the vanities of the world, gomery, Foster, Simeon, Wilson, and to seek durable riches and righteothers, on this criminal occasion; nay, that he himself prefaced the Life of Bernard

ousness. It is but justice to Mr. Gilpin and Bishop Horne's Commentary Close to say, that both the topics on the Psalms ?

chosen by him, and his method of

would

pement

lad niek

1829.]
Lit. and Phil. Intell,--Great Britain.

513
discussing and applying them, are doctrinė. May the blessing of God
excellently calculated to subserverest upon all his arduous labours, and
this end. Instead of giving, in proof not least upon this truly pastoral
of this remark, a dry index of titles, and Christian volume, which, while
and a few abrupt extracts, we have it is highly creditable in point of
copied the first discourse at large, literature, is most truly commend-
as a fainily sermon, thus affording able for its zealous and heart-search-
our readers themselves the best ing appeals to the heart and con-
opportunity for forming their own science of the reader.
judgment of the author's style and

sure or self to

mean erstood i hare

to the ; audi nat his eficial it reli n Our

zea s and esda

, ve in active

local livine

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,

&c. &c.

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GREAT BRITAIN.

Harleian Library, has been published in the Works preparing for publication, and in last volume of the Archæologia, in which the press :—A Topographical and Histo occurs a passage which curiously illustrates rical Account of Methodism in Yorkshire; Shakespeare's remark on the death of -The History of the Roman-Catholic Cardinal Beaufort, “ He dies, and makes Question ; by J. Bedford ;--An Analysis no sign.” The priest who attended the of Burnet on the Articles, with Notes; death-bed of Edward the Third is stated by T. Newland, A.B. ;– The Siege of in this chronicle to have addressed the Derry; by the Rev. J. Graham.

monarch
as follows :

66 Because your

voice faileth, lift up your eyes unto the Oxford.—The University Prizes this year Lord, that we may see you both penitent were adjudged as follows :-Latin verse, and asking mercy : presently he lifted up J. E. Wilmot, of Balliol ; English Essay, both his eyes and his hands to heaven, G. Denison, of Oriel. Latin Essay, W. drawing sighs as it were from the bottom Sewell, of Exeter; English verse, T. of his heart, no doubt signs of his reClaughton of Trinity. Theological Prize, on pentance. Then the priest admonished the Causes of the Persecutions of the Chris- him, that forasmuch as he had unjustly tians in the first Centuries, W. Jacobson, punished his servants, he would repent of Lincoln's Inn.-The subjects for next him, and shew the aforesaid signs, which year, are, Latin verse, Tyrus; English devoutly he did.” Essay, The Character of Socrates; Latin A case was lately argued before the Essay, “Utrum apud Græcos, an apud Court of King's Bench, in which the Romanos magis exculta fuerit civilis scien court decided that the salc of an advowtia ;" English verse, The African Desert; son while the incumbent was in a dying Theological Prize, " Whether the doctrine state (in the instance in question he died of a God, differing in his nature from all the very day of the sale) was simoniacal; other beings, was held by any heathen but the House of Lords has reversed nation or sect of philosophers before the the decision. The reversal opens a wide birth of Christ.”

door to new abuses, though indeed the A return has been laid before parlia- whole system of buying and selling ecclement of the publications in progress by siastical offices is a most disgraceful abuse. the commission for public records. The A magnificent collection of the late Mr. works printed, or in contemplation, will West's paintings, comprising one hundred form the most ample collection of docu- and eighty-one lots, was lately sold by ments ever projected. They comprise auction for the sum of about 19,0001. Most more than half a score great public works; of the pictures sold for much less than the expense of one of which only, the the artist could have obtained in his lifeRolls of Parliament, is estimated at time; for instance, his picture of “ Christ 45,0001., and several others also are ex. rejected,” for which he is stated to have tremely costly. This munificent gift will refused 8000 guineas, sold for 30001.. be of great value to posterity.

At the recent sale of Dr. Hibbert's An ancient manuscript chronicle, in the valuable library, the celebrated Polyglot CHRIST, OBSERV. No, 332.

3 X

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