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Hark! What sounds assail my car ?
clsink- I die,
Swift I grant the stranger's pray's;
Th'elastic bow he instant tries;
Thus, byothose whom most we aid,
TO A FAIR RECIUSL.
What Muse shall dare to vaint thy worth?
Seeks in its lone sequester'd bow'rs,
A balm for keen Reflection's hours ;
Resign'o to all below-shews Man to live!
JUDGE FOR YOURSELF. QUOTH Tom to Sue, "My life, my dear!
"I'm fascinated when you're near; " But when you're absent from my sight, “ No object can afford delight;
PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
MR. THOMAS ROBINSON'S (SALEHURST, in a collar near the bottom of the shaft,
SUSSEX), for a Mashing Machine. - the other near the outside of the tub, THE principal object to be attained where it is suspended by a forbed bar,
1 by this machine is the saving of the upper ends of which are screwed on Jabour, inasmuch as in a tub not ex. each side of an arm. On the top of the ceeding thirty quarters, the malt may be agitator or spindle is a wheel communi worked by one man turning a winch, in cating with another which turns the aginearly as short a time as if done by a tazor; on the spindle of which there is horse, which requires from fifteen to a pinion turning another wheel, and that twenty minutes. The machine may be working in teeth fixed round the inside thus described : In the centre is an up- of the tub, carries the machine forward, right shaft, on which is fixed a wheel; whereby the goods are moved, and the this is moved by another connected by liquor completely blended. The struc: a shaft with the horse-wheel, or turned ture of this machine is such, that it can by means of steain, wind, or water. From he worked with great facility in an oval this shaft projects a beam, one end of tub, by means of the shaft being formed which turns loosely on a collar on the crankwise, and a pinion placed between shaft, the other end runs on the edge of the wheels, by which means the machine the tub on two small rollers, one fixed and shalt will work in contrary direc. on each side of the said beam. On the tions, and give it the necessary elliptic upright shaft is a wheel, which, commu. motion. Where the tub is of small dia. nicating with another, turns the agitator meter, the machine may not require more or stirrer, composed of an upright spin- than one agitator, but if larger, it may dle, in which are inserted vanes or blades be necessary to have two, three, or four, of iron; the upper parts of these work Another advantage attaching to this inin a box through ihe centre of the beam, vention is, that the agitators or stirrers the lower its through the beam or bar of this machine working horizontally, do et iron, vue end of the said tar works not expose the liquor to the atmosphere,
whereby whereby it might be cooled. The pro- MR. JOSEPH ANTHONY BERROLLA's (cope per degree of heat, therefore, being re- PICE-ROW, CLERKENWELL), for a taived, dissolves the sacchariae proper Warning-watch upon a new Constructies of the mait in the most effectual tion. manner.
The inside of the movement is not dif
ferent from that of a common watch, MR. WILLIAM SHAKESPEAR's, and mr. excepting a barrel, which is hised with two
TUOMAS OSLER'S (BIRMINGHAM), for a screws on the under side of the top new Method of Manufacturing Glass plate, as near to the main-spring as pos. or Paste Drops.
sible. The arbour of the side barrel, This invention is thus set forth in the made in the same manner as a clockar specification : “The drop being formed watch, has a brass wheel with sixty teeth. according to the usual methods, the part with a steel wheel fixed to it; this wheel intended to receive the metallic loop, has thirty-three teeth, cut like a ratchet, or piece of metal with which such loop which cause the baminer to act. This is intended to be made, is re-melted, or hammer placed between the main and so far softened by heat as to admit of warning barrels and the side of the the metallic hoop or piece of metal with, hammer, strikes on a bell-spring, which which it is intended to be made being bell-spring is fixed with two screws on pressed or worked into it; and the said the pillar plate. The spring in the warnmetallic loop or piece of metal is then ing-barrel is wound up five turns, which caretully inserted in the drop, by means occasions the hamnjer to give 165 knocks of a pair of pincers, or other proper tool. on the bell-spring. Opposite the ham. Or the loop, by heing previously inserted mer is a pinion with six teeth, which act in the mould or die, may be hxed in the in the arbour-wheel. This pinion is plant act of moulding or forming the drop; ed on one side of the upper plate, and though we prefer the former method, as on the other in a bar on the back of the being most secure. Any metal may be pillar. On the side pinion is a wheel employed; but we prefer silver or cop- with forty-five teeth, which wheel acts, per. A small notch or groove, is also in a pinion with six teeth planted in the frequently cut in that part of the loop to bar on one side ; and on the pillar plate be inserted in the glass; but this is not for the other, on the said pinion is a essential."
wheel with twenty teeth, like a rachet,
which acts in a pallet planted in the pile MR. JOHN ONION'S (BROSELEY), for a lar plate on one side, and in a bar on the
Machine for Thrashing Corn, &c. other, which form all the warning parts.
It will be difficuit to give any clear The motion part, though the same as account of this machine without the aid that in a common watch, is accurately of drawings; the reader, therefore, must described : so also is the outside of the be referred to the specification for an watch. After which the patentee makes explication of the principle, while we a variety of observations to show the su. obserye that the thrashing-wheel, with its periority of his invention above the mebeaters, are carried in a cast-iron frame. thods already in use; part of which we Besides this, there are feeding rollers shall describe as interesting to the genethat take in the unthrashed grain : there ral reader. are also a cast-iron receiving-box, and a " A mechanismo" says Mr. B. “ percast-iron bar for delivering the straw; forining the part of a monitor, by relikewise a cast-iron bridge bar to carry minding us of any hour at which we may the horizontal shaft, made to fit both wish to wake in the morning, or any apa sides of the large frame, so that the ma- pointment we may have to attend in the chine may be fixed on any side of the course of the day, is incontestably one barn doors; two whorls, .for driving the of the most convenient and most useful feeding rollers with a cross bolt; a wire objects that can be wislied: indeed, to riddie, to separate the grain from the many people it is of absolute pecessity. Straw; a board with hinges to prevent The utility of such an invention had long the grain from flying forward; a tilt ring, since been justly appreciated, and an covered with boards, to keep the dust attempt was made to put the idea into from the man that feeds the machine. practice, by introducing a kind of meThe diinensions and proportions of the chanism called a waker, at first into Several parts are given in the specification, table-clocks, and afterwards likewise to enable workmen to construct a ma. into watches, cbime of the kind.
“The aların-watches, hitherto known,
put those that wore them to much incon- of making the warning-hand so stout as venience. 1. In the winding them up; in the old alarm-watches: indeed, it may because the mechanism which put the be made very taper and light. The inalarm in motion perforined its action terior construction of the watch also is every twelve hours, consequently the extremely simple, there being but one alarm could not be set longer than twelve additional wheel with its barrel to an orhours before hand. As many people dinary movement; consequently, the are in the habit of winding up their wheels altogether are not crowded for watches in the morning, and may not want of space. The detent is the pria. have occasion for the alarm till the next cipal object, as has been seen in the old day, they were of course under the ne- alarm-watches; that now introduced is cessity of winding up again the alarm an entire new invention, and affects the motion at night. 2. In setting them to movement of the watch in no way what time; because on the most ancient alarm- ever: so long as the warning-hand is not watches there was a double dial-plate, set, there is no communication between which went round, and always moved that part and the movement. The warne with the hour-hand : it was marked with ing-hand is fixed on in the same manner the twelve figures, and the hour-hand as the hands of the hour and minutes, and had a small tail, to which the user turned the motion-wheels are placed similar to that hour on the smaller dial-plate at those of an ordinary watch. In the mowhich he wished the aların to perform. dern alarm-watches fauit has been found On the more modern ones they have set with the bell not making a noise suti. aside the dial-plate, and placed a hand ciently strong; those adapted to the prethat does not go round with the hour- sent invention are so effective that they hand, but is moved to the hour at which can be heard in one floor while hung up it is wished the alarm should act, where in another. The principle of this inven it remains fixed until the hour-hand tion deprives the wearer of fear of dereaches it, when the alarm goes off. ranging it, and even allows bim no opFrom this it is evident that they could portunity for mismanagement : in short, neither be wound up nor brought to act it offers every desirable convenience at a at pleasure." Having enumerated va little expence. The warning-watch will rious other defects and imperfections, he act at pleasure during the whole day, adds, “ che newly-invented warning- without opening the case or winding it watch does away all these defects; both up a new. the movement and the warning motion " The simplicity of the mechanism is can be wound up together, and the latter a matter of peculiar consideration to the as long before-hand as you please. To manufacturer, since it requires but little set it to the hour you wish, there is no expence, and can be applied to watches need of opening the case, nor of touching of any price." the hand, which obviates the necessity
PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.
ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, from the fixed alkalies: (2.) Experiments M R . Davy, in the Bakerian lecture on vitrogen, ammonia, and the amal,
IVI of last year, laid before this learn- gam from ammonia: (3.) On the meials ed body, the result of various new re- of the earths; and (4.) Considerations of searches on the subject of his electro- theory, illustrated by new facts. We chemical discoveries; discoveries, wbich, shall take up these subjects in the urs it hereafter proved to be founded in der in which they stand, that the truth, will render his name illustrious present and succeeding volumes of the among every future generation of his Monthly Magazine may continue to give, countrymen. The paper to which we as the foriner volumes have given, a conhave referred, and an account of which nected series of the facts and principles will be given in this and the following discovered and illustrated by this very Numbers, contains (1.) An account of able philosopher and chemist. some new experiments on the ipetals Wub regard to the experiments on the
metals from the fixed alkalies, he states, less ammonia generated; and I have that the generality of enlightened che seldom obtained as much as to of the mists who have repeated the experi quantity absorbed. And I have never ments on potash and soda, hare expresse procured hydrogen and nitrogen, in ed themselves perfectly satisfied both the proportions in which they exist in with the facts and the conclusions drawn ammonia ; but there has been always an from thern. As exceptions, be notices excess of nitrogen." the opinions of Gay Lussac, Thenard, He now gives an account of other and Ritter, who are willing to suppose processes conducted with the most scruthat potassium and sodium are compounds pulous attention; and observes, thay in all of potash and soda, with a portion of experiments of this kind, a considerable hydrogen. The argument on which quantity of black matter, separated due MM. Gay Lussac and Thenard depend ring the time the potassium in the tube is this: they say, that they heated was made, to act upon water. potassium in ammonia, and that they This substance was examined. It was found that a considerable quantity of in the state of a fine powder. It had ammonia was absorbed, and hydrogen the lustre of plumbago ; it was a conducproduced, and that the potassium be- tor of electricity. When it was heated, caine converted into an olive-coloured it took fire at a temperature below igni. fusible substance; by heating this subo tion; and after combustion, nothing restance strongly, they obtained three- mained but minutely divided platina. fifths of the ammonia again, two-fifths as Iexposed some of it, says he, to heat in ammonia, one-fifth as hydrogen and ni. a retort, containing oxygen gas; there trogen; by adding a little water to the was a diminution of the gas; and a small residuum, they procured the remaining quantity of moisture condensed on the two-fifths, and found in the vessel in upper part of the retort, which proved to which the operation was carried on, no- be mere water. thing but potash. Again, it is stated, I made two or three experiments, with that by treating a new quantity of metal a view to ascertain the quantity of this with the ammonia disengaged from the substance formed, and to determine fusible substance, they again obtained more fully its nature. I found that in hydrogen and an absorption of the ame' the process in which from 3 to 4 grains monia; and, by carrying on the opera- of potassium were made to act upon amtion, they affirın, that they can procure monia in a vessel of platina, and afterfrom a given quantity of ainmonia more wards distilled in contact with platina, than its volume of hydrogen.
there were always from 4 to 6 grains of Whence, they ask, can the hydrogen this powder formed; but I have advanproceed ? - Sball it be admitted that it ced no further in determining its nature, is from the ammonia! but this, say they, than in ascertaining that it is platina is impossible; for all the ammonia is combined with a minute quantity of matreproduced. It must then come from ter, which affords water by combustion the water which may be supposed to be in oxygen, in the aminoaia, or from the inetal itself. In the processes on the action of potBut the experiments of M. Berthollet, assium and ammonia, there is always a juni. prove that armonia does not con- loss of nitrogen, a conversion of a portain any sensible quantity of water. tion of potassium into potash, and a pro. Therefore, say they, the hydrogen gas duction of hydrogen When copper must be produced from the metal; and tubes are employed, the hydrogen bears as, when this gas is separated, the inetal a smaller proportion to the nitrogen, is transformed into potash, the metal and more potassium is revived. appears to be nothing more than a com. In these experiments, in which platina bination of lıydrogen, and that alkali." has been used, there is little or no loss
Mr. Davy controverts this statement, of potassium or nitrogen; but a loss, affirming that the results of nuroerous smaller or greater, of hydrogen. experiinents conducted in the presence He then describes an experiment on of inembers of the Royal Society, are, the action of sodium on ainmonia with when the processes are conducted with the same precautions. He took 3 to accuracy, totally different from what the grains of sodium, and found that it abo French chemists assume. " In propor. sorbed 9.1 of ammonia, and produced tion," says he, “as more precautions are 4.5 of hydrogen, and the fusible sube taken to prevent moisture from being stance, which was very similar to that communicated to it, so, in proportion, is of potassium distilled, did not give to of
the the ammonia that had disappeared, and stances he tried for producing potassium this he attributes to the presence of mois- by negative voltaic electricity, telluriurn ture. The permanent gas produced was the only one by which he could not equalled thirteen inches;and, bydetonation procure it.. And he states the very with oxygen, proved to consist of hydro- curious fact, that when a circuit of elecgen to nitrogen nearly in the proportion tricity is coinpleted in water, by means of two to one, and sodium was regene. of two surfaces of tellurium, oxygen is rated. Whoever, says he, will consider given off at the positive surface, no hywith attention, the mere visible phæno. drogen at the negative surface, but a mena of the action of sodium on ammo- brown powder, which he regards as a hy. nia, cannot, I conceive, fail to be con- druret of tellurium, is formed and sepavinced ibat it is the volatile alkali, and rates from it; and he conceives that the not the metal, which is decompounded in reason why tellurium prevents the me. this process.
tallization of potash is, that it has a As sodium does not act so violently stronger attraction for hydrogen than upon oxygen as potassium, and as that alkali. soda does not absorb water from the ac. These circumstances of the action of mosphere with nearly so much rapidity tellurium upon water, are so different as potash, sodium can be introduced into from those presented by the action of ainmonia, much freer from moisture other metals, that they can hardly fail to than potassium. Hence, when it is arrest the attention of chemical enquiheated in ammonia, there is no efferves. rers. Mr. Davy made some experiments cence, or at least one scarcely percepti- on the subject, and on the action of telble. Its tint changes to bright azure, lurium on potassium, and finds that, in. and from bright azure to olive green; it stead of proving that potassium is a com. becomes quietly and silently converted pound of potash and hydrogen, they into the fusible substance, which forms confirm the idea of its being as yet like upon the surface, and then flows off into other metals undecompounded. the tray. It emits no elastic fluid, and When tellurium is made the positive gains its new form evidently by combie surface in water, oxygen is given off, ning with one part of the elementary when it is made the negative surface, matter of ammonia, whilst another part the voltaic power being from a battery is suffered to escape in the form of hy composed of a number of plates exceed. drogen.
ing 300, a purple fluid is seen to separate In speaking of M. Curadeau's theory, from it, and diffuse itself through the that the metals of the alkalies are com- watcr; the water gradually becomes posed of the alkalies merely united with opaque and turbid, and at last deposits charcoal, he says, that the investigation a brown powder. The purple fluid is upon which this gentleman has founded a solution of a compound of tellurium bis conclusions is easily accounted for, and hydrogen in water; which, in being since it was evident he had been misled diffused, is acted upon by the oxygen by the existence of charcoal, as an acci- of the common air, dissolved in the dental constituent in the metals that he water, and gradually loses a part of its employed. M. Ritter's argument in hydrogen, and becomes a solid bydri. favour of potassium and sodium being ret of tellurium. The compound of bycompounds of hydrogen, is their extreme drogen and tellurium produced at the lightness, an argument casily answered: negative pole, when uncombined, is gasodium absorbs much more oxygen than seous at common temperacores; and potassium, and, on the hypothesis of hy- when muriatic acid, or sulph ric acid, drogenation, must contain much more are present in the water, it is not dissolved, hydrogen ; yet though the soda is said to but is given off, and inay be collected be lighter than potash in the proportion and examined. From a variety of other of 13 to 17, sodium is beavier than facts stated with much clearess, and care potassium in the proportion of 9 to 7. rying with them incontestable evidence, According to Mr. Davy's own theory, the professor adds: “ After these illusthis circuinstance might be expected: trations, F-trust the former opinions which for potassium has a much stronger affinity I ventured to bring forward, concerning for oxygen than sodium, and must con. the metals of the fixed alkalies, will be dense it much more, and the resulting considered as accurate, and that putase bigher specific gravity of the combination, sium and sodium can with no more prois a necessary consequence. M. Ritter priety be considered as coinpounds, than has stated, that of all the metallic sube any of the common metallic substances,